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some one to go carefully through the proof sheets with him before publication? The two volumes

abound in the most ridiculous press errors, wherever RUWENZORI AND CENTRAL AFRICA.

the Latin, English, German, or French languages are (1) n Ruwenzori: parte scientifica: risultati delle employed. English is the worst maltreated. The

osservazioni e studi compiuti sul materiale raccolto English authors quoted are sometimes made to express dalla spedizione di S.A.R. il Principe Luigi . Amedeo themselves in a very puzzling manner. di Savoia, Duca degli Abruzzi. Vol. i., Zoologia Ruwenzori was shown by the Abruzzi expedition to e Botanica. Pp. vii +603; 74 plates. Vol. ii., be a mountain chain mainly of archæan, crystalline Geologia, Petrografia e Mineralogia. Pp. xxi + rocks (gneiss, mica-schists, granite, &c.), cut athwart 286; 40 plates. (Milan: Ulrico Hoepli, 1909.) | by a curved band of Palæozoic volcanic greenstones Price, 2 vols, 50 lire.

(amphibolite, diorite, diabase, &c.).

In the upper (2) Résultats scientifiques des Voyages en Afrique valleys of the Bujuku, Mubuku, Mahoma, and other

d'Édouard Foà. Publiés sous les Auspices du streams, born from the snow peaks and the glaciers, Muséum d'Histoire naturelle. Avec Préface de M. there is a lacustrine alluvium (which ought to be inEdmond Perrier. Pp. xli+742. (Paris : Imprimerie teresting of exploration for possible Pliocene or PleisNationale, and Plon-Nourrit et Cie., 1908.)

tocene fossils). There are two or three calcareous (1)

N 1906 the Duke of the Abruzzi, already famous deposits. The lower stream valleys are bordered by

for his exploration of the lofty mountains of ancient and recent moraines. At the southern base of the Alaska, resolved to do what no other traveller had Portal Peaks (south-east of Ruwenzori) there are three done-make a thorough examination of the range of small dykes of basalt. Elsewhere in the distant footsnow mountains in equatorial Africa known hills to the east and south of Ruwenzori there are plain "Ruwenzori.” The number of snow peaks, their evidences of recent volcanic activity in the intrusions altitudes, extent of glaciation, and exact position on of basalt, the stratified tuff, the craters of dead volthe map remained still unknown, although Ruwenzori canoes (often filled with lovely crater lakes), the hot had been revealed to geographical knowledge for springs and the frequent earthquakes. This volcanic nearly twenty years. Although no previous explorers belt links on with the still smoking and devastated had had the monetary resources of this prince of region of Mfumbiro and Lake Kivu, and is no doubt the House of Savoy, and consequently been able synchronous in origin with the volcanic activities of to fit out such a perfectly organised expedition, yet it equatorial East Africa and of North Nyasa. must be noted that most of the Duke's predecessors

The work under review has much that is interesting suffered from sheer bad luck in the way of weather, or

to record on the former extension of the Ruwenzori difficulties arising from the disturbed condition of the glaciers. The volumes confirm the observations of natives. Otherwise the Duke of the Abruzzi might Scott-Elliott, Moore, the present writer, and other have been forestalled as conqueror of these virgin travellers as to the signs of glacier action at compeaks. But in any case it is doubtful whether any paratively low altitudes (7000 feet and less). If these previous traveller was so perfectly trained to make deductions be correct, similar signs ought to be every use of his opportunities as the Duke of the present (and should be looked for) on the Abyssinian, Abruzzi, who, apart from his carefully chosen staff, North Nyasa, Mlanje, Rhodesian, and Drakensberg selected to deal specially with geology, biology, and Mountains. But if these indications of a Glacial photography, was himself a highly trained surveyor, period or periods are found in tropical Africa, and if, scientific geographer, and alpinist.

moreover, they are proved to be coincident in time The result has been, of course, a complete settle with the Glacial periods of Europe and North America, ment of the position, height, configuration, and petro- will this not tend to dispose of the idea now in vogue logical structure of these “Mountains of the Moon” that there has been a gradual shifting of the poles of -not, as we now learn, the highest point on the the earth's axis, carrying with it the more or less African continent-in that respect they are only third glacial conditions gathered round the poles to various in rank-but surely the most impressive and remark- parts of the earth's surface? This last theory cerable among African mountains. The general geo- tainly explained more easily the former existence of a graphical and meteorological results of the expedition vegetation in both the present polar regions sufficiently were given in one large volume at the close of 1908 dense to become transformed in course of time into (published in English and Italian). In the two coal-measures, a vegetation which could not have voluimes under review, the geological and biological Aourished with a six months' winter-night in every collections and observations of the Duke's expedition year. are dealt with by a large number of authors, the

Dr. Roccati thinks that Ruwenzori was at one time whole work being edited by Dr. Alessandro Roccati a lofty island of archæan rocks rising up out of the (who has also written on the geology and petrology) waters of an immense fresh-water sea-the Victoria and published in Italian only. The volumes are mag- Nyanza, Ibrahim (or Kioga), Albert Nyanza, Albert nificently produced, and are of the highest importance Edward, Dweru, and Semliki combined. He attriscientifically. They deal justly, even generously, with butes this idea in its inception to the studies of Mr. the work of previous explorers, or with the opinions C. W. Hobley, a Commissioner in the British East and researches of British, French, and German au- African service who has done so much to increase our thorities (inter alios); but why did not Dr. Roccati get knowledge of Equatorial Africa.


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The Duke of the Abruzzi established definitely the Ruwenzori” is Prof. F. Silvestri's essay on the existence in the Ruwenzori range of six great massijs Myriapoda—the Diplopoda especially-obtained by the of snow-crowned, glaciated peaks. These are not Abruzzi expedition. placed in a continuous chain, but rather in a cluster, A very large and important collection was also almost a broken amphitheatre, with Mts. Speke and made of earthworms and of parasitic worms, the Baker in the middle and the snowless Portal Peaks latter derived from the intestines of beasts, birds, and (11,000–12,000 feet) on the eastern side. It is from the reptiles. south-east that the Ruwenzori giants are most broken The botanical section of this work is also of high down and most approachable. All the snow peaks interest, as it illustrates very conclusively the alpine are grouped within a few miles of one another, but and subtropical flora of Ruwenzori—the giant beyond them, to the north, are lofty, snowless hum-groundsels, strange lobelias, the heaths, junipers, and mocks, perhaps rising to 9000 10,000 feet, ferns-filling up many gaps left in the work of which prolong the chain northwards in the direction previous travellers. of Lake Albert.

(2) Not equally valuable in the scientific study of The loftiest of the snow-crowned massifs or moun- Africa is the work so sumptuously produced by the tains (Mt. Stanley) rises to 16,815 feet at its highest Paris Museum of Natural History. The results of point (the Margherita Peak). The next highest M. Édouard Foà's journeys, to have acquired massif is Mt. Speke (16,080 feet). After that Mt. proper significance and reward from the public inBaker (15,988 feet), Mt. Emin (15,797 feet), Mt. Gessi terested in African geography and ethnology, should (15,647 feet), and Mt. Luigi di Savoia (15,299 feet). have been published ten years ago.

His remarks In possessing all these separate snow-crowned would then have been more apposite; his discoveries massifs, Ruwenzori differs from Kilimanjaro (with would not have been forestalled by later and more only two) and Kenya (only one), besides in the fact scientific travellers. As it is, M. Foà was at no time that its origin is due to a slow upheaval of the earth’; | what might be called a trained observer, except in crust, and not-as is the case with the other two great regard to astronomical and meteorological observasnow mountains of Africa, and their neighbours, Meru tions and records. His ethnology and his natural and Elgon—to an outburst of volcanic energy.

history strike the critical reader as hazy, inexact, too In the zoological collection made by the Duke was generalised, too little founded on direct personal a fine specimen of a leopard obtained at Bujongolo observation, too much influenced by traditional (about 12,000 feet altitude), on the east side of opinions. His vocabularies of native languages are Ruwenzori. It measured about 7 feet 2 inches in full of errors, and are, moreover, quite displaced in total length, and of this measurement the tail only interest by the serious treatment of these Zambezian, occupied about 2 feet 3 inches. These are rather the Central African, and East Congo languages by a proportions in tail and body of a jaguar than of a host of British, French, and Belgian missionaries and leopard. The markings, moreover, in the large size officials. Amongst inaccuracies, too (perhaps on the and completeness of the rosettes recall the jaguarine i part of the editors), is the presentation of an obvious type, and still more the boldly marked leopards of Bushman (pp. 142 and 143) as a Yao. [The original Sinai, Persia, and China, and the Central Asian of this mis-named picture is in the possession of the Ounce. The canine teeth in Felis pardus ruwensorii Royal Anthropological Institute.] Some of the notes are proportionately much longer than in other African on the Bushmen would be interesting and valuable were leopards (except in one example from the Abyssinian they not so devoid of actuality, of names, places, and Mountains). this point (but not in skull dates. Apparently M. Foà did encounter some of the peculiarities) the Ruwenzori leopard resembles the mysterious “ Vaalpens” in the valley of the northern peculiar " fontanieri” leopard of China. Prof. Limpopo (though he does not give them that nameLorenzo Camerano, who describes F. pardus ruwen- see pp. 113, 114), a race the existence of which (as a zorii, does not seem to be aware that Mr. Lydekker “pygmy type distinct from the Bushman) has been a year or so ago described a similar type from the asserted by Prof. Keane and denied by Mr. Selous. Toro country at the north-east base of Ruwenzori. The It is interesting to note that M. Foà comments on present writer also saw a large leopard skin of this the complete absence of steatopygy among these description in the possession of the Rev. Mr. Teggart north Limpopo Bushmen (? Vaalpens), and the rest (C.M.S.) in eastern Toro in June, 1900. This skin of his description rather accords with what Prof. appears in the background of a seated man on p. 587 Keane has collected relative to the Vaalpens. of the “ Uganda Protectorate.”

There are portions of M. Foa's essays on the lion The second volume of “ 11 Ruwenzori contains a and the African elephant which strike one as new, good deal of interesting material on the subject of the interesting, and derived from original observation, Colobus monkeys (a group which seem to retain mixed up, however, with much unnecessary padding: points of affinity with the Semnopithecines of Asia, He is able to supply two good photographs of the the Archæolemurine forms of Madagascar, and even rare Angas's Tragelaph and some fresh information the Cebide of America); of Grant's zebra, and the about that handsome creature. He discovered in classification of the “quagga subgenus of equines; Central Zambezia what is probably a new subof the Central African buffaloes; and of the squirrels, species of Burchell's zebra (or, as Mr. R. I. Pocock dormice, mice, and crested rats (Lophuromys) of would say, quagga), which seems in its Ruwenzori. A few new birds are described, and striping an intermediate form between the zebra and numerous molluscs. A noteworthy contribution to Jl | the quagga groups (see also on this subject “Il



Ruwenzori "). M. Foá made considerable collections (3) The photography of the canals themselves of fish in Central Africa, of mollusca, insects, spiders, (Lampland, 1903-5). ticks, and crustaceans. He also brought back (4) The photography of the spectrum of water Medusæ from Tanganyika. These Medusæ serve as vapour in the Martian atmosphere (Slipher, 1908). a text for a very interesting article by M. Charles While the above may be considered as four of the Gravier on the Medusæ of the Victoria Nyanza, of important results secured since 1890, there is a host Tanganyika, and of the Niger basin. Perhaps the of many other valuable advances which will be found most important contribution to this recueil is the recorded in the volume under review. treatise by M. Louis Germain on the molluscs of Monsieur Flammarion has done his work exceedTanganyika, notably those collected by M. Foà. M. irgly well, and, with masterly instinct, describes, fits Foa's own remarks on the tsetse fly are worthy of together, and discusses the observations, made beattention.

H. H. JOHNSTON. tween the years 1890 and 1901 by a very great number

of workers, in a logical and interesting manner.

Before commencing to give in detail the observaTHE PLANET MARS, 1890-1901.

tions of the first epoch, 1892, he rightly refers at some La Planète Mars et ses Conditions d'Habitabilité. By length to the fine memoir published in 1896 by the Camille Flammarion. Tome ii., Observations faites

celebrated Italian astronomer, M. Schiaparelli, the

discoverer of the canals. This memoir is devoted to de 1890 à 1901. Pp. 604. (Paris : Gauthier Villars,

a discussion of his observations of the Opposition 1909.) Price 12 francs.

1883-4, while a sixth memoir, published in 1899 and IN N the year 1893 we had the great pleasure of giving here referred to, contains his observations made at the our readers some account (vol. xlvii., p. 553) of

Opposition of 1888. the very excellent and complete summary of the

Space does not allow us, nor indeed is it necessary, observations of the planet Mars, made between the

to enter into any detail into the successive series of epochs 1636–1890, compiled by the distinguished observations which are here marshalled together. French astronomer, Monsieur Camille Flammarion.

The reader must be left to peruse the volume himself This work, containing no fewer than 604 pages, pre

and form his own conclusions, but even he will be sented us with a most interesting survey of the astonished at the wealth of matter which is brought progress made in enumerating and deciphering the together under one cover. markings observed on the planet's surface. It com

As in the previous work, there is a great number menced with the earliest known observation of the

of illustrations accompanying the text, and these add planet, namely, that of the Neapolitan astronomer

materially to the understanding of the changes of Fontana, on August 24, 1638, who wrote :

Martian features. 1636. Martis figura perfecte spherica distincte At the end of the volume, M. Flammarion, with the atque clare. conspiciebatur. Item in medio atrum help of M. Antoniadi, has constructed a key-map of habebat conum instar nigerrimæ pilulæ.

the surface features of the planet, which gives us “ Martis circulus discolor, sed in concava parte ignitus deprehendebatur.

an idea of the complicated system of markings which “ Sole excepto, reliquis aliis planetis, semper Mars

is the result of the observations up to the year 1901. candentior demonstratur.

As has been mentioned above, some important

additions to our knowledge of Mars have resulted The volume concluded with the observations made from observations of more recent date, and we can in the year 1890, including the first photographs of only suppose that M. Flammarion has in hand vol. iii., the disc of Mars made by Prof. W. H. Pickering at

which will, we hope, in due course be published, and Mount Wilson, California, on April 9.

be as valuable a contribution to astronomical science In Martian cartography the year 1890 seems to-day

as its two predecessors. a very long time ago. The pioneers did their work

In conclusion, we may quote M. Flammarion's well, and the great tradition which fell

on the

remarks with regard to the habitability of Mars, since shoulders of those who were busy with Mars up to the subject has recently been prominently brought 1090 was well maintained, and a great amount of new

forward : knowledge secured. Since that year the attack on the

“Mais il me semble que, dans toutes ces interplanet, to unravel the secrets of its visible features, has

prétations, je suis moi-même un peu terrestre. Il y a been no less severe, and to-day the knowledge gained sans doute là d'autres éléments, non terrestres, mais is only a new incentive to further research.

martiens, ou, tout au moins, des conditions toutes If we were to be asked to state three or four of the différentes de celles de notre habitation. Que cette more recent and most important discoveries in relation planète soit actuellement le siège de la vie, c'est ce to the planet Mars, we should be inclined to say as

dont témoignent toutes les observations. Mais il nous

est encore impossible de nous former aucune idée follows:

judicieuse sur les formes que cette vie a pu revêtir, (1) That the dark areas on the planet which were formes assurément differentes de nôtres. Un mystère considered to be seas have been shown to be traversed impénétrable enveloppe encore aujourd'hui ce passionby permanent lines, and that, therefore, the water nant problème, qui est, en définitive, quoi qu'on en surface explanation had to be abandoned (Pickering passe, le but, peut-être inaccessible, de toutes les and Douglas, 1892).

recherches de l'Astronomie planétaire. Mais ne déses(2) The successive development of the canals accord

pérons jamais ! Qui sait ce qui sommeille dans

l'inconnu de l'avenir?" ing to the Martian seasons (Lowell).


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Observing that the laws for the composition of Geometrie der Kräfte. By H. E. Timerding. Pp. twists and wrenches are identical, the author, as

xii + 381. (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1908.) Price others have done, uses the word dyname to signify 16 marks.

either a twist or a wrench. For a large part of the N this admirable volume Prof. Timerding gives a

subject the use of the abstraction signified by the I systematic and original treatment of the geo

word dyname is very convenient, and considerable metry of forces and force-systems in which for the

use has been made of the important labours of Study first time, so far as we are aware, an adequate know

on the geometrical theory of dynames. ledge of modern geometrical research has been utilised

In an interesting chapter on “Die Reveschen in a text-book of mechanics.

Strahlencomplexe " the author brings into its due

the Ever since the great work of Plücker, that large prominence the fundamental importance of and most attractive department of mathematics known

Geometrie der Lage" in kinematics. This chapter as the geometry of the linear complex has been found contains many admirable theorems, and we could only to be intimately connected with the geometry of forces.

wish that such instructive and beautiful ideas as are It is sufficient to recall the fact that whenever six

here set forth were more generally introduced into forces applied to a free body are in equilibrium, the the teaching of mechanics. Due acknowledgment is forces must lie respectively on six rays of a linear com

made throughout the work of the important contribuplex. In chapters viii. and ix. of Timerding's book tions to the geometrical theory of forces by the late now before us we have an admirable treatment of the Prof. Charles J. Joly. application of the theory of the linear complex to the

The chapter on the cylindroid may be specially comtheory of systems of forces. The many interesting mended, and prominence is given to the theorem that matters set forth in these pages show how greatly the

the projections of any point on the generators of a advancement both of the geometrical theory and the cylindroid lie on an ellipse. We may, however, note dynamical theory is promoted by their association.

that the proof here set forth is not that by which the The statical and dynamical significance of the linear

theorem was discovered, as shown in the original complex is closely connected with the fact that each

volume on the theory of screws published in 1876. ray of the complex is reciprocal to that screw of which

A sufficient account is given of the various systems the axis is the axis of the complex, while the pitch of of screw coordinates, and, following the analogy of the screw is the parameter of the complex. Many of

the resolution of forces, Prof. Timerding uses notathe geometrical properties of the complex follow directly tion which divides the coordinates of a screw into from this general principle. For example, on p. 107

two groups of three each. It is, however, often conit is shown that four linear complexes have two real

venient to use the six symmetrical coordinates of a or imaginary rays in common. This is an immediate

screw referred to six co-reciprocal screws. consequence of the fact that one cylindroid can always

We are glad, indeed, to commend this most excelbe found of which every screw is reciprocal to any

lent work to the attention of teachers and students of four given screws. As there are two screw's of zero

theoretical dynamics. We are sure that if the book pitch on the cylindroid, these lines are, of course, the

were translated into English it would form a very two common rays of the four linear complexes defined

valuable supplement to the existing English books. as being reciprocal to each of the given screws. We

It would give the student an adequate idea of the congratulate Prof. Timerding on his recognition of

extent to which modern geometrical theory and the the proper place for the linear complex in the fore theory of forces act and react on each other to the vast front of a text-book on the geometry of forces.

benefit of both.

ROBERT S. BALL. The theory of screws has received in this volume a treatment even more ample than that which it has

THE DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD ORES. already received in the works of Fiedler, Schell, Budde, Minchin, and more recently in the “ Encyclopädie der

Gold: Its Geological Occurrence and Geographical mathematischen Wissenschaften." The

Distribution. excellent

By J. Malcolm Maclaren. Pp. work of Harry Gravelius, “ Theoretische Mechanik

xxii+687. (London; The Mining Journal, 1908.) Starrer Systeme,!' contains a complete account of the

Price 255. net. theory of screw's up to the date of its publication in

R. MACLAREN begins his preface with the 1889. Much of the work done on the subject in the

remark that “the writer who would add succeeding decade has been available for the “ Geo

more treatise the literature of the metrie der Kräfte.” It may, however, be remarked study of ore-deposits must needs show justifithat certain developments of the theory which have

cation.'' Any apology for the publication of his appeared since 1900 have not been included in Prof.

useful book is, however, quite unnecessary, for the Timerding's volume. The theory of screw-chains, by increase by four times of the gold yield of the world which the theory of screws has been extended to any during twenty years has been attended by a voluminmaterial system, is also not discussed. A suggestive ous and scattered literature. Students of mining reason for this omission is given in the preface (p. vii), geology will be grateful to any author who undertakes where Prof. Timerding says that, in his opinion, the the great labour of compiling a summary of recent theory of screw-chains would require a

work on gold and its distribution. voluminous treatment of the whole of mechanics in The longest and most valuable section of Dr. Macwhich the rigid body would appear as the first element. laren's book is occupied by an account of the geological








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structure and mining history of all the chief goldfields admits that the nuggets of Western Australia are of the world. This part of the work occupies 514 derived from gold-quartz veins, and the evidence for pages. The goldfields are classified by continents. the similar origin of the nuggets from VictoriaThose of Europe are described first, and in proportion which contains the most famous of nugget-vielding to their economic importance receive longer notice than goldfields-seems to the writer overwhelming. those of Australia and South Africa. The longest section Another doubtful hypothesis advanced by the author is that on the goldfields of North America. Each field is the absence of any undoubted,

valuable preis noticed separately; the descriptions are necessarily Cretaceous placer deposit. He rejects, or quotes with short, but they are concise, and are accompanied by apparent approval those who reject, the alluvial origin useful reference to recent literature. The minor fields of the gold in various Mesozoic, Palæozoic, and Archæan are described at relatively greater length than the conglomerates and sedimentary deposits; and he then others; and thus Kalgurli, with its “Golden Nile,” is argues that the absence of pre-Cretaceous detrital gold dismissed in four pages, including a full-page map is due to the rocks having been lowered into a zone and another figure. This distribution of space is, saturated with alkaline waters which removed the gold however, probably the most useful, as the less-known in solution and re-deposited it in veins. fields are often very instructive and their literature is Though many geologists may be disposed to differ less accessible. The author has travelled extensively, from the author in some of his conclusions as to the and his accounts of many fields have the advantage formation of gold ores, they will be no less grateful of personal knowledge and original information. The to him for this valuable and trustworthy summary of descriptions of the fields are therefore inevitably of the voluminous gold literature issued during the past unequal merit.

twenty years.

J. W. G. Among the most interesting sections are those on the mines of New Zealand—though

New Zealander, it is strange that the author places Reefton

SWINE IN AJERICA. in Westland, and spells the name of the founder of the Swine in America. A Text-book for the Breeder, New Zealand school of mining geologists Uhlrich-of Feeder, and Student. By F. D. Coburn. Pp. Queensland (the author was once on the staff of its XV+614. (New York : Orange Judd Co.; London : Geological Survey), and of Mysore. The historical Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd., 1909.) introduction to the Mysore gold mines is of especial UST as it might be said of the British fat bullock interest, and the author rejects the view that the that he has followed the turnip, so it might be ancient mines there can have been those from which said of the American fat hog that he has followed the Solomon and the Phænicians obtained their supplies corn, i.e. Indian corn. In the United States there of gold. Dr. Maclaren remarks that India was then are 56 millions of swine-there are only three and a a civilised State, which needed more gold than it pro- half millions in the United Kingdom-and far more duced ; and the Israelites could only have obtained gold than half these are to be found in the great corn States there by barter, for which they had nothing to offer. which are drained by the Mississippi and its tribuThis conclusion, therefore, strengthens the view that taries. Iowa comes first with 8.1 millions, and Illinois the Ophir of the Phænicians must be in southern and Nebraska next with 41 and 41 millions. AltoAfrica, and that the gold probably came from the gether there about eighty million pounds' prehistoric mines of Rhodesia.

worth of swine in the United States, the duty of which Dr. Maclaren's account of the separate goldfields is it is to convert and other crops and bypreceded by an introduction on the chemical and products into more marketable commodities, and physical properties of gold, on natural and artificial eventually to feed, not only the Americans, but also compounds of gold, and on the theories of the forma- some part of the industrial population and the armies tion of gold ores. The speculative section of this in- and navies of the rest of the world. troduction is remarkable for the author's advocacy of An industry so vast can do with many a text-book, somewhat extreme positions. Thus he denies the and Mr. Coburn has produced one for those who origin of any important ore deposits by other agencies breed, rear, and feed the raw materials for the than meteoric waters. He admits that there may be American packing houses. Many experiments have some magmatic water; but even when he allows that been carried out in the States on the rearing and the gold is due to magmatic emanations, he holds that fattening of swine, and the gist of these is embodied the water in which it is dissolved comes from a super- in Henry's " Feeds and Feeding," which, however, ficial source. He also holds to the once popular view is a book dealing rather with principles than with the that alluvial gold and gold nuggets are formed by details of management, and a book, therefore, for the growth in situ in the gravels from percolating gold-student rather than for the farmer. Mr. Coburn's is bearing solutions. He defends this view especially on a farmer's book. He has collected Henry's and many the ground of the crystalline character of much alluvial other data, and set them forth in such a way that the gold; he quotes competent authorities who deny this nutritive effect and economic value of every important fact, but affirms it from his own experience. The feeding stuff and by-product is dealt with, whether author does not explain why, on this precipitation these foods are fed separately or with others. The theory, nugget formation is so local, and why the effects of bulky and succulent foods and of concennuggets are so constantly found just below the out- trates, and of these consumed separately and jointly, crop of reefs containing nuggety patches of gold. He are fully considered. Thus, for instance, a farmer




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