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THE "STUDENT'S" STANDARD BAROMETER .

By Prof. ANDREW JAMIESON, M.Inst.C.E. SEVENTH EDITION. JUST PUBLISHED. IN Five VOLUMES.

A TEXT-BOOK OF

APPLIED MECHANICS

AND

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

In Large Crown 8vo. Cloth. Pp. i-xviii + 382. Price 6s.

VOL. I.-APPLIED MECHANICS. Applied Mechanics.-The Principle of Work and its Applica. tions; Friction, Power Tests, with Efficiencies of Machines. Velocity and Acceleration.-Motion and Energy.-Energy of Rotation and Centrifugal Force. In Large Crown 8vo. Cloth. Pp. i-xviii + 264. Price 5s.

VOL. II.-STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. Strength of Materials.-Stress, Strain, Elasticity, Factors of Safety, Resilience, Cylinders, Shafts, Beams and Girders, Testing Machines, and Testing of Materials of Construction. In Large Crown 8vo. Cloth. Pp. i-xviii + 232. Price 5s.

VOL. III.-THEORY OF STRUCTURES. Theory of Structures and Graphic Statics, with Applications to Roofs, Cranes, Beams, Girders, and Bridges. In Large Crown 8vo. Cloth. Pp. i.xvi + 274.

VOL. IV.-HYDRAULICS. Hydraulics.-Hydraulic and Refrigerating Machinery, with Pneumatic Tools. In Large Crown 8vo. Cloth. At Press, Ready Immediately.

VOL. V.-THEORY OF MACHINES.

(Registered Design No. 420,297.) Designed to meet the requirements of Students and others who find the need of a Barometer which will give exact readings, and cost but a moderate sum.

Q Used for demonstration purposes in all the principal Science and Technical Colleges, and adopted by the L.C.C. for use in their Classes.

The construction is on that of the well-known "Fortin principle. The level of the cistern mercury is redacible to zero, in exactly the same manner as in the more expensive forms. The diameter of the mercurial column is 25 inch, and affords a bold, well-defined reading. The scales, by means of the double vernier, are capable of being read to 'or inch and '1 milimetre. It is mounted on a well polished, solid oak or mahogany board, with opal glass reflectors for reading off, and screws for vertical adjustment. The metal portions are all well bronzed and lacquered, and the scales are opal glass. A thermometer, graduated on stem F. and C. scales, is fitted to the brass frame.

We confidently recommend this Instrument for use as a "Standard" in Colleges and Schools, private Observa. tories, and by Gas and other Engineers. Price, complete, mounted as illustrated,

£3 7 6. GLAZED CASE (Oak or Mabogany) with lock, to contain above Barometer, 21 2 6

IT NATURE says :- Provides an accurate instru. ment at a moderate cost.'

FULL SIZE STANDARD BAROMETER same design, bore o‘s" diameter, inches and millimetre scales, verniers reading to o'co2 inch and o'i m/m, on polished oak or mahogany board with brackets and opal glass reflectors, £7 10 O Sole Manufacturers and Proprietors of the Regd. Design: PASTORELLI & RAPKIN, Ltd. (ESTAB

46 HATTON GARDEN, LONDON, E.C. ACTUAL MAKERS OF ALL KINDS OF METEOROLOCICAL INSTRUMENTS.

Contractors to H.M. Government.

ILLUSTRATED PRICE LISTS POST FREE. We pay carriage and guarantee safe delivery within

U.K. on all our instruments.

Price 5s.

NOTE,--These volumes include all the Inst C.E. Exams. in Section A:-(1) Applied Mechanics; (2) Strength and Elasticity of Materials; (3, a) Theory of Structures. Section B:- Group II. Hydraulics, and Theory of Machines. LONDON : CHARLES CRIFFIN & CO., Ltd., EXETER ST., STRAND.

PURE FUSED SILICA WARE

A SUBSTITUTE FOR PLATINUM :

ACID AND HEAT PROOF.

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as

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 14, 1909.

cultivated land and to woods or forests. Under the former are gathered the vegetation of waste places

(Ruderalstellen), fields and gardens, lawns and roadSOME BOTANICAL BOOKS.

side trees. The importance of this section is ex(1) Die Pflanzenwelt Deutschlands. By Dr. P. tremely great, not only because of its extent, but

Graebner, mit Zoologischen Beiträgen von F. G. because it lies immediately at our doors. Obviously Meyer. Pp. xi + 374. (Leipzig : Quelle und Meyer, the effect of human influence does not stop here, 1909.) Price 7 marks.

but the limit is that of man's most determined struggle (2) Pflanzenbiologie. Schilderungen aus dem Leben tɔ turn nature to his immediate purpose. der Pflansen. By Dr. W. Migula. Pp. viii + 352.

Under each section the author discusses the pre(Leipzig : Quelle und Meyer, 1909.) Price 8 marks. dominant factors, also any well-marked modifica(3) Unsere Zierpflanzen. Eine zwanglose Auswahl tions, and describes the typical plant-formations

biologischer Betrachtungen von Garten und Zimmer- with reference to their adaptations for nutrition pflanzen sowie von Parkgëholzen. By P. F. F. and reproduction. The notes on animal life conSchulz. Pp. viii + 216. (Leipzig : Quelle und tributed by Mr. F. G. Meyer are added Meyer, 1909.) Price 4.40 marks.

postscripta to the sections. The book is a very de(4) Phanerogamen. Blütenpflanzen. By Prof. E. sirable acquisition to the scanty literature on ecology,

Gilg and Dr. R. Muschler. Pp. 172. (Leipzig : and can be recommended both for the philosophic

Quelle und Meyer, 1909.) Price 1.25 marks. argument of principles and causes, and also for the (5) Kryptogamen. By Dr. M. Möbius. Pp. iv+ 164. details. It also suggests the thought that there is a

(Leipzig : Quelle und Meyer, 1908.) Price 1.25 good opportunity for preparing a book on similar marks.

lines dealing with vegetation in the British Isles. (6) Zimmer- und Balkonpflanzen. By P. Dannenberg. (2) The scope of Dr. Migula's “ Plant Biology” is

Pp. vi + 160. (Leipzig : Quelle und Meyer, 1908.) considerably wider than the preceding. It treats of Price 1.25 marks.

bionomics as exemplified by reproduction and dis(7) Clay's Successful Gardening. Fourth Edition. semination of plants, protective modifications and

Pp. 275. (London: Clay and Son, Stratford, n.d.) adaptations to external conditions; this leads to plant Price gd. net.

associations, and biology of nutrition precedes the (8) Botany for Matriculation. By Dr. F. Cavers. description of federations between different plants, or

Pp. viii + 568. (Cambridge: University Tutorial plants and animals. It is, of course, impossible to Press, Ltd., 1909.) Price 5s. 6d.

deal comprehensively with these various subjects, and (9) Beginners' Botany. By Prof. L. H. Bailey. Pp. the author has merely endeavoured to present interest

ix+208. (New York: The Macmillan Company; | ing sketches of plant-life. There is no striking originLondon: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price ality in the early sections, but the author imparts

his information in a clear and effective manner, (10) Elementary Practical Botany. By W. E. Clarke. notably in the introduction dealing with development,

Pp. xii+311. (London : The Normal Press, Ltd., or, to put it more popularly, Darwinism. The n.d.) Price 35. 6d. net.

chapters on adaptations of plants to climate and soil (1) DR.

R. GRAEBNER deals with the plant-world of are in some respects the most attractive, as the author

Germany from an ecological standpoint, and has elaborated these themes more fully. Plant comthereby provides one of the first works on ecology munities are described under the divisions of forest, confined to the limits of a single country. The sub- grass vegetation, heath and moor. Reference should ject of ecology is still in its infancy, and it is probable also be made to the succinct accounts of root tubercles that it may gain stability when it is considered from in the leguminous family, and the relationship between a national rather than an international outlook. The plants and ants. difficulty in reducing ecological facts to a system, as (3) The horticulturist who is a deep thinker must the author points out, arises from the complexity of often be puzzled to understand the idiosyncrasies of factors which influence the being of a plant. Dr. many plants that come under his care, even of stock Warming bases his classification on soil conditions, plants in cultivation. For instance, how many can but Dr. Graebner selects a more arbitrary standard, offer an opinion on variegation in a begonia-leaf and as his main divisions depend primarily upon the say how far it can be modified, or can explain why a favourable or unfavourable characters of natural con- pelargonium thrown on the dust-heap will retain its ditions, and, secondarily, on the modifications pro- vitality for a long time? Further, there are the maniduced by special agencies, such as seasons or man. fold variations in stem and leaf, the devices for polThe arrangement works out better than might be lination, and many other biological features which are expected. The first section is that of tropophilous not readily explicable even by those who have received formations found on sunny hills, on rocks and inland technical training. To those who are anxious to gain dunes. The second comprises formations on cultivated an insight into these problems the book by Mr. land. The succeeding sections refer to meadows, P. F. F. Schulz will certainly appeal. He has wisely woods, river banks, plankton and aquatic vegetation. limited his notes to about fifty kinds. Plants in Finally, the author relegates heath and halophytic general cultivation are represented by begonias, the formations to separate categories. The two most dahlia, perennial lupines, Aspidistra, sunflowers, and prominent sections are those devoted to formations on

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various cacti are included because of their peculiar this is no disadvantage, as a teacher can select the character, while the tulip tree and tree of heaven recall portions immediately necessary. At the same time, the plantations which beautify so many German many of the chemical and physical paragraphs might towns.

have been omitted, also the final chapter on the uses (4, 5, 6) The next three volumes of which the titles of plants. Apart from these criticisms, - the book appear above are units in a series of neat brochures deserves the highest commendation, chiefly because the dealing with all branches of knowledge. The pub-author conveys his information in a precise and welllishers are entitled to great credit for bringing out ordered manner. The numerous experiments scatsuch a series at the modest price of one mark per tered through the text are admirably chosen to illusvolume, as they have enlisted competent authors to trate the points under discussion or observation, and deal with the various subjects. It may, however, be for the most part require only simple apparatus. suggested that some of the volumes deal with sub- (9) There is always a fund of originality in any jects of too extensive a nature to be satisfactorily book written by Prof. L. H. Bailey, and teachers compressed within the limits permitted. The account will meet with not a few fresh ideas in his latest of phanerogams, a systematic compendium, prepared production. The opening is original, although Darby Drs. E. Gilg and R. Muschler, provides a case in winian, that no two plants or parts are alike, that point. About 120 families are dealt with in as many there is a struggle for life, and that the fittest survive; pages, with the result that there is only a bare refer- then follow chapters on plant societies and the plant ence to the botanical characters of each family, while body, after which ensues the ordinary gamut of elementhe space is occupied by a mere enumeration of the tary morphology, but treated in a fresh and inviting more important plants and their properties. The same fashion. Another essential feature, also characteristic criticism applies to the volume cryptogams, of the author's style, is the concise method of indicatin which Dr. Möbius has made good ing facts or points without superfluous details; and of the space at his disposal, but it is evident finally it will be observed that the author introduces that each of the four groups of algæ, fungi, practical examples, so far as possible, as in the excel.

ferns might with advantage have lent chapter on bud propagation. The illustrations been taken separately. The cultivation of plants in are bold, practical, and artistic. The studies in cryptoliving rooms and on balconies is a subject better suited gams, forming almost an appendix, do not make a to these small volumes, on which Mr. P. Dannenberg very desirable addition, as they are perforce scrappy provides an interesting and useful book, essentially and introduce facts altogether beyond the scope of a German as regards the minuteness of detail. Advice beginner. is given on methods of arrangement, ornamental pots, (10) The elementary practical book prepared by Mr. watering, pruning, transplanting, and propagation; Clarke begins with external morphology and passes also a useful list is supplied of plants suitable for on to physiology, with the inclusion of chapters on growing at different seasons and under different con- soil, garden vegetation, distribution and cell structure. ditions. Precise, accurate, and well arranged, the The experiments are collated in a separate part, and book admirably fulfils its purpose.

some account is given of selected flowering plants. (7) A different type of floricultural book is that issued Appendices are devoted to hints on the microscope and by Messrs. Clay and Son, primarily intended to adver- certain principles of chemistry and physics. It is tise their special manures. The list of contributors apparent that the author has attempted to compress includes Messrs. J. Hudson, J. Douglas, J. Udale, too much material into the book, more especially as H. J. Wright, and E. H. Jenkins, who contribute he does not display that happy faculty of expression articles on fruit-culture, carnations, begonias, sweet- which combines conciseness with brevity; further, the peas, daffodils, and lilies. Sections are devoted to information is somewhat ill-assorted, and there is a vegetable cultivation, indoor gardening, rock gardens, tendency to introduce ideas which are only partially and garden pests. The volume contains much prac- relevant to the subject under discussion. There are tical information for the cultivator, and more par- also some inaccuracies, as in the use or explanation .ticularly for the grower of produce.

of various terms, such as pollarding, block, sucker, (8) It is not very long since Dr. Cavers produced a ivy root-tendrils and monosexual. very successful elementary botanical text-book under the title of “ Plant Biology,” in which he indicated the methods adopted with his classes, and outlined a large

CLAYWORKING IN THE UNITED STATES. number of experiments intended to instruct the student History of the Clayworking Industry in the L’nited by his own personal observation and experiment. The States. By Dr. H. Ries and H. Leighton. Pp. success of this book and of “Life-histories of Common ix+ 270. (New York: John Wiley and Sons; Plants” has presumably led to the compilation of the London : Chapman and all, Ltd., 1909.) Price volume now under notice, which in many respects nos. 6d. net. resembles the carlier books. Physiology is made the Sroundwork of preliminary study and explanatory of FEW realise the important role played by clay in the

industries. It certainly ranks not lower than morphology; classification is dealt with in the descrip- fourth in the value of its production in the mineral tions of selected families, and a chapter is devoted to industries of the world, and it is only exceeded by ecology. The range of the book is very much wider iron and coal, and possibly copper. Very few industhan is necessary for a matriculation course, although tries, too, are not dependent in some way upon clay

products. Every advance in the quality of these proivets has been followed by advances in other indusries. The raising of the refractory qualities of ire-bricks, for example, gives the metallurgist greater vower and scope, and the success of the electro:hemical industries is to a large extent dependent pon the capability of the potter.

Considering the importance of the subject, the list of books with trustworthy information is surprisingly small. We therefore turn with pleasure to the pre

A JOURNEY ACROSS. VENEZUELA AND

COLOMBIA.
The Journal of an Expedition across Venezuela and

Colombia, 1906–7. An Exploration of the Route
of Bolivar's Celebrated March of 1819, and of the
Battlefields of Boyaca and Carabobo. By Dr.
Hiram Bingham. Pp. viii + 287. (New Haven,
Conn.: Yale Publishing Association; London : T.
Fisher Unwin, 1909.) Price ios. net.

sent work, which is a history of the various branches | THE expulsion of Spanish power from

the present

con

of the clayworking industry in the United States, from the building of the brick houses by the early

in the year 1819 conducted an army from near Caracas :olonists up to the close of 1907. Consequently, there

to Bogotá, across country that had been deemed to s no more than a passing reference to the very

be impassable. All the saddle and pack animals, and curious pottery fashioned by the aboriginal Indians.

many of the soldiers, succumbed to the hardships of The book is compiled from statistics collected in the

the march, a distance of about 700 miles, traversed main by the United States Census Bureau and the

in about seven weeks. Spanish-American historians C'nited States Geological Survey. The first portion

have compared this feat with the marches of Hannibal of the history is a general résumé of the various

and Napoleon. Dr. Bingham, lecturer on Latinstages in the development of the industry through

American history at Yale, wanted to form a proper

estimate of the actual obstacles that were overcome the manufacture of common bricks, glazed bricks, by the army of liberators, the backbone of which was erracotta, tiles, and pottery. In the second portion of the work, these stages are discussed State by campaign of Waterloo. He therefore undertook the

the foreign legion of British veterans from the State.

spirited and difficult task of following up the route The author can seldom be charged with diminishing of Bolivar through regions not easily visited and the value of his facts by entangling them in the

scantily known. meshes of hypothesis. Statistics are given showing

There is a regular overland route from Caracas to the yearly value of the products made in the United Bogotá which leads over the high plateau between States, and also imported. Using the word

the Central and the Eastern Cordilleras. The author sumption " with its broadest connotation, it is pos- and his companion, Dr. Hamilton Rice, however, sible to calculate from the authors' tables the approx

went, like Bolivar, broadly speaking, parallel with imate proportion of the total yearly consumption of this road, along the foothills of the Eastern Sierras, ** pottery which is actually manufactured in the where they join the vast Llanos, at an average altitude States. We thus obtain 57 per cent. for 1870, and 68 of 600 feet to 700 feet above sea-level. The greater part per cent. for 1907. The influence of the ceramic of this route has been scantily described by but few schools is said to be a

strong factor"

(pp. 6–7) in the travellers, and some districts were known locally only. evolution of the industry. The first of these was The travellers left Caracas at the beginning of started in Ohio in 1894, under the capable hands of January, 1906, and crossed the great Llanos with Prof. E. Orton; the fifth, in Iowa, in 1907. Quoting mules, and an ox-cart for the baggage. In time the from Mr. J. Moses' “ One Hundred Years of Ameri-cart had to be discarded. There were many rivers to an Commerce (p. 53), the authors state that it was

cross, tropical forests, and the Llanos. These, never not, indeed, until the first real protection by the tariff pleasant to traverse, were rendered more than difficult ever accorded the potters was enacted, as

by the rains which set in about the middle of March, measure, that the American maker found himself and continued with increasing force.

The stiffest able to enter the field against the English potter.

part of the journey began with the ascent to the The influence of imported workmen, on whom there plateau, to gain which the Paramo, a pass of 13,000 is no tariff, is not indicated, although we find some feet elevation, had to be negotiated. curious evidence pointing in that direction from Messrs.

For reasons only known to themselves, the travellers Ries and Leighton's tables. In 1897, 41 per cent. of did not carry a tent. Consequently the diary is full the total china clay consumed in the States was mined of the troubles of getting accommodation in the there, and in 1907, 68 per cent. The remainder was wretched villages or occasional so-called towns, in imported. This might be attributed to the dearth of

rest houses kept by suspicious Indians or disobliging china clay, but the Americans have splendid clays, white men, often without sufficient food. The better, indeed, than our own. The greater prob- Western Venezolanos (why are they persistently called ability is that the “ secret” recipes of the imported Venezuelans in the book?), white, mixed, and brown workmen are compounded with raw materials from alike, are apparently not a very prepossessing people, Cornwall, &c., and a mysterious virtue is supposed to and local officials were, of course,

worse. The reside in a recipe for an "English" body or glaze. Colombians seemed to be more amenable, as being The workmen have not always the courage and skill less beyond the reach of civilisation. to adapt imported recipes to local materials. The The whole journey took 115 days, more than twice recipe is thus master of the situation.

the time required by Bolivar's army. The book is

J. W. MELLOR. adorned with numerous photographs of characteristic

a

war

scenery and scenes, e.g. Yaruro Indians between the which deals with the causes of infant mortality. Mos: Apure and Araura rivers. Although the travellers do diseases of childhood are preventable, and yet 20 per not profess to be naturalists, they mention a good cent. of children die before their fifth birthday. 10many birds and beasts which they came across. There fancy must always remain a critical period of life, but are also some most interesting pictures of labiru it should be relieved of many dangers which nos storks on their nest, and of half-a-dozen Capybaras decimate it. The statistical value of death certificates on the bank of a stream.

will not be great until they become confidential and The reader will get a very good idea of the kind cease to be framed so as to meet the susceptibilities of of country and its inhabitants.

parents. Syphilis is scarcely mentioned in death cet.

tificates, although it is recognised as a potent cause of A STUDY OF CHILD-LIFE.

premature birth and death in early childhood. Children in Health and Disease. A Study of Child

The value of the volume is enhanced by the indes, life. By Dr. David Forsyth. Pp. xix + 362.

which is well arranged and adequate. (London : John Murray, 1909.) Price ios. 6d. net. THIS HIS volume should appeal to a large number of

OUR BOOK SHELF. readers, medical and lay, and its publication at

Lehrbuch der Pharmakognosie. . By Dr.

By Dr. George the present time is opportune, for it brings a sane

Karsten and Dr. Friedrich Oltmanns. Second and experienced judgment to the assistance of those edition. Pp. vi +358. (Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1909.) who in a public or private capacity are striving to Price 9 marks. solve the problems with which it deals. The vitality In the first edition of this work, published in 1903, of the country depends on the health and training of Prof. Karsten explained his object to be the provision the children, and while the duty of supervision rests of a text-book that should treat pharmacognosy from with the physician, success can only be obtained a botanical point of view, and, considered in this through intelligent cooperation of parents and

light, it must be admitted that his object was success

fully attained. But the second edition has more teachers.

ambitious pretensions; it is intended to preseat a The early chapters deal with the physiology of

“clear survey of pharmacognosy and to introduce the childhood. The food consumption of the infant, rela- young pharmacist to the varied provinces of that tively to body weight, is considerably greater than science.” that of the adult, but only one-fifth of the ingesta is

The arrangement and treatment of the subjectused for purposes of growth, while the rest serves to

matter are similar to those that were adopted in the maintain the temperature of the body. In proportion lines. Each drug is separately described, the descrip

first edition. The classification is on strictly botanical to bulk, the surface area is greater in a small child tion including the botanical and geographical sources. than in a man, hence increased loss of heat and more the morphology, anatomy, and constituents.

In need for heat production. In early life appetite waits almost all instances the lion's share has fallen to the on surface area, and in the recognition of this fact morphology and anatomy, these usually occupying lies the clue to the proper feeding of children. The

some three-fourths of the entire description, but occaamount of food should be determined by the weighing only twenty lines out of six pages are devoted to the

sionally more, as with white hellebore rhizome, where machine rather than the calendar, and it should con

other points. This part of the descriptions is excellent, tain plenty of carbohydrate, the heat-producing in- and doubtless many pharmacognosists will frequentiv gredient in diet.

refer to the very complete, detailed, and well-illusBy the end of the second year a child's mind has

trated accounts of the morphology and anatomy of the acquired, in an elementary form, most of its principal

drugs. faculties, so that its further progress consists in per- the work. The constituents of the drugs, for the

This, however, is all that can be said in favour of fecting them rather than in the acquisition of new young pharmacist a most important branch, are disones. Habit clusters round the lines of least resistinissed in three or four lines, in which sins of omission ance, and education is an attack on natural indolence. and commission are frequent and great. Take, for From the medical point of view school-life stands by instance, gentian root and chamomile flowers, in itself. Opportunities for the transmission of infec

which the bitter principles are entirely forgotten; tious and contagious diseases are greatly increased, opium, ipecacuanha, aconite, hydrastis, colchicum, and

of them most important drugs. and the problem of class-room hygiene offers special in which the proportion of the constituents is difficulties. The evils of the examination system, de- sadly inaccurate; ergot, liquorice, senna, euphorbium. fective ventilation, bad feeding arrangements, and in which they are not brought up to date. Indian insufficient hours of sleep exist in many higher-grade and Turkey opiums are said to be made into balls schools, as they do in elementary schools. The

about the size of the fist, and covered with Rumes hygiene and curriculum of bot require supervision. sticks! Seldom is any sufficient account given of the

fruits, while. Persian opium is usually made irto Medical inspection of schools is now recognised as a diagnostic characters of the genuine drug, of the branch of public health work. It has shown the adulterants, changes on keeping, preservation, preprevalence of ill-health, much of which is preventable. paration for the market, commerce, &c. Such a work The author notes with approval the value of invalid fails to give a “clear survey of pharmacognosy," and and “open-air” schools, and he also discusses the cannot be recommended as a means of introducing difficult question of the training and care of the pharmacognosy." It relegates that science to the

the young pharmacist “to the varied provinces ni mentally deficient.

position of a subordinate department of botany, and Not the least interesting section of the book is that shows once more that the author of a work 01

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