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Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and

Andes. Being Records of Travel during the Years 1849-1864. By RICHARD SPRUCE, Ph.D. Edited and Condensed by ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE, O.M., F.R.S. With Illustrations and Maps, 2 vols. 8vo.

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Dr. C. A. M. Lindman is responsible for the next memoir, “C. v. L. als botanischer Forscher und

Schriftsteller," and is the longest of the series. BeAPPRECIATIONS OF CARL VON LINNÉ.

ginning with Linné's early training and first catalogues Carl von Linné's Bedeutung als Naturforscher und of local plants, it deals with that wonderful series of Arzt. Schilderungen herausgegeben

der books which were printed in Amsterdam, the Königl. Schwedischen Akademie der Wissenschaften “Systema Naturæ,” Genera plantarum," “ Flora anlässlich der zoo-jährigen Wiederkehr des Geburts- lapponica,” “ Hortus Cliffortianus,” &c., especially tages Linné's. Pp. iv + 168; 48; 43; 188; 86, 2 pl.; drawing attention to such parts of Linné's botanical

42. (Jena : G. Fischer, 1909.) Price 20 marks. teaching which are apt to be overlooked, such as his THIS THIS volume is a German version of that issued in attempts at a natural system, and observations in mor

May, 1907, by the Royal Swedish Academy of phology and physiology of plants; of these, many are Science, and consists of six appreciations of the great to be found in his dissertations and travels, rarely Swedish naturalist.

looked at now. Indeed, Linné's books are chiefly reThe first of these, by Emeritus. Prof. Otto E. A. ferred to at the present day from the systematic point Hjelt, was written at the request of the Academy, and of view. The fact that his busy mind had occupied is a revised edition of a former work prepared for the itself on problems which even now are unsolved. is celebration of the quatercentenary of Upsala Univer- lost sight of, because his observations must be sought sity in 1877, embodying various improvements through for in their original Latin or Swedish dress. The recent investigation into Linnean matters, due to the latter portion especially of Dr. Lindman's work should devotion of the late Dr. E. Ährling and Prof. T. M. be carefully read, and will heighten our wonder at the Fries. In common with the other essays, this is

enormous amount of work accomplished by the occuseparately paged, and may be procured apart from its pant of the Chair of Botany at Upsala. accompanying discourses.

Linné regarded as a geologist forms the next part Linné's remarkable services to botany and zoology of this volume, and is due to Prof. Nathorst; it is have thrown somewhat into the shade his acquirements illustrated with two plates, and ten figures in the as a practising physician and professor of medicine. text. Both as petrologist and palæontologist the merits This essay will do much to draw attention to this of Linné are set out, and his keen insight into geologi. side of Linné's activities. It must not be forgotten cal causes are dwelt upon. Linné had but little opthat he was rescued from a suggested apprenticeship portunity as a field geologist; his travels were practito a tailor or shoemaker, by the sagacity of his early cally bounded by his official journeys to Gotland, teacher, Rothman, who assured Nils Linnæus that Westgotland, and Skåne, and yet his observations his son showed great aptitude for medicine. It was merit careful reading in the light of modern science. for this that Linné entered the University of Lund, A similar appreciation is given by Prof. Sjögren and afterwards migrated to Upsala for further im- in the last section, “ Carl von Linné als Mineralog." provement; he took his degree of M.D., to earn a The Linnean collection of minerals was sold by Dr. livelihood, and he practised in Stockholm after his J. E. Smith in 1796, when about to remove from return to Sweden. His first chair at Upsala was of Chelsea to Norwich, and its present condition and medicine, and though soon afterwards he exchanged place are unknown. But it is enough to gather from it for that of botany, he continued to keep in touch the various statements in the writings of Linné to put with it during his career, and left manuscripts showing before us the views of the great naturalist. in honour his unabated interest, in spite of his exertions in other of whom these essays were composed. directions. A list of his medical writings at the end The chief difference noticed between the original of this essay contains eighty-six titles.

and the present edition is the omission of the reprint This is followed by “ Carl von Linné und die Lehre of Linné's “ Clavis medicinæ,” which formed an von der Wirbelthieren,” of Prof. Einar Lönnberg, in appendix of ninety pages to Prof. Hjelt's memoir. which a résumé is given of Linné's predecessors in

B. D. J. zoology, from Conrad Gesner, Rondelet, Aldrovandi, and others, to Ray and Willoughby, and contrasting

INDIA-RUBBER MANUFACTURE. the order brought in by methodical arrangement under Classes, Orders, and Genera.

The Manufacture of Rubber Goods. A Practical The third essay, “ Carl von Linné als Entomolog,”

Handbook for the Use of Manufacturers, Chemists, is by Dr. Chr. Aurivillius, and is here separately

and Others. By Adolf Heil and Dr. W. Esch. given; in the original Swedish edition, Linné was

English Edition by E. W. Lewis. Pp. viii +236. considered as a zoologist, in a joint memoir with the (London : C. Griffin and Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price previous author, but in this issue the part of each los. 6d. net. writer is set out separately. Following the same line T is now several years since the late Dr. Weber's of thought as in the foregoing essay, Dr. Aurivillius

treatise upon

“The Chemistry of India Rubber" points out that the collections formerly belonging to was published. The book was reviewed in these Queen Lovisa Ulrika at Drottinngholm and of King columns at the time, and has become a standard Adolf Fredrik at Ulriksdal, which had been arranged work upon the scientific principles involved in the and catalogued by Linné, have been in the keeping production of rubber. A companion volume upon of the University of Upsala since 1803.

the practical manufacture of rubber articles was con


templated by the author, but his decease prevented ent factories; and the empirical methods evolved are its production; and the present work is to be re- guarded as trade secrets. In fact, so perfectly has garded as a substitute. It is a translation of Heil long experience developed the rule-of-thumb indicaand Esch's “ Handbuch der Gummiwarenfabrika- tions that the authors think scientific investigation tion,” adapted for English usage in respect of the can hardly result in any noteworthy revolution in the machinery generally employed in this country.

methods of manufacture. It may be so; but this Non-technical readers may be reminded that crude is not quite the spirit in which progress is made. rubber as imported contains a number of impurities— A few years ago indigo-planters would have said water, woody tissue, sand, and other mineral matter. much the same thing. Moreover, it is unvulcanised, and to fit it for diverse Many illustrations accompany the text, which is uses various “filling” substances must be incor- generally lucid, though occasionally with a leaning porated with it. The process of manufacture consists, to Teutonic stolidity. Except in this respect, the therefore, in the purification of the raw material; translator has eliminated any lingual indication of the mixing of this with ingredients which will impart the origin of the book, which can be recommended the required colour, durability, or other special as a very practical and useful work. C. S. property to the article; the fashioning of this plastic mixture into tyre, tube, or whatever finished article is desired; and lastly, the vulcanisation of the object

VECTOR ANALYSIS. with sulphur, or chloride of sulphur, whereby the Vector Analysis: an Introduction to Vector-methods rubber becomes non-adhesive, harder, and

and their Various Applications to Physics and Mathedurable.

matics. By Dr. J. G. Coffin. Pp. xix +248. (New The authors give the plan and arrangement of a

York : John Wiley and Sons; London : Chapman factory for the carrying out of these operations in and Hall, Ltd., 1909.) Price 1os. 6d. net. what they consider to be the most advantageous THIS Introduction to Vector-methods and their


Various Applications to Physics and Mathefor excluding dust in the making-up of rubber goods, matics” is an exposition of the late Willard Gibbs' since leaky seams are liable to develop in goods if vector analysis. The author in his preface warns us particles of dust are allowed to settle on the edges that no attempt at mathematical rigor is made" of the article during the joining process. Another which perhaps explains the opening sentence point to which they direct attention is the necessity, chapter i. : “A vector is any quantity having direction after the rubber has been washed free from admixed as well as magnitude." What of finite rotations? impurities, of drying it in a rational way. Far too Are they not to be considered quantities having direclittle regard is had to this important detail. The large tion and magnitude? In an appendix the author surface-area exposed favours atmospheric oxidation compares notations, not always quite accurately. He of the moist, warm rubber, and the time of exposure believes Willard Gibbs' notation to be the simplest should therefore be as short as practicable. On the and most symmetrical of any of the existing kinds. other hand, if the material is imperfectly dried, goods Burali-Forti and Marcolongo, who believe they have made from it are liable to rapid deterioration. To devised the perfect notation, object to Willard Gibbs's «dry it thoroughly, quickly, and safely is the desidera- “ dot” in the scalar product, using a “cross tum; and the authors describe modern drying-rooms instead. As regards the question of symmetry, the and centrifugal plant adapted to this purpose. While truth is that the vector product is not symmetrical, not recommending any one method as the best in for in Gibbs's notation axb=-bxa. As a matter of all circumstances, they discuss the general principles fact each vector analyst can always find sufficiently involved, and plead for an intelligent application of self-pleasing arguments in favour of his pet notation. them.

Notation apart, the book is well put together, and The necessity for avoiding undue "working" or lays stress many important applications in kneading of the dried rubber is also insisted upon. dynamics, elasticity, hydrodynamics, electricity, and Not only does it increase the expense, but the quality magnetism. The differential operator , in its suffers deterioration thereby. True, “rubber sub-Gibbsian phase, is developed in considerable detail. stance " is regarded as a mixture of polymerised But will non-Hamiltonian vector analysts never realise hydrocarbons, and too much kneading results in a how much they lose by working with what is not, after presumed depolymerisation of a portion of the all, the real Hamiltonian operator? By discarding the material, with consequent injury to the texture. associative law in vector products they lose the flexi

A number of examples are given illustrating the bility of the real p. Pages of definitions would be composition of “mixings” for making different saved by a simple return to Hamilton and Tait; and kinds of rubber articles; and the machinery for work- not only so, but the mind of the student would be freed ing and calendering the mixtures is described at from the task of committing to memory the laws of the some length.

equivalent operators as used by Gibbs, Heaviside, Gans, As regards vulcanisation, it is a remarkable fact Jahnke, Bücherer, Föppl, Burali-Forti and Marcothat the processes still used are carried out essentially longo, &c. In the exercises at the end of chapter v. we in the same way as when first introduced, some notice two mistakes. In exercise (4) we are told that seventy years ago, by Goodyear, Hancock, and v.(a x r)=2a, where a is the length of the vector a. Parkes. The details, of course, differ with the differ- | In quaternions this is so Vap. But Vop=20, a


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