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THE APPROACHING OPPOSITION OF MARS. most favourable oppositions occur when Mars is near Mars is now a conspicuous object its perihelion (1, Figs. 1 and 2), with the earth near
its aphelion (a), point. The ideal condition would appearing just below the great square of Pegasus, | be for opposition to take place about the last week
in August, whilst the most
unfavourable conditions would 1899 1896
obtain if it occurred about the &
third week in February; thus the opposition of 1877 was the most favourable during last century,
except that of 1845, whilst that 1901
of 1901, February 21, was about
as unfavourable as is possible. 1894
The advantage of proximity was well illustrated in 1877, when Asaph Hall discovered the two
Laputan satellites, and Schia. S
parelli first observed the muchIMAR21
discussed canali. SEP 22
00 1909 On September 23, when at op1903 de
position, Mars will be about 36-4 million miles from the earth,
but the nearest approach of the 1877 two bodies will take place on
September 18, when the distance separating them (E-M , Fig. 2)
will be about 160,000 miles less. % 1892
After the opposition, as the planet
lags behind the earth, as shown in 1905
Fig. 2, the distance will continue 1907
to increase, and the apparent diameter of the planet will, of course, decrease, as shown by the circles drawn on the right of the
diagram. These circles show the Fig. 1.
relative apparent diameter of
the planet on August 13, when and astronomers the world over are once more seizing | Mars is at perihelion,' on September 18, when the opportunities presented by a favourable opposition at least distance from the earth, and on November 1, for the further solution of the Martiari enigma. The when a substantial increase in
distance actual opposition will not take place until September 23d. 22h., or
on September 24, civil date.
As Prof. Lowell says in his classical memoir on Mars, “ Study of Mars
7 at one opposition is material to its study at the next. . .. At any one opposition
A we may
for a few months through only a frac
E3 M3 tion of its circuit round the sun." Therefore, no opportunities may be missed by the students of the
SEPT.18 ruddy planet, whenever, and under
24" whatever conditions, and opposition takes place. But only at one op
2 position in every seven, or about once every fifteen years, are the conditions. So favourable as at present; Figs. I and 2 show this diagrammatically. The orbits of the earth and Mars are drawn to scale, but as eccentric circles, and irom Fig. i it will be seen that the opposition of this month will be, as regards the distance separating the two planets, the most favourable we have experienced since 1892. Owing to the eccentricity of the planet's orbit, the distance between separating the two bodies will have taken place. the earth and Mars, when at an opposition, may range The following are the apparent diameters of the planet from 61,000,000 to 35,000,000 miles, the corresponding at different epochs during the present opposition :range of the apparent diameter being 13" to 25". The September 1, 22-8"; September 18, 24"; September 23
(of position), 23'9" ; October 1, 23°3" ; November 1, they also suffer changes which show a dependence 17'8"; December 1, 127". This means that on Sep- on the seasonal changes of the planet. tember 18, an observer using a power of x 80 would Having settled the existence of the “canals,” it see Mars on the same scale as a naked-eye observer became necessary to account for the changes, and, in sees the moon; the conditions of " seeing would be one essential, this question remained more
or less Taking another illustration, a land area of open until the opposition of 1907. With regard to about the size of Ireland would, roughly speaking, the polar caps, Herschel's observations enforced the appear as a spot of 1'3" diameter, or a little longer natural conclusion that their changes were due to the than 1/1500th of the apparent diameter of the full accumulation and dissipation of snow " as the Marmoon.
tian winters waxed and waned. This coincidence of Whilst the distance of the planet is an important snowcap and season was not to be denied, and in the factor in determining the value of the observing con- Martian spring, at the opposition of 1892, Prof. W. H. ditions at an opposition, it is by no means the sole Pickering observed the disappearance of some 1,600,000 factor; the altitude of the planet above the horizon square miles of the southern snowcap, an area about makes or mars the conditions for the users of large the size of India, in a period of thirty-three days. instruments searching for minute detail. Thus, But there still remained the one essential factor, that although the opposition of 1892 produced a was the proof that this
was really frozen favourable distance-condition than that of 1894 (see water; that the Martian atinosphere contained waterFig. 1), the observing conditions at the latter were vapour sufficient to produce these effects. On this not inferior, because of the higher culmination of the point the different observers were at issue. planet. At the present opposition, the declination of Beer and Mädler, during 1830-9, found that Mars is 40 S., and this means that for observers in occasionally certain permanent features of the planet's our latitude (51° 30') the meridian altitude will not landscape were blurred, as though by passing cloud exceed 35°; but this is a great improvement on the and mist. During the favourable opposition of 1862, conditions in 1907, when the corresponding altitude Lockyer's observations led to the definite conclusion was only 100, and when, even from Flagstaff, Prof. that "the daily-nay, hourly-changes in the detail Lowell found it desirable to send an expedition to the and in the tones of the different parts of the planet ”i Andes for the observation of the planet. During the were caused by the transit of clouds over the various present opposition the meridian altitude at Flagstaff features. will be more than 50°.
Clouds and mists” and “polar snows” inevitably As at all favourable oppositions, taking place about suggest to the terrestrian the presence of water, hence August, the south pole of Mars is now tilted earth- a raison d'être for the canals, and the spectroscopic wards, the earth, at the date of opposition, being evidence adduced by Huggins and Vogel went to about 20° below the plane of the planet's equator. confirm the suggestion. But with the spectroscopic Therefore the southern hemisphere will be observed, equipment of the Lick Observatory at their disposal, and as the summer solstice of this hemisphere, as Campbell and Keeler could find no evidence for watershown in Fig. 2, occurs but a few days before opposi- vapour in the planet's atmosphere, and the critics of tion, the southern snowcap is in the process of disso- terrestrial " Mars suggested that the snowcaps lution, and changes due to the melting of the snow are might be caused by the solidification and deposition taking place. Already such phenomena have been of some other compound, such as carbon dioxide. recorded by MM. Desloges and Jonckheere, among However, the spectrograms obtained by Mr. Slipher others. As the rotation-periods of the earth and Mars at the last opposition, 1907, afford, according to our are approximately equal, the same regions can be ob- present view, incontrovertible evidence that the atmoserved on consecutive nights. On September 19 the sphere of Mars does contain a detectable quantity of Syrtis Major region will be in view, and on September water-vapour (see NATURE, vol. Ixxvii., p. 442, March 27 the region of the Mare Ciminerium.
12, 1908). Prof. Very estimates that at the time the Probably at no opposition since the time that Fon- spectrograms were taken, the Martian atmosphere contana suspected markings on the ruddy planet, in 1636, tained sufficient precipitable water to give an average has the status of areographers been so critical as at layer 14 mm. deep, or about one-third or one-fourth the present juncture. Thanks to the persistent that in the earth's atmosphere. Nor is water-vapour labours and unswerving faith of a few observers, of the only familiar atmospheric constituent which has whom Prof. Lowell is the foremost, the question as been shown to be present by the Lowell Observatory to the subjective reality of the canali discovered by spectra. When Mr. Slipher described ? the 1907 Schiaparelli in 1877 may be considered as settled. spectra, he explained the difficulty of detecting the free Whether one follows Prof. Lowell's lead in the matter oxygen constituent of the Martian atmosphere, viz., of “ artificial, irrigating waterways " or not, there the probable relatively slight increase in intensity, of can remain but little, if any, doubt that these long, the oxygen bands, produced by adding the absorption straight channels do exist. In describing his observa- of thin (Martian) atmosphere to that of tions, made at Trincomali, Ceylon, during the un- dense (terrestrial) atmosphere, but expressed the favourable opposition of 1903 (see Fig. 1), when the opinion that “its detection need not be considered apparent diameter of the planet was but 14'6", the impossible. late Major Molesworth said! :-“ Personally, I am A recent message from the Kiel Centralstelle, dated quite convinced of the reality of the great majority of September 10, informs us that Prof. Very's measures the so-called canals: I think I could convince the of the Lowell Observatory spectrograms—which show most sceptical on this point if they could only have the spectra of the moon and Mars photographed side spent an hour or two at my telescope on some of the by side when the respective objects are at equal altiperfect nights in March and April this year.” Major tudes—show that oxygen is present in the atmosphere Molesworth used a 124-inch Calver reflector, with a of Mars; the relative intensification of the oxygen power of 450. Numerous observers, and the Flag- band b, in the planet's spectrum, is stated to be eight staff photographs, have also testified as to the gemina- times the probable error of the measures. Therefore, tion of these features. Not only do these canals exist, although the details are yet to come, it appears fairly but, in the opinion of many experienced observers,
1 Memoirs R.A.S., vol. xxxii., p. 179, 1863. 1 Monthly Notices, vol. Ixv., No. 8, p. 839, 1905.
2 Astrophysical Journal, vol. xxviii., p. 404, 1908.
safe to assume that not only water-vapour, but oxygen formation, and to continue the survey of the high also, exists in the Martian atmosphere.
mountainous region of Victoria Land. (2) Geological. Thus we arrive at the present opposition with the - To examine the entirely unknown region of King knowledge that a familiar compound, capable of Edward VII. Land and continue the survey of the rocks forming snowcaps, of filling, canals, and of being of Victoria Land. (3) Meteorological.—To obtain pumped in order to irrigate the pastures of a thirsty synchronous observations at two fixed stations, as well landscape, exists on Mars, and is accompanied by the weather records of sledge journeys. (4) that element which we terrestrians look upon as Magnetic.-To duplicate the records of the elements another essential for the existence of animal life; and made by the Discovery expedition with magnetocrucial difficulties in the “habitability” theory have graphs. The comparison should throw most imbeen removed. Close, persistent, and world-wide portant light on secular changes. (5) Miscellaneous.scrutiny, at this favourable epoch, should lead to In addition, attention will be paid to the study of further elucidation of the enigma, and enable us to marine biology at both stations and in the ship, and
reconstruct a being and a vegetation capable of the examination of physical phenomena will be conexisting there.
tinued. An idea which has caught the popular fancy is that It is estimated that an expedition of the kind proof signalling to Mars, but as the earth, from the jected will cost at least 40,000l., and towards this planet, would be in the glare of the sun and would sum considerable amounts have been given already. subtend, even at the impossible moment of opposition, An appeal has been made to the public, and it is hoped an angle of less than 50"--of the same order as the that no difficulty will be experienced in raising the apparent diameter of Jupiter at his recent opposition, necessary money for the accomplishment of what will to say nothing of the questionable transparency of our in any case include valuable scientific work. thicker atmosphere, this problem has not yet entered The full narrative of Commander Peary's expedithe province of practical astronomy.
tion to the North Pole appeared in the Times of SepWILLIAM E. ROLSTON. tember 11 and 13, and occupied six columns. By per
mission of the editor we are able to give a summary POLAR EXPEDITIONS AND OBSERVATIONS.
of this account of the journey and the observations
made. The expedition left Etah, Greenland, THE HE position and prospects of polar exploration | August 18, 1908, in the Roosevelt, having on board
have been given great attention in the daily 22 Eskimo men, 17 women, 236 dogs, and about Press during the last few days. No precise informa- 40 walrus. Cape Sheridan was reached on September tion as to Dr. Cook's journey to the North Pole has 5 and winter quarters were established there. Sledge yet been published, but the general narrative of Com
loads of supplies were then taken to Cape Belknap, mander Peary's expedition leaves little room for Porter Bay and other stages up to Cape Columbia, doubt that Commander Peary reached the neighbour- where Prof. McMillan obtained a month of tidal hood of the pole, and probably the pole itself, though observations during November and December. Tidal an element of uncertainty must exist until his observa- and meteorological observations were also made at tions for latitude are examined critically. The Berlin Cape Bryant, and explorations were carried on. correspondent of the Times reports that an executive The expedition started for the north from Cape committee for a Zeppelin polar expedition has been Columbia in several divisions at the end of February formed, the object of the expedition being defined as of this year. Latitude 83° 20' was passed on March 2, " the scientific investigation by means of the dirigible and on March 5 “the sun, red and shaped like a airship of the unknown Polar Arctic Sea and the
football by refraction, just raised itself above the development of the dirigible airship for the carrying horizon for a few minutes and then disappeared out of scientific labours. Announcement has also again." The lead, or creek of open water, which was just been made that a British Antarctic expedition then reached, prevented further movement until March will start next August under Captain R. F. Scott, 11, when it was frozen and a start became practicable. who commanded the National Antarctic Expedition of The depth of the lead was determined by soundings to 1900-4, with the object of reaching the South Pole. be 110 fathoms. On March 14 the lead had been
As all the world knows, Mr. Shackleton's record of passed, and the temperature was - 58° (?) F. Two this year has given Great Britain the premier position days later Prof. McMillan had to be sent back to Cape in Antarctic exploration, and an earnest desire is felt Columbia at once on account of frostbite. Sounding by British explorers to place to the credit of this gave a depth of 825 fathoms. We were over the country the feat of first reaching the South Pole. Continental Shelf, and as I had surmised, the succesMcMurdo Sound has in the past been used as the sive leads crossed in the fifth and sixth marches base for British South Polar expeditions, but it is composed the big lead and marked the Continental proposed on the next journey to establish a second Shelf." base in King Edward VII. Land, 400 miles to the By an admirable system of advance, main and supeast of McMurdo Sound. The track to the pole from porting parties, the expedition moved rapidly north, the new base may be expected to include phases covering no fewer than fifty minutes of latitude (about similar to those met with in travelling from McMurdo 57 miles) in three marches. The fourth supporting Sound, but it is anticipated it will continue longer on party started on the back trail from about latitude 880. the sea-level, meet the mountains nearer the pole, and and on April 2 Commander Peary, with his party of consequently leave a shorter journey on the high Eskimos, moved towards the pole. inland plateau. The distance to be covered is in all In a march of about ten hours the party travelled some 1500 miles, for which 150 days are available.
twenty-five miles and was well bevond the 88th The plan for the journey to the pole from King parallel, “ with the sun now practically horizontal.” Edward VII. Land includes the use of three means of several long marches were accomplished, and one of sledge traction : ponies, a dog team with a relay of forty miles in twelve hours. In four days, two degrees men, and motor sledges.
of latitude were covered, that is, a distance of about 138 The scientific objects of Captain Scott's expedition miles. On the last stage of the journey Comare stated to be as follows :-(1) Geographical.-Tomander Peary's only companion was Eskimo. explore King Edward VII. Land, to throw further light An observation made on April 6 showed that the on the nature and extent of the great Barrier ice latitude was 89° 57', so that the pole had been prac
tically reached. Thirty hours were spent in making tion he could take observations of different stars one observations there and ten miles beyond the camp, and after the other around the horizon, and then if, after in taking photographs. No land could be seen. The applying corrections for refraction and instrumental minimum temperature recorded during the thirty hours errors, he found in each case the altitude to be the was – 33° and the maximum – 12° (?) F. A sounding same as the declination of the star given in the was made five miles from the camp, but bottom was Nautical Almanac or similar publication, he could not touched at 1500 fathoms. The party returned to conclude that he was exactly on a pole of the earth. Cape Columbia on April 23, and to the Roosevelt four The former of these two would be the more satisdays later. On July 18 the ship left Cape Sheridan factory method, because effects of refraction, which is and, arrived in Indian Harbour on September 6. very uncertain in high latitudes, would be eliminated.
The record of the expedition is a triumph for good But it is usually daylight when the explorer reaches organisation and persistent endeavour, and though his highest latitude, and the stars are not visible, so details of the scientific observations are not yet avail. here is a practical difficulty in the way of either of able, the narrative gives good reason for believing these methods. Still, much the same plan could be that, so far as the time permitted, some valuable work followed with the sun. If an explorer is exactly at the was accomplished. Commander Peary states that pole the sun will pass round him in a circle in twentyProf. Marvin and Prof. McMillan' both secured four hours, and the only change in its altitude will be numerous observations of tidal and meteorological | due to the change in declination, which is given in conditions, as well as other data of scientific interest, the Nautical Almanac for every hour. Should it be while Dr. Goodsell gave special attention to micro-found, then, during a series of observations of the sun scopic work.
extending throughout twenty-four hours, or over Commander Peary's achievement has rendered un- number of hours, that the observations changed just necessary any further expedition to reach the North the amount of the sun's change in declination for Pole, so that attention may now be concentrated upon every hour, the only place where the observer could be systematic scientific work in the region of which a would be at the pole. preliminary view has just been taken. Whatever If, instead of the altitude remaining the same, it may be the ultimate decision as to relative claims to should, during one rotation of the earth, be found to have been the first to reach the pole, there can be no decrease for twelve hours and then increase for the doubt that the work carried on by the members of other twelve, or vice versa, it is clear that the latitude Commander Peary's expedition will be of greater would not be 90°, but its value could easily be comvalue to science than mere observations of latitude puted from the observations. taken during a “dash” to the pole. The success of As regards observations for time taken at or near the expedition is associated, however, with a fatal the poles, the ordinary method of taking sets of mishap to one of the scientific members. Prof. R. G. altitude of east and
stars fails altogether, Marvin, of Cornell University, was drowned for the simple reason that the altitude remains pracApril 1o, forty-five miles north of Cape Columbia, tically the same at all times, and it is impossible to while returning from latitude 860 N. in command of state the exact instant of time corresponding to a a supporting party. Prof. Marvin was only thirty certain altitude. The only satisfactory method of years of age, and his death has caused great regret. rating a chronometer would be by taking transits
Though Commander Peary refers in his narrative of the sun or stars by a theodolite firmly fixed and to observations for latitude made at various points, no left in position on a stand. Since all the meridians particulars are given, but that may be because the
converge at the poles, there can be no difference of narrative was written for the general public. The longitude, and another remarkable fact would be that explorer has had unique experience in Arctic an observer exactly over the North Pole would be regions, and when his observations are published facing south whichever way he turned, and this would they will, it is hoped, show that the instruments used interfere with his ordinary idea of bearings conand corrections applied enabled him to determine siderably. position with reasonable accuracy. The determina. There can be no doubt that the best instrument to tion of latitude by observations of the sun is, how-take for accurate observations at or near a pole is a ever, very difficult in latitudes near the poles. Without good transit theodolite, and altitudes below 30° or so suggesting that Commander Peary's results may be should, if possible, be avoided. With a sextant and found to require correction, it is of interest to indicate artificial horizon, a low altitude, such as 10° or 11° the conditions of observation in polar regions and or below, is very satisfactory. In the first place, it is the instruments used by some explorers.
extremely difficult to make a contact at all, and then LATITUDE OBSERVATIONS IN POLAR REGIONS.
the image in the artificial horizon is usually greatly dis
torted, specially when a glass plate artificial horizon is To an explorer situated at one of the poles of the used, silvered only on the back. But whether the earth, the stars and all other heavenly bodies appear observations are taken with a theodolite or sextant and to pass round him in circles parallel to the horizon artificial horizon, it is naturally impossible to expect once in twenty-four hours, and the altitude of any one any result that can be depended on unless a solid star is the same at whatever time it might be taken, foundation exists upon which to level up the theodolite provided the atmospheric conditions remain or place the artificial horizon. changed. If an explorer could be at either pole during To take advantage of the best conditions of the ice the winter months, the best proof he could have that and ensure a safe return, a polar explorer endeavours he had really reached 90° latitude would be by ob- to reach his highest latitude at an early date when the servatio is of stars. Should he be able to measure the sun's declination is only a few degrees. Thus it was altitude of a star with a theodolite or sextant and | April 7, 1895, when Dr. Nansen arrived at 86° 12'3' N., artificial horizon, at not less than 350 above the and April 25, 1900, when Captain Cagni, of the Duke horizon, and repeat his measurement at regular in- of the Abruzzi's expedition, reached latitude 86° 34' N., tervals, say, of three hours, during one complete his farthest north; whilst the two explorers whose rotation of the earth, and find the altitude to names are just now so prominent both announce that be the same at every observation, he would certainly they discovered the North Pole in this month. be at an extremity of the earth's axis. Should time Although doubtless unavoidable for the reasons de pressing, instead of this somewhat lengthy opera- | stated, these comparatively early dates of reaching
high latitudes have great disadvantages so far as observations are concerned. The stars have disap
CHEMISTRY IN THE SERVICE OF THE
STATE. peared, to be seen no more for five or six months, and the sun is so
near the horizon, lowing to its love IT is generally know mein chemical_circles that Sir declination, that the meridian altitude, upon the Edward Thorpe is relinquishing post of prinmeasurement of which the latitude usually depends, is cipal chemist at the Government laboratory, which not high enough to give a satisfactory result, owing he has so ably held for the last fifteen years. In the to the uncertainties of the refraction correction, and, if closing paragraphs of the present report' he notes a sextant and artificial horizon are used, to the great that it is the last document of the kind he will difficulty in making the observation at such a low have the honour of submitting to the Treasury,, and altitude, and unavoidable distortion of the sun's takes the opportunity of directing attention to the image. For good results it is a maxim with geo- | great increase which has occurred in the work of graphical surveyors that no altitude should be taken the laboratory during the period in question. It that is less than 25° or 30°.
appears that the number of samples examined yearly A meridian altitude of the sun only a little above 60, is now more than double what it was fifteen years which is what would be observed at the poles on April 6, ago, the actual figures being 76,513 in the year 1891, or between 10 and 12°, which would be the amount and 176,935 in 1908-9. for April 21, would not be likely to furnish a very Naturally there is not much of strictly scientific exact latitude, even if taken with a first-rate instru- importance to be found in the record of an establishment under favourable climatic conditions, much less ment devoted to “ the daily round, the common task so when these are not favourable and when the ob- of acting as chemical Abigail to all and sundry servations are made with the small portable instru- Government offices. Yet in its applications of ments which alone can be carried by the explorer on chemical science to civic requirements Sir Edward': a rapid dash to the pole, when every ounce of weight department touches the public welfare at many points; is a serious consideration.
and in illustration of this some gleanings from the Dr. Nansen, after leaving the Fram, took with him pages before
without interest. For on his famous sledge journey a small altazimuth, statistics, in which the report abounds, the reader with 4-inch circles, and a pocket sextant with an may be referred to the publication itself. arc of 14 inches radius, both of which, by means of The business of the laboratory is subdivided into verniers, read to single minutes. It was with the three main classes. Articles examined for the two pocket sextant, however, that his farthest north lati- great revenue departments, Customs and Excise, tude observation was made, using the natural horizon, form by far the largest number of samples. A conand he admits that the result cannot be depended upon siderable amount of work, however, is submitted by to a minute or two
other branches of the executive, especially the Board Captain Cagni observed with a sextant, and in re- of Agriculture, the India Office, the Admiralty, the ferring to his farthest north latitude, which depended Board of Trade, and the Office of Works. Finally, upon an altitude of about 12°, states that he used samples, relatively few in number, but important as both the artificial horizon and the natural horizon, being objects of dispute in legal proceedings, are rewhich latter was very distinct.
ferred to the laboratory for examination under the Coming now to the Antarctic regions, Captain Scott's provisions of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act and expedition was well provided with instruments, but the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Act. his highest latitudes on the southern journey were
In its rôle of revenue chemist, the laboratory is taken with a small theodolite. In the case of this required to hold the balance fairly between the Exexpedition, the dates when the high latitudes were chequer on the one hand and the maker or importer reached were later on in the summer, so that the sun's
of taxable commodities the other. Alcoholic southern declination, and consequently its meridian liquors, sugar, tobacco, tea, coffee, and chicory altitude, was higher.
naturally furnish the greater number of samples for This same remark also applies to Mr. Shackleton's analysis, since they are the chief dutiable articles recent expedition, for on January 3, when the last in this country. But in safeguarding the revenue deobservation on his long journey to the south was
rived from these products it is also necessary to made, the sun's meridian altitude was about 25° 33', analyse numerous other articles; thus the principal which resulted in a latitude of 87° 22', the further
chemist remarks that “the duty on chicory involves distance travelled south of this depending for its
the examination of many substances botanically allied measurement chiefly the sledgeometer, which
to it, such as dandelion and burdock roots." Genuine throughout the journey had been found to agree cider, again, is not liable to import duty, but samples well with the latitudes observed. On his journey
are analysed nevertheless; for “ if evidence is found Mr. Shackleton used a 3-inch transit theodolite,
that spirit has been added," the cider comes under reading to single minutes, and the adjustment the tariff as a preparation containing spirit, and is of which had been thoroughly tested. He also had
taxed accordingly. It is noted that a large proportion the advantage of observing on terra firma instead of
--more than 13 per cent.—of certain beverages sold as moving ice, so altogether his resulting latitudes doubt-temperance drinks contained an excess of alcohol, the less compare very favourably, as regards accuracy, quantity ranging from 3 to ii per cent of proof with those of other polar explorers.
spirit. As regards the effect of extreme cold on the refrac
Among other miscellaneous matters, an investiga. tion correction of the altitude, it may be interesting to
tion into the character of the spirits usually sold to note that, for an altitude of 11°, there is a difference the labouring populace was undertaken. Such of just above l' for a change of temperature from + 300 phrases as adulterated, maddening liquor" are to -60° F.
common in the mouth of the well-meaning but uninSextant observations taken with a glass plate arti
formed temperance enthusiast. The results of an ficial on moving ice would be most untrustworthy, for, impartial inquiry, however, lend no support to the in addition to the probable sources of error already charge of adulteration. Samples of whiskey, gin, referred to, there may be slow oscillations of the rum, and brandy were purchased in the ordinary way water, tidal or other, that may affect the level of the
1 Report of the Principal Chemise upon the work of the Government reflecting surface considerably.
Laboratory for the Year ended March 31, 1903.