« PreviousContinue »
The opening chapters deal exclusively with Aus- The question of periodicity naturally comes in for tralian conditions. Pressure observations are discussion. After eliminating a variation of short sidered first. The mean amplitude of the difference period by taking means of groups of four years, Dr. between a number of conspicuous minima and the Lockyer claims that the smoothed curves for Australia succeeding maxima in the curves showing the annual show a periodicity of nineteen years. It is true that variation, amounts to more than seven-hundredths of there are conspicuous maxima in 1868 and 1897, and an inch. When the curves for those stations for which minima separated by about the same number of years, long records are available are compared, they all show but this does not of itself prove a recurring periodicity, a marked similarity, and the important generalisation and the is not advanced by
by drawing a is arrived at that simultaneous excess or defect of “ hypothetical ” curve through the points of maxipressure in any one year is a marked feature of the mum in which an intervening secondary maximum whole Australian continent, and is not restricted to is disregarded and replaced by a principal minimum. any one particular portion of this area. Coming The occurrence of a similar interval between the next to the rainfall observations, an examination of maxima in the pressure curve for South America, but the curves leads to a similar conclusion. Years of of other epoch, is suggestive, but the question of the low rainfall are, broadly speaking, years of deficiency connection between the two continents remains one over the whole continent, and in years of excess the for further study. excess is also general. Moreover, a comparison of A highly suggestive and interesting chapter on the the rainfall and pressure curves suggests very strongly air movements over the three great land areas of the that periods of high pressure are periods of low southern hemisphere points out some interesting rainfall, and vice versa. These are generalisations of similarities between the pressure distribution and the great importance, for they introduce a great simplifi- | incidence of rainfall of the three continents. The cation, and correspondingly facilitate the further volume also contains an interesting comparison of the study of Australian weather conditions. In view of flow of the Murray river with the rainfall, and of the the few data available in proportion to the area frequency of southerly “ Bursters" with the variaconsidered, a meteorologist, arguing from analogy, | tions of pressure. The work thus ranges over a wide might be disposed to regard these as hasty generalisa- field. It offers much that is new, and brings together tions. The extraordinary variability of rainfall from a common point of view much information that in other parts of the world is well known, and has hitherto been scattered in a number of individual for its adequate study a large mass of information papers.
R, G. K. L. is essential. When the necessary figures are forthcoming we find that even within the narrow limits of our own islands there are very conspicuous differences
POSSIBILITY OF AN EXTRA-NEPTUNIAN between the north of Scotland and the south of
PLANET. England. Australian conditions are, however, different. As Dr: Lockyer points out, the weather of M. GAILLOT has contributed an admirable note the continent is dominated primarily by anticyclones
on this subject to the Comptes rendus (March travelling from west to east. In years of high 22). A summary of his calculations is set forth pressure these anticyclones are found to embrace a so clearly as to be easy to follow, and if we have one wider area, and thus the low-pressure systems which regret it is that he has not published the discordances skirt their edges and bring rain to the northern between observed and tabular positions that necesdistricts in summer, and to the southern ones in sarily form the basis of his work. We suppose that winter, affect the land area to a smaller extent. the Comptes rendus do not admit masses of tabular
In discussing these questions of correlation, whether matter, and we wish to express the hope that M. it be between variations of the same element at
Gaillot will publish this information somehow or different places between different
elements, other. Dr. Lockyer uses the similarity between two curves
A review_recently appeared in NATURE (June 17, as his standard of measurement. The points P: 463) on Prof. W. H. Pickering's calculations. We of resemblance to which he directs attention are,
there maintained that Prof. Pickering's supposed indeed, striking. At the same time, the reader planet“ ()” could not possibly produce sensible perfeels a desire for a more definite expression of turbations in Uranus. Now, M. Gaillot and Prof. the relation between the elements under comparison. Pickering both locate their hypothetical planets in the When
to the correlation between the same part of the sky. M. Gaillot's mass is five times Australian curves and those for other parts of the that of the earth, or two and a half times that of Prof. world, which takes up much of the later part of the Pickering's “ 0." A reader of the previous review work, this becomes more imperative. Thus, will see that M. Gaillot's planet would, therefore, p. 72, after discussing the striking resemblance produce in Uranus inequalities exceeding a second of between the pressure changes at Adelaide and those We suspect that Prof. Pickering has made some of Bombay or Batavia, we read, “ While the Cordoba numerical mistake in estimating the mass of his curve is nearly the inverse of Adelaide—the curve planet “0," and, if he can rectify this, we should for the Cape seems to be intermediate, being more then have two independent researches in practical inclined to be similar to the Australian type of varia- agreement.
M. Gaillot's result is, however, suffition than that of South America." The intermediate ciently confirmed by the analogy from inner planets between two curves which are inverse to one another developed in the previous review. should be a straight line. If it is meant that the Cape The important question now arises, “Are the curve follows now the variations of Adelaide and observed discordances sufficiently large to point unnow those of Cordoba, it becomes a matter of im- mistakably to some unknown planet? It is clear portance to have some means of comparing the that an inequality with a coefficient of one second of degrees of similarity in the two cases. Superpose arc appears to exist in the observations; but the any two arbitrarily drawn curves showing fluctuations elliptic constants of the orbit of Uranus are arbitrary, of approximately the same amplitude, and we are sure
the observations are liable to small errors, and the to find that some of the maxima and minima agree. theory of the action of known planets is not perfect. Can we say by how much the correlation between All this shows how unsafe it would be to assert the the curves we are discussing exceeds that between real existence of the inequality which would in its turn curves drawn arbitrarily?
demonstrate the existence of an unknown planet. We
an analogy from the moon. The real the regulations for the setting aside of a sum not existence of a term with coefficient nearly three exceeding 50l. a year to form an apparatus fund, from seconds and period sixty-four years is now generally which grants may be made from time to time to the admitted in the motion of the moon. This term was fellow for the purchase of special apparatus and first defined in 1904, and the case for its real existence material required in his research. The stipend of the was not a strong one until Prof. Newcomb arrived Sorby Research Fellow will probably be about 500l.
an almost identical conclusion from the per annum, and it is hoped that the committee will totally different evidence of occultations. The term be in a position to make the first appointment to the in the motion of Uranus must therefore be doubtful fellowship early in the coming autumn. for the present. We are not entitled to do more at present than hope that it is real, and that a corresponding planet will reward M. Gaillot's admirable
PROF. T. W. BRIDGE, F.R.S. work. This doubt is fully admitted by M. Gaillot.
d'ailleurs qu'avec une extrême réserve. En effet, les différences WE regret to record the death, on June 30, of Dr.
T. W. Bridge, Mason professor of zoology in entre les positions observées d'Uranus et celles qui the University of Birmingham. By his death the Unisont calculées a l'aide de nos Tables ne dépassent versity is deprived of one of its oldest and most guère les limites des erreurs probables des observa- i experienced teachers, and zoological science has lost tions augmentées de celles qui résultent des imper- one of those workers who, under the influence of fections de la théorie. ..."
Balfour and the Cambridge school, have contributed It is noteworthy that, like Prof. Pickering, M. largely both by example and precept to our knowledge Gaillot bases his hypothetical planet upon Uranus and of vertebrate morphology. not upon Neptune. It appears, therefore, that the
Prof. Bridge was born in Birmingham in 1848, and motion of Neptune is in good agreement with the after studying science at the Birmingham and Midland tables, and that no extra-Neptunian planet can exist Institute, went in 1870 to Cambridge as assistant to of a mass and epoch to produce sensible inequalities Mr. J. W. Clark, then director of the Museum of in the motion of Neptune since its discovery. This is Zoology. In 1872' he was elected to a foundation an important negative result; in fact, if it be assumed scholarship Trinity College, and appointed that the unknown planet has a mass at least one-third demonstrator in zoology under the late Prof. Newton. that of Neptune, a considerable part of the ecliptic After his graduation in 1875, he spent six months at is excluded from ihe domain where this planet can
Naples working in the zoological station, where, on possibly be found.
the advice of F. M. Balfour, he carried out research into the “ abdominal pores of fishes. In 1879 he
was appointed professor of zoology in the Royal THE SORBY RESEARCH FELLOWSHIP.
College of Science at Dublin. In 1880 he became one T It .
F.R.S., of Sheffield, bequeathed a sum of 15,000l. mingham, holding the chair of biology; and when this to the Royal Society of London to be held in trust for chair was divided in 1882 he retained the title of the establishment of a professorship or fellowship for Mason professor of zoology and comparative anatomy, original scientific research, the testator expressly de- and kept the same position when the Mason College siring the professorship or fellowship thus founded to became a University in 1900. be associated with the University of Sheffield. Ac- The original work carried out by Prof. Bridge dealt cepting this trust, the council of the Royal Society chiefly with the osteology of ganoid fish, the “ poriappointed a committee to confer with representatives abdominales" of vertebrates, and the air-bladder of of the University of Sheffield with the view of drawing Teleosts. The most important of these memoirs are up a scheme for giving effect to the intentions of Dr. undoubtedly those dealing with the last subject, and Sorby's will.
the large paper by Profs. Bridge and Haddon, pubA scheme, prepared by this committee for the estab- lished in the Philosophical Transactions in 1893, on lishment of a “Sorby Fellowship for Scientific Re- the air-bladder of Siluroids, has become a classic. This search"
to be associated with the University of work was the first thorough investigation dealing with Sheffield, has now been approved and adopted by the the structure and physiology of this organ which had council of the Royal Society, and by the senate and appeared since Weber's original discovery and funda. council of the University of Sheffield. This scheme mental treatise on the air-bladder published in 1820. provides for the administration of the income of the In certain Siluroids, Weber found that extraordinary fund by a joint committee consisting of four persons apparatus which still bears his name. He described appointed by the council of the Royal Society, one in a few families the vertebral elements that link the person appointed by the council of the University of air-bladder with the ear, and concluded that the apSheffield, and two by the senate of that University. paratus subserved the function of hearing in these
The object of the fellowship is not to train students fish. What was now required was a systematic infor original research, but to obtain advances in natural quiry into the variation of this mechanism and into knowledge by enabling men of proved ability to devote the use or uses of it; and it is this monographic treatthemselves to research; and in making an appoint- ment that we owe to Prof. Bridge and his collaborator. ment the committee will pay special attention to the They investigated 100 species of Siluroids, and concapacity for original work of a candidate, as shown cluded that this highly specialised mechanism was by the work already done by him, and to the employed, not for audition, but for the registration of likelihood that he will continue to do valuable work. varying hydrostatic pressures. These memoirs not Each appointment will be in the first instance for five only advanced our knowledge of this interesting strucyears, subject to the control of the committee, but may ture, but threw light on many points of ecological in special circumstances be prolonged for further interest in connection with other physostomatous periods if the committee is satisfied with the fellow's | Teleosts. work.
Prof. Bridge's most recent work was his article on The fellow will be required to carry out his re- fishes in the “Cambridge Natural History" (1904). search, when possible, in one of the laboratories of the This article has proved one of the most useful treatises University of Sheffield, and provision is made under on this subject both to teachers and students. The
value of his work was recognised by his election into In Travel and Exploration for July Mr. H. Massac Buist the Royal Society in 1903.
discusses what the nations are doing in the progress of We must not conclude this short article without | aviation, and refers to the annual prize offered by him to bearing witness to the great success of Prof. Bridge the Aërial League for the best essay by a member of as a teacher. He excelled, to no common degree, in
that body dealing with the attention that is being devoted grounding his pupils in the elements of zoology. As by the leading civilised nations to the advancement of examination candidates his students showed unusual
aërial locomotion. The first competition is to close on accuracy, and, in the main, a wide knowledge. Those of them who were able to go further and undertake January 31, 1910. In his article the author shows that some piece of research found in him not only
while Governments are mainly devoting their attention to stimulus, but an unwearied guide and a sagacious the construction of dirigibles, aëroplane machines are, to a critic.
large extent, being developed by private enterprise.
Writing in the Oxford and Cambridge Review, with a NOTES.
foreword by Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, Mr. R. P. Hearne
advocates the introduction of aviation as a form of sport M. G. DARBOUX has been re-elected president of the
at the older universities. It is pointed out that such a Société des Amis des Sciences, MM. Aucoc and Picard vice- scheme would produce a school of skilled aviators whose presidents, and Prof. Joubin general secretary. The society experience would be of great value in future developments was founded in 1857 by Baron Thenard with the view of of aërial navigation. While the possibility of an Oxford assisting unfortunate inventors, men of science, and pro- and Cambridge flying race is suggested, we would point fessors and their families. Among the names of past- out that, in view of the fact that the great majority of presidents of the society
those of Thenard, | Varsity men cannot afford to spend 1000l. on a motorJ. B. Dumas. Pasteur, and others. Since its foundation driven machine, the man of moderate means might parthe society has distributed in pensions and grants more ticipate in the sport by gliding down a suitable incline than two and a half million francs. This year eighty selected on the Gogmagogs, Madingley Hill, or Royston pensions have been granted to old savants or their widows. Heath. The society has assisted the education of some seventy
Tue number of records of earthquakes obtained at Shide, children, and made grants to thirty-five widows. The work of the society should appeal to all who benefit from the Göttingen, Hamburg, and Laibach between January 1 and work of men of science. Information as to the society April 30 this year were, respectively, 98, 65, 61, and 33.
Each of these earthquakes extended over wide areas, and may be obtained from the treasurer, M. Fouret, 79 boule
was recorded at more than one station. At Shide the vard Saint-Germain, Paris.
instrument employed is of the type adopted by the British We learn from Science that the people of Honolulu have Association. At the other stations the records were made guaranteed already half the money asked for by the Massa- on smoked paper or by photographic arrangements with a chusetts Institute of Technology for the maintenance of an high multiplication. observatory which the institute proposes to establish at the
The annual general meeting of the Royal Society of brink of Kilauea for the study of volcanic action.
Arts, the 155th since the foundation of the society in 1754, The Geologists' Association is arranging a long was held on Wednesday, June 30, Sir William H. White, escursion to the Arenigs, from July 28 to August 7, under
K.C.B., chairman of the council, in the chair. The the direction of Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. The excursion
Prince of Wales was re-elected for the ninth time in secretary is Mr. E. Montag, 4 Queen's Road, Rockferry, succession president of the society, and the council, with Birkenhead.
certain additions and alterations, was re-elected. The
principal business of the meeting was the reading of the The Vienna correspondent of the Times announces that annual report, which recorded the proceedings of the society during excavations near Willendorf on the Danube by the during the past year. Reference was made to the failure prehistoric section of the Austrian Natural History of the renewed attempt made by the managers of the Museum, a chalk figurine, i centimetres high, represent- London Institution to amalgamate with the society. The ing a female figure, was discovered in a stratum contain- number of the society's members is now 3490. ing instruments and weapons characteristic of the Stone
The Times announces that in July of next year there age.
will be held in Brussels, in connection with the InterThe maps of the cadastral survey of Egypt have just national Exhibition of 1910, the first International Conbeen used to determine accurately the area of land planted gress of Administrative Sciences, under the direct patronage with cotton and its distribution. Each plot in which cotton of the Belgian Government. The term “ administrative
was marked on the maps (scale 1/2500), so sciences " is defined by the congress committee as meanthat not only the area and position were recorded, but, ing the sum of theoretical knowledge relating to the since the land-tax has been recently re-assessed with the services, the organisation, the machinery, and the action aid of these maps, the distribution of cotton on land of of Governments, and to the most practical methods to be different degrees of fertility was also determined. The employed by them. The honorary secretary to the British total area was 1,466,530 feddans, or 1,522,258 acres.
committee of the congress is Mr. G. Montagu Harris,
Caxton House, Westminster, S.W. The Naples Academy of Sciences (mathematical and physical section) offers a prize of 1000 lire for the best The recent notices issued by the committee of the Interessay containing a systematic exposition of our present national Aëronautical Exhibition at Frankfort show that knowledge of the geometrical configurations of the plane many valuable prizes, in addition to those we have already and of spaces, considered in relation to the theory of sub-mentioned, have been placed at its disposal, including stitutions, with, if possible, some results. The one by the German Emperor ; three prizes are also offered memoirs are to be sent in anonymously not later than for the best kinematographic films of natural Aight. А June 30, 1910.
series of scientific lectures will be delivered, the first being
on July 12, by Major v. Parseval, who will describe his As the result of a biological survey of the Belgian coast air-ship and its potentialities; many other well-known men undertaken by the Royal Museum of Natural History of of science have also fixed the dates of their lectures. The Belgium, Mr. G. Gilson, the director of that establishphysics of the upper air will be discussed by Profs. ment, has been enabled to describe a new and interesting Assmann, Hergesell, Süring, and others. A list of the parasite which in autumn frequents the nursing-chamber lectures and prizes already arranged is published in the of the females of the schizopod crustacean Gastrosaccus first number of the exhibition journal Ila, this title being spinifer. Seeing that the schizopod occurs
in great a contraction of Internationale Luftschiffahrt Ausstellung. swarms at some distance from the shore, it is a matter
for surprise that the discovery of the infesting parasite We are indebted to the author, Dr. K. J. Bush, for a
should have been so long delayed, especially as the latter copy of notes on the molluscan family Pyramidellidæ, pub
is of relatively large size. The parasite is itself a cruslished in the June number of the American Journal of
tacean, referable to the group of epicarids, a section of Science. These notes may be regarded as in some degree
isopods which have become degraded in accordance with supplemental to the article on the same group contributed
the requirements of a parasitic existence. Although by Mr. P. Bartsch to vol. xxxiv. of the Proceedings of the
nearly related to Dajus, Mr. Gilson is of opinion that the Boston Society of Natural History.
new species should represent a genus by itself, and accordThe crinoids the family Comasteridæ undergo re
Prodajus ostendensis. The vision at the hands of Mr. A. H. Clark in No. 1685 of paper, of which we have received a separate copy, is pubthe Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, no fewer
lished in vol. xliii., pp. 19-92, of the Bulletin scientifique than five new genera, of which three are based on
de la France et de la Belgique. species, being named and described in the course of the
A cory of the Milroy lectures on disinfection and dispaper. The communication relates, to a great extent, to infectants, delivered by Prof. R. Tanner Hewlett, and rematerial collected by the Albatross.
printed from the Lancet, has been received. In these three POLYCHÆTOUS annelids from Monterey Bay and San
lectures Prof. Hewlett decided not to deal with the details Diego, California, are discussed by Dr. J. P. Moore in of the various methods of practical disinfection, for these the June issue of the Proceedings of the Academy of
are to be found sufficiently described in every text-book of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the collections on which hygiene ; he has rather set himself to discuss the scientific the paper is mainly based having been obtained from San principles embraced in the practice of disinfection. He Diego in 1902 and 1903, and from Monterey Bay in 1903
first refers to the natural processes which reduce or destroy and 1904. The total number of species mentioned is sixty- specific micro-organisms, such as dilution (by air, water, four, of which twenty-one are believed to be new to science. &c.), sunlight, desiccation, filtration (as in soil); he then Many other forms doubtless remain to be described, as at
turns to the defensive mechanisms with which nature has both localities collecting was almost entirely restricted to endowed the human body ; and after making a brief referinter-tidal limits, although a few hauls were made with
ence to the application of internal disinfectants, he passes the dredge.
a consideration of the disinfection of the infectious
material outside the body. References are made to school DARWINISM looms large in the June number of Neue
disinfection, the requirements of an ideal disinfectant, the Weltanschauung, in which the opening article is devoted to a biography of Dr. August Weismann, accompanied by
nature of the processes of disinfection, and the standardisa
tion of disinfectants on the basis of their germicidal values. an excellent portrait of that distinguished biologist and
During the past few years much controversy has arisen evolutionist. There is also a notice of an interesting
upon the value of various methods of gauging the relative Darwin exhibition recently opened Carlsruhe, and
germicidal powers of disinfectants, and although advance arranged by Prof. Walther May. The exhibits are divided
has been made, we are still some distance from the goal into three sections, one historical and biographical, the
of a satisfactory scientific method ; it is important that second theoretical, and the third bibliographical. In the
this matter should be placed upon a sound basis, for, as first are included a series of pictures illustrative of the life
Prof. Hewlett points out, the use of a disinfectant of Darwin and of the influence of the environment on the
engenders a sense of security which, in the case of an organism, while the second is devoted to pictures and
inefficient one, is unreal, and may lead to disastrous results. specimens illustrative of Darwin's observations and teach
The market is flooded with inefficient disinfectants, and ing:
there is at present no legal restraint upon their sale. The fresh-water crustaceans of Algeria and Tunis form
We have been favoured with the report of the director the subject of the first paper in the June number of the
of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, covering the reJournal of the Royal Microscopical Society, this communication being based on the collections made by the author, Mr.
ports of the various subordinate officers connected with the Robert Gurney, in February and March, 1906. Although
gardens. Dr. Willis refers very hopefully to the introduc
tion of American machinery for tilling the ground, owing the Algerian fresh-water crustaceans have been better
to the success attending the trial at the experiment station worked out than those of any other part of Africa, the
in the north of the island. The growth there of Ceara author finds that even here our knowledge is far from
rubber has been excellent, and in consequence nurseries of complete, while still more remains to be done in Tunis,
Manihot dicholoina have been formed. The Government especially in the Tell, or coast-district. A very large
chemist, Mr. M. K. Bamber, gives some particulars of number of species were collected, of which several are described by the author as new, the ostracods being
analyses of young and old cacao leaves. In the young omitted and reserved for a future communication. Perhaps
leaves potash and phosphoric acid accumulate to the extent one of the most interesting of the forms discovered during
of 35 per cent. and 10 per cent. respectively, but very the visit is the malacostracan Cirolana foutis, described
small quantities are present in old leaves, which contain by the author in the Zool. Anzeiger for 1908 on the evidence
a large amount of silica combined with lime and magnesia. of three examples found under stones at the mouth of a MR. N. X. WoRONICHIN, who has been studying the disspring near Biskra,
tribution of the alge in the Black Sea, communicates a
preliminary account to the botanical section (No. 7) of charts, and particulars of average and extreme values ; it Travaux de la Société impériale des Naturalistes de St. also deals with special subjects, e.g. electrical phenomena Pétersbourg (vol. xxxvii., part iii.). Three vertical zones and the investigation of the upper air, and contains many of distribution are distinguished. The littoral zone is useful illustrations. The work will be acceptable to many narrow, as there is no appreciable ebb and flow; Ralfsia who may wish to obtain accurate general weather knowverrucosa, Corallina virgata, Rivularia polyotis, are the ledge without reference to more pretentious instructions and chief forms in certain bays, and in others species of Ulva
text-books. and Enteromorpha are the most general. The second zone
The Electrical Review for June 18 contains a list of the comprises depths from to eight fathoms, where
electric tramways, railways, and power companies of the Cystoseira barbata is everywhere the dominant species.
United Kingdom. We note that the following towns head A third zone ranges from ten to thirty fathoms; Polysi
the list of those having electric tramways :- Manchester phonia elongata is the chief formation down to twenty
105, Glasgow 95, London 86, Liverpool 59, Bradford 55, five fathoms, then Zanardinia collaris is dominant, and
and Leeds 54 miles of track. The leading electric railways lower Antithamnion plumula.
are :--the Liverpool and Southport with 35, the Newcastle A series of short papers by Dr. J. N. Rose relating
and Tyneside with 30, the Metropolitan with 26, and the to xerophytic plants of the unrelated but morphologically Metropolitan District with 24 miles of double track. The similar families of the Crassulace and Cactacea is cold | greatest power companies are :—the Newcastle-on-Tyne lected in vol. xii., part ix., of Contributions from the
with station capacity of 47,000 kilowatts, and the l'nited States National Herbarium. A Mexican plant,
Durham Collieries with 11,000 kilowatts. One of the formerly described from barren specimens as an Echeveria, points which a study of the list brings out is the great is made the type of a new genus, Thompsonella. Another popularity of electric traction in the northern towns plant from Vera Cruz restores the species Echeveria carni- compared with the indifference in the south. color. Three new species of the same genus are recorded
By means of quotations from the “ Atomistic" of 1862 from Guatemala. The re-discovery of the Cuban species and the “Weltleben" of 1881 of Robert Grassmann, Dr. of tree cactus, Cereus nudiflorus, is interesting; other new
F. Kuntze shows in the Physikalische Zeitschrift for species are arboreal Pereskia, a remarkably spiny | June 15 that more than forty years ago the brothers Echinocereus, and a Nopalea. Dr. Rose also describes
Hermann and Robert Grassmann had worked out the a leguminous tree resembling a Cercidium, but sufficiently details of an electronic theory to which the electronic distinct to be placed in a new genus, Conzattia. The
theories of the present day bear some resemblance. Accordphotographs illustrating the habit of these plants are
ing to the Grassmann theory, the smallest æther particle admirable.
consists of a pair of entities to which symbols + E and The scenery of the Greater Antilles forms the subject - E are assigned. The pairs repel each other according to of an interesting paper read by Sir H. H. Johnston at the the inverse fourth-power law. When glass is rubbed with Royal Geographical Society, and published in the June silk the + E is attracted to the glass, the – E to the silk, number of the Geographical Journal. The subject provides and the two bodies become electrified. Light is due to ample scope for the author's well-known powers of the oscillations of the pairs as pairs, electricity to the observation and description. Reference is made to the oscillation of the constituents of each pair. Heat is the striking character of the royal palins, Oreodoxa regia, in oscillation of matter and the æther pair together. Matter Cuba, an avenue of which “ looks like a column of white in the same way consists of pairs of elements, and chemical marble pillars crowned with a gerbe of glossy green
combination of two substances is the attraction of the fronds." The palmetto, Sabal palmetto, and two other positive matter element by the negative part of the æther palms with fan-shaped leaves, Thrinax and Coccothrinax, pair, and the negative matter element by the positive part are prominent in the landscape of the plains and foot of the æther pair. The positive and negative parts of a hills. Tall cacti contribute largely to the scenery of eastern pair are supposed to keep apart owing to the motion of Cuba, especially on sandy fats. In the island of Haiti each round the other, as in a binary star. the agaves aroused the author's admiration. With regard An interesting article on the mechanical testing of cast to Jamaica, the author presents a sketch of the vegetation
iron appears in the Bulletin de la Société d'Encouragement in January; he also offers a word of advice in the matter pour l'Industrie nationale for May. The author, M. Ch. of retaining such natural beauty spots as Fern Gully.
Frémont, deals first with the historical aspect of his subWe have received revised editions of two useful little ject, giving drawings of early apparatus, and then proceeds manuals :-(1) Observing and Forecasting the Weather,"
to describe special machines of his own with which he has by Mr. D. W. Horner; and (2) " Some Facts about the
made many tests on small specimens for the determination Weather,” by Mr. W. Marriott. The first is intended for
of the coefficient of elasticity, the elastic limit, and the those who may wish to obtain some knowledge of the breaking strength. The results and plotted diagrams are weather without the use of instruments. For such persons
given, and from these the author arrives at the followthe work contains much useful information ; the chapters ing conclusions :—the testing under static bending of caston clouds and optical phenomena, from which successful
iron samples of greatly differing strengths shows that the forecasts may often be wn, are especially interesting,
coefficient of elasticity varies considerably, from simple to as are also the sections on old weather proverbs and the
triple proportion; the capacity for elastic bending of cast popular fallacy of the moon's influence. The work is
iron is inversely proportional to its strength; the elastic accompanied by some good typical illustrations. The
limit under static bending varies very greatly, being from second pamphlet gives some of the results which have
0.45 to 0.8o of the breaking strength. been obtained from present-day systematic meteorological Most of the engineering and shipbuilding periodicals for observations in the British Isles," and is of special interest the week ending June 26 contain reference to the new rules to those possessing instruments for an ordinary climato- which are on the point of being issued by Lloyd's Register logical station. It contains useful information referring of British and Foreign Shipping. The revised rules are to each of the meteorological elements, the use of synoptic | framed to include vessels up to about 680 feet in length,