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having a lot of corn is told what proportion of alfalfa, causation of tumours are summarised. As regards the or roots, ought to be fed along with corn to attain the latter, one or two points brought out by recent rebest economic results. This part of Mr. Coburn's search have been omitted. For example, the occur
rence of heterotype mitosis in malignant growths is book is valuable.
referred to, but Bashford and Murray's criticism of In the earlier chapters Mr. Coburn deals with the Farmer, Moore, and Walker's work in this connection various races and breeds of swine in the States, and does not appear, and in discussing the supposed sarcoalso with the principles of breeding; but, as may be matous metamorphosis of carcinoma no mention is inferred from the following quotation, although he made of the fact, which now seems certain, that it is writes at some length, he does not get much beyond the connective tissue stroma of the carcinoma which the current nebulous ideas held by stock-breeders on
is thus transformed, and ultimately overgrows the car
cinomatous elements. The vegetable parasites are these subjects :
omitted, as these are dealt with in text-books of bac“ There exists in some sections of Old Mexico a type teriology, but an excellent and fairly full account is of 'hog' which is the product of crossing a ram and given of the animal parasites, protozoan and metaa sow, and the term • Cuino' has been applied to this
Immunity is discussed in twenty-five pages, rather violent combination. The ram used as a sire and the essentials of the subject are conveyed to the to produce the Cuino is kept with the hogs from the reader. time he is weaned. ... The Cuino reproduces itself On the whole, the book may be regarded as a very and is often crossed a second and third time with a useful text-book of general pathology. It is excellently ram.
got up, and a word of praise must be bestowed on the A number of the illustrations are not accurate illustrations, 162 in number (also four coloured plates), representations of the breeds they refer to, but are
the majority of which are the work of Mr. Richard rather artist's ideals.
Muir, and as a rule depict very clearly the subjects they represent, though it may be questioned whether
so many are really necessary, as they tend to distract OUR BOOK SHELF.
the student from examination of the actual
specimens themselves. A Text-book of General Pathology for the Use of
Students and Practitioners. By Prof. J. M. Beattie (1) Der Bau des Weltalls. By Prof. Dr. J. Scheiner. and W. E. Carnegie Dickson. Pp. xvi + 475.
Dritte, verbesserte Auflage. Pp. 132. (Leipzig : (London : Rebman, Limited, 1908.) Price 175. 6d.
B. G. Teubner, 1909.) net,
(2) Die Planeten. By Dr. Bruno Peter. Pp. 131. In the preface the authors state that this volume is (Same publishers, 1909.) Price 1.25 marks each. based on the teaching of the Edinburgh school of (1) The series “ Aus Natur und Geisteswelt" is well pathology, where the first chair of pathology in the known. It consists of a number of little treatises, in United Kingdom was founded, and as such we wel which men of science occupying prominent positions come its appearance. At the same time, we do not have attempted to explain in an accurate and comnote any features particularly novel, either in the prehensive manner the results of past inquiries, and subject-matter or in its arrangement, and in some the position to which our knowledge has extended in respects the book seems to be lacking as a text-book various directions. In the former of the two specimens of general pathology. Thus the important factor of before us, Dr. Scheiner gives the substance of six heredity in disease, and shock and collapse, are not popular lectures delivered in Berlin to a number of even mentioned, and we do not understand why a high-school teachers in the course of which he discussion of the nature of gout and the chemistry of attempted to describe so much of the universe as comes uric-acid metabolism“ do not come within the scope within the range of our telescopes. He endeavoured of the present volume."
to bring home to his audience the magnificent scheme The opening chapter deals all too briefly with the of distances on which the planetary and stellar syscell in health and disease. An excellent summary of tems are planned; he traced the detection of proper modern views on cell-structure and cell-division is motion of the fixed stars, and showed how the sun's presented to the reader, but the section on the chem- movement in direction and amount can be determined. istry of the cell is mainly occupied with the recom- The phenomena of the sun are explained in some mendations of the Chemical and Physiological Societies detail, preparatory to the examination of the spectra on protein nomenclature.
of stars, a subject which is discussed somewhat fully, The chapters which follow deal respectively with as might be expected from a member of the staff of general retrogressive processes, disturbances of the the Potsdam Observatory. Herein, as the author circulation, inflammation and repair, progressive tissue points out, he is on the sure ground of observation. changes, animal parasites, and immunity.
But in his last chapter he approaches the more specuAn excellent account is given of fatty change, and lative subject of the origin and constitution of the modern views respecting it are succinctly stated. Lar- universe. The subject is handled with skill, and, notdaceous disease is similarly well treated, but we do not withstanding the limited space to which the author understand why authors will persist in employing the is restricted, he has succeeded in making his subject terms waxy and amyloid" to designate it, for both clear and interesting. We do not wonder that “lardaceous has the claim of priority; it is official the little work has passed through three editions, for, in the “Nomenclature of Diseases of the Royal apart from that longing to satisfy an intelligent College of Physicians, and the material present is curiosity which appeals to so many, the material is universally known as lardacein.
put in a very attractive form, which should appeal to The chapter on inflammation and repair gives all many readers. essential details on this important subject. The classi- (2) Dr. Peter has a simpler subject, in which the fication of tumours, admittedly a difficult subject, facts have been many times detailed, and he has little adopted by the authors is that advocated by Adami. scope for either originality of treatment or lucidity of This seems to us unnecessarily complex for the medical arrangement. As the planets extend in order from the student and practitioner. The structure of tumours sun, so he must follow them from Mercury to Neptune. is given at some length, and the chief views on the A Vulcan is hinted at within Mercury's orbit, but the
hypothetical planet outside Neptune does not attract well known that these properties, while still remaincomment. Since the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn ing additive, involve factors depending on the consticome under notice, more attention might have been tution of the molecule, e.g. method of linking, ringgiven to the moon and to the phenomena of eclipses. formation, &c., all of which should be taken into The plan of the book, however, aims rather at the account in the calculation of the value of the particular description of the surface than of the motion of the property in the case of any given substance. It is the planets, though naturally the tale of the discovery of thorough-going application of this principle in the Neptune is told once again. It might seem that there calculation of thermochemical constants, extended so as is scarcely room for such a book, considering the to include, not only the specific thermochemical values number of popular works that are extant, but there of double and triple bonds, but also the thermal value is some difficulty in keeping even these works abreast of the “strain” in ring-compounds and of the single of the time. As an example we may quote the sen- bond in chain-compounds, that the book under review tence, “ Bestimmt sieben, wahrscheinlich sogar acht expounds. The author's method of calculation has Monde umkreisen
umkreisen Jupiter." Notwithstanding the already appeared in several articles published in the recent issue, there is here opportunity for correction Chemical News, on which the present monograph is in the next edition.
based. L'ntersuchung und Nachweis organischer Farbstoffe
The author's method will best be understood from auf spektroskopischem Wege. By J. Formánek,
By J. Formánek, the following :-Let H be the value of a hy gen with the collaboration of E. Grandmougin. Pp. 252.
atom plus the link joining it to a carbon atom. Let Second edition. Part i. (Berlin : Julius Springer, C be the value of a carbon atom, not including the 1908.) Price 12 marks.
value of its valencies; let L, L2, L3, be the values The first edition of this work appeared in 1901 in a of the single, double, and triple bonds respectively. single volume. In part i. of the new edition which is Knowing the constants for four hydrocarbons, it is now before us, subject-matter to which only forty-two possible to calculate the value of the following :pages were devoted in the first edition has been C+4H=a, 2H-L, =B, 4H-L,=y, 6H-Lg=d. These elaborated and added to so largely that it occupies the
“ fundamental constants' for carbon and whole of part i. The introduction deals with spectro- hydrogen. Moreover, the formula of any compound scopic methods in general, but more particularly with
can be written in terms of these fundamental conabsorption spectra of coloured solutions and the influ- stants, and the theoretical value so obtained can then ence of solvents, concentration, reagents, temperature, be compared with the experimental number. &c., on the latter. Then follow chapters on the spec
This method the author has illustrated by the caltroscope, general observations on the relationship culation of a large number of heats of combustion of between colour, absorption, fluorescence, and constitu- substances belonging to different groups of compounds, tion of coloured compounds and dyestuffs, and on the and, with comparatively few exceptions, excellent conrelationship between chemical constitution and absorp- cordance with the experimental numbers has been tion spectra of dyestuffs belonging to individual classes. obtained. In this fact the method has its
justification. The latter include di- and tri-phenylmethane dye
In an interesting section the author discusses also stuffs, quinonimide dyestuffs, fluorindene and tri- the relation between heats of combustion of ring-comphendioxazine, acridine dyestuffs, and anthraquinone pounds and von Baeyer's strain theory, and he shows dyestuffs. No mention is made in this part of the azo
that in general there is perfect agreement. No simple dyes, or the dyes of the indigo group, while of natural relationship, however, has been obtained between the dyestuffs only alizarin is mentioned. It is to be pre- angle of deviation and the thermal equivalent. sumed, however, that these important classes will
The book is one which deserves and will no doubt receive due consideration in part ii., which represents obtain the attention of all who are interested in the the practical part of the work.
relations between the thermochemistry of compounds Although a vast amount of work has been done and their chemical constitution; and the method of by different observers on the absorption spectra of the calculation is, moreover, one which will not improbably organic dyestuffs, the information is so scattered as to find application in the case of other physical properties be difficult of access to the ordinary individual, and of an additive character. It is an important addition this is probably the main reason why this important to the literature of thermochemistry.
A. F. subject has hitherto not received the attention which | An Angler's Season. By W. Earl Hodgson. Pp. it merits. There is, however, ample testimony that this
xii + 299. (London : A. and C. Black, 1909.) Price particular application of the spectroscope is being more and more appreciated by the manufacturers of dyestuffs A BOOK from Mr. Hodgson is always worthy of the
3s. 6d. net. on the one hand, and the users on the other. This is borne out by the fact that such an eminently prac- exception to the rule. Dealing as he does solely
angler's attention, and An Angler's Season is no tical body as the Société industrielle de Mulhouse has made a pecuniary grant to the author to enable him
with salmon and trout, and almost entirely with to publish the new edition. Prof. Formánek has
Scotch waters, the author's season begins in January made a life-long study of his subject, and a compre- allotted; throughout there is much good reading, a
and ends in October, and to each month a chapter is hensive and up-to-date book on this particular applica- deal of 'sage advice, and some controversy. Early in tion of spectrum analysis, such as the present edition promises to be, would be much appreciated. It is to February Mr. Hodgson is already at issue with the he hoped that the completion of the work will not be dry-fly fisherman, and his attack on the “ Hampshire
method” waxes furious, but he says nothing of those long delaved.
who fish with the dry fly in Aberdeenshire waters and On the Calculation of Thermochemical Constants. find the method successful. Fault is also found with By H. Stanley Redgrove. Pp. viji+ 102. (London :
some anglers for their “habitual indifference to the Edward Arnold, 1909.) Price 6s. net.
weight of a basket” and their love of nature; surely THERE are a number of physical properties of sub- an angler is no worse for also being a naturalist, or stances, e.g. molecular heat of combustion, at least taking an interest in the natural history of fractivity, &c., which are chiefly additive in character, fishes. A study of what naturalists have written so that their values can be calculated if we know the would have shown the danger of Mr. Hodgson's necessary fundamental constants. It is, however, also theory that taking large fish only, and restoring all of
smaller size to the water, would have the effect of recording apparatus where a light source is far from a increasing the average weight of the stock of fish in recording surface, a thick line may obscure any minute three years' time, and would, we think, have pre recorders of very small movements.
These instruments are therefore unsuitable as vented the red flesh of some trout being attributed to
This, at any rate, has richer feeding rather than to a differently constituted
been my experience. We think, too, that the theory set forth to
The British Association type of instrument, when
properly adjusted and installed, does, however, pick up account for the absence of a run of salmon in some rivers of the east of Scotland in May, June, and July clearly in the registers for this year.
these neglected movements--a result which is shown very is somewhat strange, and cannot be maintained in the It seems to me that beneath observatories all over the light of our present knowledge of the salmon's life- world earth-messages may be passing every few minutes, history.
but these are not recognised because instruments generally There are throughout the book numerous practical in use are not capable of recording the same. To investihints of value upon such subjects as flies and baits, gate this possible new departure in seismology, old types and as to the time and place for fishing under various
of instruments will have to be improved or new ones conditions of water and weather; in the last chapter adopted.
Shide, Isle of Wight, July 2. there is also a most thrilling tale of a riverside adventure. The illustrations, reproduced from photographs,
Tables of Bessel Functions. are excellent, but are almost invariably separated by
A COMMITTEE of Section A of the British Association for many pages from the corresponding text, and there is
the Advancement of Science, appointed to undertake the a good index.
L. W. B.
further tabulation of Bessel functions, is at present con
sidering the advisability of unifying and completing the LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
existing tables with the view of the publication of a [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions complete table of Bessel functions. expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake
The committee would be glad of information as to exist. to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected ing tables of Bessel and Neumann functions with a real manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE,
or complex argument, in addition to the following, of No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]
which the members are already aware :
(1) Meissel's Tables (reprinted in Gray and Mathews' A New Departure in Seismology.
treatise on Bessel functions) giving J.(x) and J.(x) from On the photographic records obtained from British
x=0 to x = 15-5 at intervals of oor (12 places); also a Association types of seismograph it has been noticed that
table of the first 50 roots of the equation J.(x)=0 to when the films have been moving slowly. (60 mm. per
16 places. hour) there have been slight thickenings in the trace, while
(2) British Association Tables (1889, 1893, 1896 Reports) if the recording surface has been moving quickly (240 mm.
giving 1.(x) and 1,(x) from x=0 to x=5.1 at intervals of per hour) the line which ought to be straight is slightly
0.001 [9 places); also 1.(x) to 1,1(x) from x=o to x=60 wavy. These irregularities, which have hitherto received
at intervals of o2 (11 and 12 significant figures] ; also a but slight attention, are so small that they may be easily table of Joxvi) from x=0 to x=6 at intervals of 0-2 overlooked. When the thickenings were first observed it 19 places). (Part of these tables are reprinted in Gray was supposed that their existence was due to a flickering and Mathews.), at the source of light or to some irregularity in the move
(3) Tables of In(x) in Gray and Mathews from n=0 to ment of the record-receiving surface. When, however, it
n=60 and from x=0 to x=24 at intervals of unity was observed that these markings frequently occurred at
(18 places). the same time at different stations, as, for example, at
A. Smith's Tables giving Y.(x), -Y(x), Shide and Bidston, the conclusion was that they were 'due (log 2-~)J.(x) - Y,(x),
(log 2-Y)J.(x) - Y.(x) and (log 2-Y)).(x) - Y,(x), from to movements of the ground, and might be the surviving
x=0 to x=1.00 at intervals of 0.01 and from x=1:1 phases of large movements with origins at a distance.
x= 10-2 at intervals of 0.1 [4 places : error not exceeding A very good illustration of this is given by comparison of
2 in the last place). (Messenger of Maths., vol. xxvi., the times of occurrence of the after-shocks which followed 1897, and Phil. Mag., vol. xlv., 1898.) the earthquake of January 14, 1907, in Jamaica, with the
(5) Aldis' Tables of 1.(x), ' 1,(x), K,(x), K,(x) from times at which suspicious irregularities were found on the
x=0 to x=11 at intervals of 0-1 (16 places]. (Roy. Soc. seismographic traces at Shide and Bidston. Between Proc., 1896 and 1899.) January 14 and July 5, 148 shocks were noted in Jamaica.
(6) J. G. Isherwood's Tables of K.(x) to K.(x) from Forty-three minutes after the occurrence of fifty-one of
x=0 to x=5 at intervals of 0-2 15 significant figures). these shocks irregularities were found on the films at the (Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc., vol. xlviii., 1904.) stations mentioned. As forty-three minutes is the time we
The committee will be grateful to be allowed, through should expect a “surface wave to travel sixty-seven
the medium of NATURE, to invite any readers who are degrees, or from Jamaica to England, the inference is that
aware of the existence of tables of Bessel functions other the slight irregularities represent movements which had
than the above to make known this fact. their origin in Jamaica. Corresponding markings, with
Communications should be addressed to the secretary of the exception of one at Göttingen on July 5, do not appear
the committee, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, University College, in the registers from European stations, which are not
Gower Street, W.C.
M. J. M. Hill. more than six or seven degrees farther from Jamaica than
University College, Gower Street, W.C.
Baskets used in Repelling Demons. markings seen on seismograms after the disaster which, on IN the issue of NATURE published on May 27 Mr. December 28, 1908, ruined Messina and Reggio. Between Kumagusu Minakata inquires regarding the use of baskets December 29 and January 30 at Mileto, forty miles from in repelling demons in countries other than Japan. In Messina, 225 shocks were noted. Eight of these reached Calcutta, and I believe in other parts of India, it is the Isle of Wight, while on January 1 and 13 at Göttingen, customary when a new building is being erected to set up Hamburg, and Laibach, only two were noted. The reason on the highest part of the scaffolding a pole, to the top that so small a number travelled a considerable distance of which a round basket and a scavenger's broom are indicates that the originating impulses were weak. That a attached. The basket and broom are apparently recognised larger number should be recorded in Britain than at com
as emblems of the low-caste sweeper,
" and therefore as paratively near stations is not so clear.
being disgusting objects. They are supposed to ward off With smoked paper recording surfaces, whether the ill-luck from the building. Their use in this instance may multiplication of recording levers be 10 or 200, a certain thus be compared to the use in many countries of obscene slackness in joints and elasticity of pointers prevents any objects or gestures as a protection against malicious spirits record of motion being obtained until a certain amplitude
or the evil eye.
N. ANNANDALE. of ground motion has been reached. With photographic Indian Museum, Calcutta, June 13.
THE SINHALESE PEOPLE AND THEIR ART. The arts and crafts of Ceylon, as they exist at the To many it will appear that in this work Dr. present day, represent the result of the action of
Coomaraswamy has attempted too much; cer- western influence on the mediæval conditions which tainly the three purposes for which he tells us the prevailed until the British occupation of Kandy, less book has been written have so little in common that a than a century ago. It is with the remains of this book which even in measure shall satisfy all three late-lasting mediæval culture that Dr. Coomaraswamy cannot be otherwise than loosely knit and somewhat mainly deals, and we are thus given an account of the amorphous. This volume, we are told, is written work of the craftsmen of a feudal period in which “ first of all for the Sinhalese people as a memorial of there was no great attainment in fine art, brought a period which at present they are not willing to about by the genius of a few men, but in which there understand. ... Secondly it is meant for those in was a widely spread popular art largely based upon East and West who are interested in the reorganisa- early Indian traditions, for “Sinhalese art is essention of life, and especially of the arts and crafts under tially Indian, but possesses this special interest, that modern conditions. Thirdly, an endeavour has been it is in many ways of an earlier character, and more made to render it as far as possible of value to the truly Hindu—though Buddhist in intention—than any anthropologist, and to students of sociology and folk- Indian art surviving on the mainland so late as the lore." " It seems very doubtful whether the Sinhalese beginning of the nineteenth century. The minor arts people, with the possible exception of a few of the and the painting are such as we might expect to have .. educated ” of whom Dr. Coomaraswamy speaks associated with the culture of Asoka's time, and the with scant sympathy, will appreciate the effort made builders of Barahat. . . . It was the art of a poor for their benefit, and though there is much of interest people, the annual income of whose kings did not in
to the folklorist and anthropologist in this sumptuous the eighteenth century amount to 2000l. in money, volume, it is as a work of art done for art's sake that besides revenue in kind." the work is most interesting and valuable, and cer- The first chapter of Dr. Coomaraswamy's book is tainly few will be found to imitate Dr. Coomara- devoted to the Sinhalese people and their history. The swamy's example at a time when publishers tell us next chapters discuss the social organisation of éditions de luxe do not sell.
Sinhalese society, and while the difficult question of Not only the contents of the book preach the gospel caste is but lightly touched upon, considerable space of art, but, as it has been printed by hand on hand is devoted to the personal services rendered to the king made paper, it is itself an excellent example of the and his high chiefs. This account shows how true point of view which, since this is a pioneer work, the was Knox's narrative, and it is pointed out that author has been free to express with the least possible Sinhalese villages were self-contained to such a degree constraint. It is, indeed, in the fact that so much as to be dependent upon the outside world for little new ground is broken that the high merit of this but salt. The religion of the people is rapidly volume lies, for it is certainly the first time that a sketched, and certainly too little stress is laid on the detailed account of the arts and crafts of a small area large element of demonism—“devil-worship"—in the in the East has been given, and it is well to remember actual working religion of the Sinhalese. A most that the culture here described was really limited to i interesting account is given of the nētru mangalaya, some two million people, inhabiting, roughly, two- or“ eye ceremony," by which the image in a temple is thirds of an island, itself about the size of Ireland. dedicated. This consists essentially in the painting of
the eyes of the image, when the figure, before this, 1 "Mediæval Sinhalese Art." By Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. Pp. xvi+340 ; 53 plates. (Broad Campden, Glos.; Essex House Press, Norman not accounted a god but a lump of ordinary metal Chapel, 1908.) Price 37. 35. net.
(Knox), becomes so full of power that in some cases
anyone interfering with it is smitten with sickness. ful and pleasing fruit of the Sinhalese art impulse, In this ceremony a mirror was held to receive the first rivalled only by some of the superb inlay metal work glance (belma) of the image while the eyes were being still existing on the temple doors. Fig: 2 represents painted.
an ivory carving in the Colombo Museum of a An account of the teaching of drawing as practised guardian deity from the jamb of a temple door. at the present day serves as an introduction to a In the last two chapters Dr. Coomaraswamy show's consideration of the motifs employed in Sinhalese that, in the present stage of our knowledge, it is only decorative art. Although there is an immense amount possible to indicate the main sources which have of new material in this section, it may be doubted influenced Sinhalese art. The most widely exerted whether it would not have been rendered 'more valu. influence in Indian art is that due to the Asokan able to all, as it certainly would have been to the Buddhist missions, the culture which these dispersed
anthropologist, being early Indian; thus Sinhalese art is largely the if greater at result of the evolution of an early Indian art, in part tention had sheltered by the geographical position of Ceylon from been paid to that Hinduism which overwhelmed it upon the mainthe history of land. But in post-Asokan and mediæval times this the evolution of art was continually exposed to Indian influence; the individual“ indeed, until the close of the period of mediæval elements of conditions, the relations between Southern India and decoration; for Ceylon were similar to those obtaining in the Middle instance, the Ages between France and England." This leads to makara, which the suggestion that the famous rock paintings at bulks so largely Sigiri, the like of which are found only at Ajanta, are
Sinhalese due to a school, representatives of which were to be art, and which found both in India and Ceylon. The fine bronzes occurs the recently found by Mr. H. C. P. Bell at Polonnarua Barahat Stupa, and now in the Colombo Museum, though of a later circa 200 B.C.,
dale, point in the same direction, for the whole feeling is dismissed in of these is Hindu. To sum up, Dr. Coomaraswamy rather less than sees in Sinhalese art “an early stratum of indishalf a page of pensable barbaric decorative motives, . . . then print, while the main stream of North Indian Buddhist influence; and hamsa fares thereafter the influence of continued reliance upon and
worse. intercourse with India, especially Southern India, These and accounting at every period for the strong admixture many other of purely Hindu with Buddhist motifs. With this conventional conclusion few will quarrel, though Dr. Coomaraelements
swamy says all too little concerning the earliest most skilfully stratum. Ít remains only to direct attention to the combined, and number and excellence of the photographs by Mrs. the beauty of Coomaraswamy, and to indicate that it is owing to the results at- her energy that the remains of the moribund art of tained is seen Sinhalese embroidery have been brought together to in plate xvi. form chapter xv.
C. G. S. (here reproduced in Fig. I), of a nine
A DISCUSSION OF AUSTRALIAN teenth - century
METEOROLOGY." from the Da THE meteorology of the southern hemisphere
presents a specially attractive field of study. lada Maligawa, The large area of water surface conduces to much Kandy,
repre: simpler conditions than are to be found to the north senting a forest
of the Equator, and here, if anywhere, the There
meteorologist may hope to discover the fundamental chapters
principles underlying the general movements of the architect ure,
atmosphere. On the other hand, he has to face the
relative paucity of data. The meteorological organisawoodwork, stone work,
tions of the three great land areas are still young, and
our knowledge of what is happening over the sea is
figure sculpFig. 2.-Guardian Deity from a Temple Door
woefully small as compared with the completeness ture, and paint
with which we are able to track down changes Jamb, Ivory. Height of plaque, 10 inches: ing, the reduced Colombo Museum Collection. From ". Mediæval colour plates of
occurring over the great trade routes of the North of the
Atlantic. The present discussion forms a recapitulawall paintings in Degaldoruwa Vihara, Kandy, being tion and a completion of work published from time extraordinarily faithful reproductions of the originals, abstracts have appeared in previous numbers of
to time from the Solar Physics Observatory, of which the spirit of which they have preserved to a surprising NATURE (lxx., p. 177; lxxiv., p. 352). At the outset degree. An interesting conjecture is made in chapter X.,
we congratulate Dr. Lockyer on his success in bringwhich suggests that ivory was comparatively little ing together a vast amount of information and on the
skill with which he has marshalled the facts deduced used in Indian art on account of the Hindu reluctance to use the products of dead animals; Buddhists had
therefrom. no scruples of this sort, and so ivory was always 1 Solar Physics Committee. A Discussion of Australian Meteorology, valued and used in Ceylon even in temples, with the
by Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, under the direction of Sir Norm: n Lockyer,
K.C.B., F.Å.S. Pp. vii+117 ; 10 plates. (London: Wyman and Sons, result that ivory carvings are perhaps the most beauti- Ltd., 1903.)