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room could be found for it in a time-table, three-quarters E. B. Titchener, in 3 vols., vol. ii., illustrated. The of which is confined for the great mass of boy students University Tutorial Press, Ltd.—Hygiene for Training in the historic schools of England (whatever their tastes Colleges, Dr. R. A. Lyster. T. Fisher Unwin.-Psycho- and capabilities) to the exclusive study of the grammar, therapy, Dr. H. Münsterberg. Williams and Norgate.- literature, and composition in the languages of ancient Science, Matter and Immortality, R. C. Macfie.

Greece and Rome. And the particular methods pursued in this confined curriculum have rendered the course more

straitened still. The acquisition of the literatures of the THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT WINNIPEG. two dead languages and of the great thoughts buried with SECTION L.

them has given place to a meticulous study of the subtle

ties of scholarship, and students are taught to EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE.

in the abnormalities of the words and phrases in which OPENING ADDRESS BY THE Rev. H. B. GRAY, D.D., those literatures were enshrined, so that in the mind of

WARDEN OF BRADFIELD COLLEGE, BERKSHIRE, PRESIDENT the classical scholar the form has become, or at any rate OF THE SECTION.

became until quite lately, more important than the subThe Educational Factors of Imperialism.

Nor is this all. Those who cannot find any stomach for AMONG all civilised races and in all epochs of the such drenching doses of mediæval learning are actually world's history there has existed an inveterate belief that driven away prematurely as lost souls from those moss. the particular age in which men live is fundamentally grown seats of learning, which we acclaim as the great distinct from those that have preceded it.

public schools of England; and, with moral characters Even in the most stagnant periods the illusion has pre- only half-fledged, have either been condemned to ihe limbo vailed that the present day is a period of Aux and move- of private tuition or sent as submerged tenths" to find, ment more or less organic, and as such either to be or lose, their fortunes in the great dependencies and welcomed or to be deplored.

dominions of the Empire like that in which I am speaking Notoriously difficult, however, as it is to gauge the to-day. There has been no serious attempt made until temper of an age while we live in its midst, yet the the twentieth century by the leaders of our best-known phenomena in England at the beginning of the twentieth places of secondary education to discover the bents and century seem so unmistakably marked that even a super- aptitudes of the boys committed to their charge and to ficial thinker can hardly fail to recognise the spheres in give them any educational chance if they have not which the symptoms of change and unrest are clearly possessed that particular kind of perception which could operating. They are surely in these two-the sphere of find its way through the subtleties of a Euripides or a education and the sphere of Imperial sentiment.

Horace. Boys have been entirely denied the opportunity It may not appear inapposite, therefore, if, meeting as of showing their mental powers in any other sphere of we do in this city of phenomenal growth and infinite learning. How many unsung Hampdens or mute, inenterprise, our thoughts were to be directed in my in- glorious Miltons of mechanical genius have been lost to augural address on the science of education towards dis- the world by the non-elastic systems prevailing (even now) covering what may be either called the Imperial factors in our best-known cducational institutions, is a tremend. in education, or conversely, and perhaps more properly, ous responsibility for conscientious trainers of the young the educational factors in Imperialism.

to contemplate and atone for. It may be perhaps safely said in this great Dominion In how many, or rather how few, places of learning in what might possibly be disputed in the academic groves England, at the present time, can the establishment of of our ancient English universities, that there was scientifically equipped carpentering and engineering shops width of educational outlook within our own little island be found in which a young mind which finds it impossible until the last thirty years of the nineteenth century.

to digest the crude morsels of Latin and Greek grammar The only strongholds of learning which presumed to can find resource and development? In how few schools give the lead to English secondary education were to be lias the connection between mind and hand and eve been found on the banks of the Isis and the Cam. In these scientifically trained ? Such establishments, even in the antique, I hesitate to say antiquated, fastnesses, the first decade of the twentieth century, can be counted on

grand old fortifying classical curriculum " was, until the fingers of one hand. lately, regarded as the main, if not the only, highroad to And yet, in spite of it all, the surprising fact remains educational salvation. They preserved, indeed they pre- -a fact which spcaks volumes for the innate vigour and serve to this day, almost the same entrance bars against originality of the English race—that, out of the stream admission to their thresholds as existed in pre-Reforma- of young men which flows out annually from our public tion days. And, conformably with the pursuit of these schools and colleges, so many accommodate themselves ideal studies, the vast mass of their emoluments were, as happily as they do to the startlingly new conditions and still are, appropriated to the pursuit of the ancient which confront them when they pass over the seas and models of education.

swell the tide of population in great centres of industry The result of this monopoly on the lower rungs of the and enterprise such as that in which we stand to-dav. educational ladder has been obvious, and, to a scientific Their educational vision, however, has had such a narrow thinker, lamentable. The curricula of the public secondary and limited horizon that no wonder a large proportion schools have been narrowed, or rather have never been are not very adaptable to the practical life of the prairie widened coincidently with the development of new spheres and the forest, or even of the counting-house and the of knowledge and enterprise. The students in those office stool. Ain I, or am I not, correct in hazarding institutions have been dominated from above, for just as the conjecture that many specimens of this really fine

where the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered English breed from the old country come to you here in together," so where the emoluments have been, thither do this Dominion without an elementary knowledge of the the cleverest students concentrate their intellectual forces.

1 It should he noted in the forefront of this address that the expression The ambition of the ablest boys has been inevitably and public schools" is rised throughout in its English (not in its more proper exclusively concentrated on a single line of study, and and American) sense-i.e., as the educational centres of the upper classes


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laws of the world in which they live, full of antiquated in the schools of his country, that the pupil emerges comprejudice and tradition, derived principally from the pletely equipped for the use of persuasive and oratorical straitened area of their island-home experience, so that language wherein to express his thoughts and wherewith not seldom they put their hand to the plough (either to gain his ends. literally metaphorically) and look back, becoming In connection with this, may I add that it was indeed wastrels instead of forceful citizens in this ever-widening a happy augury that, at the eve of the meeting of the Empire? “No English need apply " has been, if I mis- British Association in this great Dominion, there should take not, written as a memorandum inside the breast of have been a gathering of delegates of the Imperial Press more than one leader of industry in this great continent, in the centre of our small island home? Little they and small wonder is it when the cramping character of know of England who only England know.” The phenothe ultra-mediæval training which our young men have menal, or rather abysmal, ignorance of the geography received at some of our historical public secondary schools and of the vastness of the productive power of the British in England is taken into account.

Empire which exists among the upper and middle classes What remedy (you may ask) have I to propose ? My in England would be ludicrous if it were not so deplorable. answer is this: I want to force upon the attention of The loyalty and devotion of the Colonies, right unto the English educationists certain Imperial factors which utmost corners of the earth, admit of no dispute. It is should occupy an indispensable place in the educational observable on every hand and in every national crisis. curricula of the great schools in the Mother Country. The doubt is of the loyalty of the centre of the Empire

I would give a prominent place to the scientific teach- towards its extremities, through the crass ignorance which ing of geography, and particularly to historical geography, exists as to the geographical and political meaning of that with special reference, of course, to the origin, growth, Empire. I would annihilate that ignorance, as aforesaid, and progress of the British Empire. Such a volume as by putting political, historical, and physical geography in the Sketch of a Historical Geography," by Keith the forefront of our educational system ; by lectures from Johnston, should be placed in the hands of every boy, and your able men in Canada, or Australia, and South Africa, be known by him from cover

It can hardly vivified by lantern-slides, and encouraged and endowed by be realised that in many of our great classical schools the Mother Country. I would bring all visible means of to this day not more than one, or at most two, hours a presentment to bear on the education of childhood, boyweek are devoted to this subject, and that it is often hood, and youth in the Motherland. not taught at all beyond the middle classes in a school. Let me touch on one further educational factor of

Again, I would enforce an elementary knowledge of Imperialism. The sentiment of patriotism, unlike that of science on every boy who passes through the stage of charity, is not equally capable of indefinite intension and secondary education.

extension. The peculiar system of education which finds I am aware that many hard things have been said vogue in England in most of our greatest institutions-, about the teaching of science in secondary education. A the institutions from which are drawn the future leaders learned professor, who is the president of another section of the nation-is, as everyone knows, the barrack system, of the association, has passed his opinion that, as taught otherwise called the boarding system. It is not the time in our schools, it has proved of little practical or educa- or place here to enlarge on the obvious advantages of tional value. But because the methods employed have that system, its unique characteristics, its power of mouldbeen halting, insufficient, and unscientific, it by no means ing character and developing enterprise. But it has its follows that it should be left out of the category of school cramping and confining side—it has a tendency to localise subjects. On the contrary, it appears astounding that patriotism, to narrow a young man's mental horizon, and two-thirds of the public-school boys of England should

to ignore whatever lies outside its immediate survey. grow to man's estate without even an elementary know- Hence the abnormal and gladiatorial devotion to games ledge of the laws of the world in which they live.

and comparatively selfish amusements, which absorb, and, Lord Avebury, in his presidential address at the Inter- in my opinion, not seldom paralyse and stifle wider, more national Moral Education meeting held in London last generous,

enlightened-in fine,

Imperial autumn, told his audience an amusing story of how, instincts. However much in the field of sports the inwalking back one beautiful summer night from the House dividual youth may subordinate his own self-regarding of Commons arm-in-arm with a leading luminary on the impulses to the welfare of the tiny community for which Government benches, his companion, who had been at he is exercising his energies, his horizon is not wide Eton and Oxford, gazing at the great luminary in the enough to bid him rise to a sentiment of self-sacrifice and heavens, pensively observed : “ į wonder, my

dear self-abandonment on behalf of a greater and more abstract Lubbock, whether we shall ever know why the moon ideal-love of Fatherland and loyalty to Empire. changes her shape once a week at least?'

But it is a welcome thing to be able to point to a To one who aspires to seek his fortune in the wide larger sentiment lately awakened in this direction. There and half-unexplored continents of Greater Britain the value is no doubt that the patriotic spirit in our schools and of the knowledge of chemistry, geologv. botany, and colleges has, from whatever cause, received great arboriculture

ardly be overestimated. And yet impetus in the last two years, and that the general prinmany present here could bear critical witness to the fact ciples of an intelligent defence of our shores from foreign that a large proportion of young men go out to the aggression have been taught and construed into terms North-West totally unequipped, after their public school of scientific training and co-operative action with a rapidity training, with even the most elementary knowledge of equally surprising and welcome to those who, a few years those departments of science to which I have alluded. ago, looked with something more than apprehension on No wonder, again, “No English need apply.” Every the supineness of the youth of England in all patriotic vouth we export to vou ought educationally to bear this regards. label on his back : Every seed tested before being sent

" The flannelled fool and muddied oaf," out.

though they have not yet received their quietus, have But above and beyond all there should be brought into been less rampant lately in our educational institutions, the foreground a co-ordinated study of English language and something like an Imperial instinct, born of increasand English literature. · Nothing impressed me

ing knowledge both of the glory and dangers of our vast my visit to the United States in 1903 one of the Empire, has, at least in the more cultured classes, taken Mosely Commission than to observe how greatly the the place of apathy, disregard, and ignorance. In hours cultivated classes in the Federation outstripped formerly lavished to an abnormal extent on trivial amuseisland-bred people in the facility and power with which ments, and even in hours hitherto devoted to they manipulated the English tongue. Awkwardness, academically intellectual training, we find young men in poverty_of expression, and stammering utterance mark our schools and colleges now with arms in their hands, many Englishmen of high academic distinction. But the shooting, signalling, scouting, and studying scientifically American who, on account of the incessant tide of the art of defensive warfare. This, at least, is “a beam immigration, has to assimilate the congeries of all the in darkness, of which we pray that it may grow.nations of the earth in the shortest possible space of Time and vour patience will not allow me to touch on time, has so co-ordinated the study of his ancestral tongue more than the fringe of the great educational problems










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