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and they cover all the vessels previously classed by the The June number of the Stonyhurst Magazine contains society excepting the large Cunard steamers Lusitania and an illustrated description of the Milne seismograph used Mauretania. The most important modification in the new in the National Antarctic Expedition in H.M.S. Discovery rules is in the basis for determining the
under Captain R. F. Scott, R.N., in 1904.
The seismonumber" and the “ longitudinal number." The former graph is now a permanent loan to the observatory at number is now to be found by adding the breadth and Stonyhurst from the Antarctic committee of the Royal depth only, and the latter by multiplying the length by Geographical Society. The instrument stands at Stonythe sum of the breadth and depth. It is also of import
solid stone pillar fixed in 12 inches of concrete ; ance to notice that all the sections in the tables conform its position is lat. 53° 50' 40" N. and long. gm. 52.68s. W. to the standards of the Engineering Standards Committee. of Greenwich. A new recording apparatus has been This is a very wise move, and is much to be commended. secured, and there is every reason to hope that useful Another step in the right direction has been taken in the observations will be made at the new station. -adoption of a unit for scantlings of one-fiftieth of an inch instead of one-twentieth as in the old rules. This not only conforms with the decimal system, but, as 0.02 inch
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. is practically half a millimetre, a close connection with
COMET 1909a, BORRELLY-DANIEL.–Further observations the metrical system is secured. As Lloyd's Register covers of comet 190ga have revealed no striking features either in between 70 per cent. and 80 per cent. of the world's
its form or in its behaviour. In No. 4334 of the Astro.
nomische Nachrichten M. Chofardet records the observashipping for insurance purposes, the new rules cannot fail
tions made at the Besançon Observatory, and states that to influence the shipbuilding and steel industries in this
on June 17 and 19 the comet was of magnitude 11.0 or and most foreign countries.
12.0, had a round, diffused head of 1.5' diameter, and a
vague condensation which could be seen occasionally by A note in the Bulletin de l'Institut Pasteur for May 30 oblique vision. (vii., No. 10, p. 453) announces the discovery by Carlos
A New Form OF COMPARISON Prism.—In all spectroChagas, of Rio de Janeiro, of a new human trypanosome scopic work where a comparison prism placed over the slit parasite (T. cruci), conveyed by a bug (Conorrhinus), and is used, the dark band between the compared spectra, procausing an often fatal illness among miners and others duced by the edge of the prism, constitutes an inconvenience in the State of Minas.
which may prove a source of error.
Prof. Louis Bell has employed a specially designed comThe Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital for June pound prism, in which the light from one of the sources (xx., No. 219) contains an interesting historical essay, by
is reflected from the fine edge of a thin layer of silver,
whilst that from the other source is allowed just to miss Dr. Gerster, on the life and times of Gerhardt van
the edge. Thus the line of demarcation is practically Swieten, physician to the Empress Maria Theresa, who
eliminated. The method of preparing such compound was born in Leyden in 1700 and died in 1772 at Schön- prisms is described, and illustrated by diagrams, in No. 4, 'brunn.
vol. xxix., of the Astrophysical Journal (p. 305). A
HALLEY'S COMET.-No. the cartography of the COMPREHENSIVE
of the Astronomische
Nachrichten contains two search-ephemerides for Halley's Philippine Islands is given by Prof. Guido Cora in Bollet
comet. The first is by Dr. Holetschek, who discusses the tino della Soc. Geogr. Ital. as a notice of the recent map
probable date of perihelion and gives three ephemerides, of the islands compiled from original sources by Mr. C. W.
one for May 16.45, 1910, and the others for thirty days Hodgson.
before and after respectively. At the previous apparition,
in 1835, the comet was discovered 102 days before the We have received from the Nottingham Free Public perihelion passage, when its distances from the sun and Library a copy of a simply arranged supplementary science earth were 1.9 and 2-4 astronomical units respectively; the catalogue of the central lending library dealing with books corresponding distance from the sun will occur, according
Dr. Holetschek's data (T=May 16-45, 1910), on in most branches of science published between 1901 and
February 3, 1910. The second ephemeris has been comthe present year.
puted by Herr L. Matkiewitsch from the data given in
the essay which won the Astronomische Gesellschaft prize ; MR. R. B. HENDERSON, assistant master at Rugby
the positions now given vary considerably, at different School, has written an introduction to the study of moths
epochs, from those previously referred to in these columns and butterflies for the Rugby School Natural History (NATURE, No. 2046, January 14, p. 320). Society, entitled “ The Scaly-winged." It will be published
THE POLARISATION OF THE SOLAR CORONA.-In the June immediately by Messrs. Christophers.
number of the Bulletin de la Société astronomique de
France M. Salet discusses at length the photographs We have received vol. vi. of “ Contributions from the
obtained at the 1905 eclipse with a polariscopic camera. Jefferson Physical Laboratory.” It consists of a reprint of These photographs show the coronal radiations to be twelve papers which have appeared in the Proceedings of strongly polarised right down to the moon's edge, thereby the American Academy of Science or in other periodicals | indicating that reflected light is being dealt with ; but the during the past twelve months. Five of these papers have spectroscopic observations indicate that radiations directly
from a light-source are in question. M. Salet suggests already been noticed in these columns.
that the apparent contradiction may be explained by the In the announcement in NATURE of May 27 (p. 375) of theory that the bright radiations observed spectroscopically
are due to metallic vapours rendered Auorescent by the the resignation by Mr. H. H. Clayton of his position at
intense solar radiation. In this condition metallic vapours the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, it was stated give band spectra, and the superposition of these might, if that he had been in charge of the observatory since 1894. | small dispersion were employed, produce the appearance of This statement does not express the position exactly. Mr. a continuous spectrum such as has been observed. In Clayton has served for many years as observer or meteor- support of his theory M. Salet quotes the observation of ologist, and his researches have added to the reputation
Sir Norman Lockyer at the eclipse of 1882, that the coronal
spectrum appeared to be formed of superposed bands, and of the observatory, but the director is Prof. Lawrence
directs attention to the discovery of magnetic fields by Rotch, who founded the observatory in 1885, and provides Prof. Hale, which, with a rotating sun, afford the confor its material support.
ditions necessary for his theory.
THE SOLAR CONSTANT AND THE APPARENT TEMPERATURE Of course, the supply of water per head of population OF THE SUN.-In a note published in No. 7, vol. lxix., of is the important question when dealing with the amount the Monthly Notices (p. 611), Dr. Féry discusses the of water required, and the tables given of the supplies in measurement of the solar constant and of the sun's mean a large number of towns show the variations which exist, temperature. One of the greatest difficulties in these re- and which extend from about sixty gallons as a maximum searches is to evaluate the atmospheric absorption, which to below ten gallons as a minimum, leaving out one special in published researches has varied from 1.5 to 4; it is case with small population which runs up to 124 gallons generally accepted now as having the value 2.4.
per head. The numbers all relate to total supply, which Having designed an instrument for measuring terrestrial includes domestic, trade, and municipal demands.
The high temperatures, MM. Féry and Millochau applied it to statistics given show much greater uniformity of supply in the determination of the solar temperature by Stefan's the different towns than would have been anticipated, and law. More than 750 observations were made at different it is evident from them that waste of water is carefully altitudes, and at the summit of Mont Blanc the zenith looked after in England, and all possible precautions taken transmission was found to be 0.91; with this correction the to avoid it. If the consumption is compared with what temperature at the centre of the sun's disc was found to is common in many of the large towns in the United be 5550° absolute, and the mean temperature 5360° C. States, where the water supply goes up to 200 gallons Before dispatching it to India, this instrument was and more per head, it will be evident that the precautions standardised at the National Physical Laboratory, and, on taken in England have given very satisfactory results, a clear, dry day, gave eight concordant readings, from The opposition to the use of water meters in the United which the temperature at the centre of the disc was found States is probably the reason why leakage and waste conto be 5153o absolute; on this day the zenith transmission tinue on a large scale. This opposition is principally due at Teddington was, therefore, 0.74, or the absorption was to the view that, on sanitary grounds, it is not well to 26 per cent.
restrict the supply of water, but, as Mr. F. P. Stearns. Employing the accepted value of the constant (2.4), the stated in his presidential address to the American Society recent researches give 5920° as the mean temperature of
of Civil Engineers, one has yet demonstrated the the sun; but Dr. Féry thinks this is too high, and, there- sanitary advantages of a leaky faucet or a defective ballfrom, deduces that the accepted value of the solar constant
cock." is too high. The Mont Blanc measures would indicate Table No. 5 is a valuable one. It gives, first, the 1.65 as the value.
population of more than 120 cities, towns, or districts in
England for two or three years, with intervals, sometimes THE NATIONAL CONSUMPTION OF WATER. gives the total supply in each of these water areas during
large and sometimes small, between the years. It then AN N important paper on the increase in the national the years mentioned, dividing it up under the heads of
consumption of water was read by Mr. W. R. B. domestic, trade, and municipal, the daily supply per head Wiseman before the Royal Statistical Society on April 27. of population then following under the same heads. The paper is of considerable interest, and must have Considerable space is devoted to the reasons which have entailed a large amount of time and thought on the part caused an increase in the supply of water per head for of the author. The historical part, which deals with the domestic, trade, and municipal purposes. As regards early history of water supply in England, treats the ques- domestic, it is, of course, well known that the displacetion, not only from the general point of view, but gives ment of old.methods of sewage disposal by the introduce many interesting details of the early methods adopted and tion of the water-carriage system was the first cause of the difficulties met with in many individual towns; in fact, the great increase of the water supply. The increased it is not too much to say that the early beginnings of and increasing use of fixed baths must also largely the water supply of all the principal towns in England are augment the consumption, as the water used for a bath reviewed shortly in the paper. It is obvious that, as the by one person may vary from thirty to one hundred gallons. object of the paper is to deal with the more modern The author gives various other reasons for the increase questions which arise in connection with this subject, the in the domestic supply. As regards municipal supply, author could not devote very much space to historical attention is directed to the increase in consumption due to details. We can, however, judge that on this subject he the public baths, wash-houses, street conveniences, &c. has only touched the fringe of the information he has The author states that he has endeavoured for some time acquired, and it may perhaps not be too much to hope / past to collect data which will give some idea of the that he may return to this part of his subject at a future relative proportion of the water supply needed for date.
particular works or industries, but the results have been The life of Sir Hugh Myddelton and the description of too meagre to justify definite conclusions. He, however, the work carried out by him of bringing the water from deals in a general way with the amount of water used in the springs of Chadwell and Amwell, in Hertfordshire, by a large number of industries, among which are breweries, means of the New River, for the supply of London distilleries, paper works, textile industries, and many well known to most of us, and possibly the author of others, and the information given is of an interesting this paper may have material for the making of a story character. The conclusion is that, on the whole, the rate as interesting and romantic in connection with other of increase of water supply is greater in recent times than towns.
in those more remote. There probably would have been The author says he was tempted” to investigate the no doubt about this conclusion in anyone's mind, but, estimates of the population in the pre-censal period in although this may be the case, it does not detract from order to determine whether the great increases in the the value of the information which has been collected in population in the nineteenth century were abnormal or this paper to prove it. otherwise, as upon the answer to the query one must The moral drawn is that, with the increasing amount be guided in the provision of water supplies for future of water required, there will be an increasing competipopulations. As was to be expected, he found such an tion for the remaining first-class upland reservoir sites, inquiry not of great value. He has, however, put together which will become fewer and fewer as time goes on, and some interesting information as regards the growth of it is therefore desirable that steps should be taken at an many towns, and has dealt with the reasons for the very early date to create some central authority " which should rapid growth of several of them. From a general review, be charged with the duty of water conservancy in its the conclusion arrived at is that “the nineteenth century widest application, and for that purpose should engage in was in no wise abnormal, and that a steady increase in a close and exact study of the water resources of the the already considerable population may be expected country. The author then goes more fully into the throughout the twentieth century.
details which ought to be dealt with by such a body. The author describes at some length the methods adopted This proposal is, of course, not new, although of great for checking the waste of water in early days, and par- importance. It was dealt with by Mr. E. P. Hill in a ticularly the system adopted in Liverpool in 1868 of paper which he read at the Institution of Civil Engineers localising the waste by metering the supply in various on November 27, 1906. In the beginning of that paper districts.
he said, “the water supply of the country is really a
national matter, and it should be considered as a whole, would have it brought home to him in some way or other and a town should not be allowed to appropriate a par- that between 1858 and 1907 there nad been a fall in the ticular area unless it can be shown that in a general annual death-rate due tuberculosis from 2700 per survey of available of supply that
1,000,000 living to 1150 per 1,000,000 living. He would economically, from a water point of view, be allotted also see that, were the fall to continue at the same rate, to it.'
tuberculosis would be an extinct disease early in the 1940 The value of the paper would have been increased if decade. Although this is too favourable a state of things some information had been given as regards what is being to look forward to, as there will always remain a certain done in other countries in connection with systematic substratum of tuberculous patients and foci that it will be investigation of water resources. There is no doubt that almost impossible to reach, tuberculosis should undoubtedly such an investigation is of more value and of greater be an almost negligible quantity in our death-rate by that necessity to the United Kingdom, where the population
time. per acre is large, than to some of those countries which How has this fall been brought about? In the first are at present rather sparsely inhabited, but which, at the place, even before Koch was able to prove the presence same time, spend money on proposals such as have been of the infective agent, the tubercle bacillus, in tuberculous suggested. In the United States this work was under- lesions, it was realised by those who were studying the taken as a national one some years ago, a beginning disease most closely that it could be transmitted from one having been made in 1894-5 by a grant of 12,500 dollars. person to another, and that crowded and badly ventilated This amount was gradually increased, until the grant in rooms were, therefore, fruitful centres of infection. This 1905-6 was 200,000 dollars. Since then there has, we was a very great step forward, the full effect of which, believe, been some variation in the amount voted for this | however, was not selt until Koch gave his wonderful purpose.
demonstration of the presence of the tubercle bacilli. He Considering the large amount of work which the author isolated the infective agent-this tubercle bacillus; its lifemust have gone through to prepare this paper, it may
history was studied, and its relation to the tissues of the seem almost ungracious to suggest that he should add animal body during the course of the development of the anything further to it as regards other countries, but he disease, demonstrated. In the history of the treatment of has shown such a large capacity for putting information any infective disease little progress has been made in together that we hope he may be tempted to even further fighting against it until the causal agent has been demonresearch in connection with this subject.
strated. Once this stage has been reached, however, the MAURICE FITZMAURICE. fight waged against infective disease of all kinds has
become more and more effective. In the case of tubercu
losis, the attack can now be delivered along many parallels. THE WAR AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS.
Every patient is looked upon as a possible centre of infec
tion, and before setting about the cure of the patient THE National Association for the Prevention of Con- those dealing with the case have set themselves the task sumption and other forms of Tuberculosis was well
of attacking the bacillus from every quarter and at every advised to open its exhibition or collection of object-point. It is realised that the first thing to be done is to lessons in the Borough of Stepney. It may safely be secure it, or kill it, if possible, immediately it leaves the said that the Whitechapel Art Gallery never had any patient, especially, of course, in the sputum, as it comes company of more interested sightseers than the thousands from the lungs. who, at this exhibition a few weeks ago, examined and In the case of tuberculosis, isolation, in the ordinary discussed death-rates, ventilation, graduated labour and sense of the term, is out of the question, but although the the apparatus used in performing it in the treatment of patient cannot be segregated from his fellows—and in consumption, apparatus for the treatment of tuberculous many cases it would be both unwise and cruel so to do— diseases, playgrounds, pathological specimens, back-to-, he should be carefully trained to isolate himself, so far back houses, overcrowding, food-stufi and the principles | as the tubercle bacillus is concerned, by taking every preof nutrition, methods of disinfection, and the like.
caution to prevent any undisinfected material from getting Any interested onlooker would have seen at once that the beyond his immediate vicinity. More is necessary, howofficial conferences and set discussions constituted, after ever, than the mere killing of the bacillus as it leaves all, but a small fraction of the educational work that was the human body; some attempt must be made so being carried on. Here was an exhibition of which the build up the strength of the patient that his tissues main object was not to direct the attention of the public may be capable of carrying on war with the bacillus to any patent medicine or “ all curing " nostrum, but how either on fairly level terms
terms in favour of to regulate their daily life, how to avoid disease, and the patient. This can only be done by ensuring good how to get the best food value out of their weekly wages, hygienic conditions-plenty of fresh air, light, good be these great or small. Nevertheless, the promoters of food, work enough with plenty of rest. Given these conthis exhibition, realising what an opportunity they had, ditions, and the tubercle bacillus has a bad time of it; also gathered together a number of medical and municipal remove the conditions, and the bad time falls to the delegates interested in the matter, to discuss the best means patient. It has been stated above that it is often unof preventing and curing tuberculosis.
necessary to segregate consumptive patients; it must be Even those dropping in casually found an enthusiastic remembered, however, that in the late stages of the band of demonstrators, nurses from dispensaries and disease, when the patient is weak and when the various hospitals, attendants from graduated labour homes, from discharges from the body, sputum and other excreta, may sanatoria and similar institutions, all hard at work ex- contain enormous numbers of the infective bacilli, it may plaining to small groups of interested men and women the be advisable, and even necessary, in the patient's own meaning of the exhibits of which they were in charge. interests as well as of those who daily come in contact It was interesting to see the keenness with which both with him, to keep him in hospital, to make his last days, teacher and listener tackled the subject; and that these or even weeks or months, as easy and as pleasant as demonstrators were doing their work well was apparent possible for him. Moreover, under these conditions the from the numerous and intelligent questions that were put destruction of the enormous number of tubercle bacilli at the end of the demonstrations. Even to the sharp, coming from the body is a comparatively easy matter. shrewd Londoner the importance of ventilation, of cleanli- Those interested in the treatment of tuberculosis have ness, of light, of suitable feeding, have been small, but for long been convinced that good feeding and fresh air a few exhibitions and demonstrations such as those seen are factors of prime importance in such treatment. Up to and heard in Whitechapel Art Gallery will soon change a few years ago, however, the results obtained, though all that; and the President of the Local Government | very much better than any obtained under the old methods Board has done nothing better for some time than in of treatment, were in certain respects extremely disappointgiving his countenance and support to what promises to ing. The patients were not properly classified for treatbe a really living movement.
ment, and many died who apparently ought to have lived. What is the object and what are the lessons insisted | Those who went to Whitechapel to learn would find that upon at these conferences? Anyone visiting the exhibition the treatment of consumptives under Dr. Paterson at
Frimley is a very different thing from the treatment carried London County Council, and on the eyesight of 500 on in the early days of sanatoria. Patients are no longer Glasgow school children by Dr. Rowan. Throughout, the stuffed and rested indiscriminately. They are given ditficulty which specially besets such statistical investigawork, rest, and food on a carefully graduated system; tions is present in the fact that all the material is intensely they are taught how to treat themselves--what to do and selected. There is no means of supplementing it by a what to avoid. The sanatorium treatment, however, deals knowledge of the distribution of astigmatism and other with but a small proportion of the cases ; tuberculosis errors of refraction in the community at large. Thus, in must be tackled on a much more extensive scale. Calmette dealing with percentage statistics of the heredity factor in Lille and Philip in Edinburgh, seeing the importance in myopia, the authors say that “the distribution of of bringing the treatment of tuberculosis to the working parents of the normal and the proportion of myopes to classes and even the very poor, have organised what is the normal in the general population (or at any rate in now known as the dispensary system, in which are com- the universe under discussion ') must be found before any bined an intelligence department, an ambulance service, a appreciation of the effect of heredity can be made.” training school, an out-patient and in-patient hospital The first moot point which arises in dealing with the service, and a sanatorium department. In Edinburgh the inheritance of refraction concerns the determination of the result has been a fall in the death-rate beyond that of unit to be used to obtain a quantitative scale. It is now other cities equally or more favourably situated, except in customary to measure the refraction in terms of the rethat they have not been provided with this well-organised fractive power of the correcting lens instead of, as system.
formerly, in terms of its focal distance. When the variaIt is recognised that prevention of tuberculosis is tions of the mean values in the population are small comcertainly more important than its cure, and all interested
pared with the mean value in the individuals under in this question must realise what enormous impetus discussion, it matters little which unit is adopted. This has been given to the whole movement by the energetic is true of corneal refraction (3 per cent.), but untrue of action taken by the President of the Local Government corneal astigmatism (75 per cent.). The difficulty is overBoard. His keen interest in the Milk Bill, in the Wash- come by using, whenever possible, the method of conington Congress on Tuberculosis, and in the Whitechapel tingency, fundamentally, or for purposes of control. Exhibition, his grasp of principles and the wealth of Investigation of the inheritance of corneal astigmatism detail contained in his opening address at that exhibition, leads to the conclusion that it is certainly inherited, as gave evidence of complete conviction and determination to evidenced by minimum limits of 0.3 to the parental and act up to his conviction. All this marks a great advance of 0.4 to the fraternal coefficients, but the material is in the public treatment of the question in this country, neither sufficient nor sufficiently classified to determine Medical men have long suspected that tuberculous milk with any degree of certainty the accurate value of the was a prolific cause of abdominal consumption amongst inheritance coefficients. The authors point out that their little patients. They have known how readily delicate “there is a splendid field for a man who will measure children recovering from measles, whooping cough, in- the corneal astigmatism in a non-selected popuiation." As flammation of the lungs, and similar conditions, have this would be easy and accurate task with the been infected, sometimes from tuberculous patients, at ophthalmometer there ought to be no difficulty in getting other times, however, under conditions where infec- it carried out. Investigation of corneal refraction shows tion from the human subject appeared to be impossible, that it is inherited at the same rate as other physical and they now welcome with enthusiasm
legis- characters in man. In dealing with the inter-relations of lation that will render impossible the spread of
refraction, keenness of vision, and age, the results show tuberculosis by the milk from infected cattle. Medical how much more influence myopia has on visual acuity officers of health, aware of the insanitary conditions under than hypermetropia, and that refraction defects contribute which a large proportion of the population, not only urban, more than half the abnormality of keenness of vision. but rural, live, hail with satisfaction the idea that in They further show that there is not the least doubt of any well-considered action they may take they will now, a sensible relationship of age to each of the several catenot only be commended, but helped. The National gories of eye defect." It is probable that a great deal of Association for the Prevention of Consumption has done hypermetropia, hypermetropic and mixed astigmatism diswell, not only to follow Ireland and America, but to appears, probably owing to growth, between six and ten, improve upon the methods adopted in those two countries. thus swelling the number of emmetropic eyes, but that Nothing but good can be the outcome of this movement, after this age there is not sufficient evidence to say whether and we hope that the seventy thousand visitors to the these categories vary or not. Myopia and myopic astigWhitechapel Art Gallery will be followed by hundreds of matism increase throughout, but this increase does not thousands, who will have the opportunity of seeing this balance the total gain due to rectification by growth ; it or a similar exhibition at the " White City
may be caused by continued action of some environmental its tour through the large and populous centres of England, factor, or by a growth factor. and perhaps even of Scotland.
The general conclusions derived from the slender data of this first study are as follows :--There is no evidence what
eves that overcrowded, poverty-stricken homes, or physiVISION IN RELATION TO HEREDITY cally ill-conditioned or immoral parentages are markedly AND ENVIRONMENT.1
detrimental the children's eyesight. There is no
sufficient evidence that school environment has a deleterious THE Francis Galton Eugenics Laboratory at University | effect on the eyesight of children. Though changes of
, much work in many directions under the supervision of Prof.
vision occur during school years, they are phases of one Karl Pearson. With the assistance of Miss Barrington, a
law of growth, passage from hypermetropia to useful inquiry has been made into the question of the emmetropia and myopia of the eyes of " unstable stocks. inheritance of vision and the relative influence of heredity
There is ample evidence that refraction and keenness of and environment on sight. The paper is a mathematical
vision are inherited characters, and that the degree of investigation of statistics culled from a variety of sources.
correlation between the eyesight of pairs of relatives is Of these, two communications by Dr. Adolf Steiger, of
of a wholly different order to the correlation of eyesight Zürich, on the corneal curvature, and the report on 1400
with home environment. Intelligence as judged by the school children issued by the Edinburgh Charity Organisa- (p. 16). We scarcely think that the data justify so strongly
teacher is correlated with vision in only a moderate manner tion Society, afford the best material. Other contributory
worded an material of less value is taken from reports on the refrac
ex cathedra statement as that made by the tion of London elementary-school children by Dr. A.
authors in conclusion :-" The first thing is good stock, Hugh Thompson and the Education Committee of the
and the second thing is good stock, and the third thing 1 University of London. Francis Galton Laboratory for National Eugenics.
is good stock, and when you have paid attention to these Eugenics Laboratory Memoirs.
three things fit environment will keep vour material in V. A First Study of the Inheritance of Vision and of the Relative Influence of Heredity and Environment on
good condition. No environmental or educational grindSight. By Amy Barrington and Karl Pearson, F.R.S. Pp. 61. (London: stone is of service unless the tool to be ground is of Dulau and Co., 1909.) Price 45.
genuine steel-of tough race and tempered stock."
CHILD EMPLOYMENT AND EV'ENING with advantage occupy the time and immediate attention CONTINUATION SCHOOLS.
of the members of education committees throughout the
country. ANOTHER appendix volume, No. 20, to the report of Of especial interest are the conclusions arrived at and the Royal Commission on
the suggestions which Mr. Jackson makes at the end of Relief of Distress has been published (Cd. 4632), and his report. The following excerpts will serve to show incidentally indicates the directions which educational
the vital importance of early legislation to ensure some effort should take this country in order to ensure the
efficient system of further education for all boys and girls provision in future years of better educated workmen in during their adolescent years, whether they themselves the various industries on which the success of this country desire it or not. depends.
The report is by Mr. Cyril Jackson, chairman of the The evidence as to the difficulty boys find in getting Education Committee of the London County Council, who into permanent work of a satisfactory kind seems overacted for the commission as a special investigator to
whelming. Every inquirer gives the same impression. inquire and report on the main occupations followed by The work of an errand boy or a telegraph messenger boys on leaving public elementary schools in certain typical is bad for the boy, so is the work of a boy in a waretowns; the opportunities of promotion in such occupations house or factory who is employed to fasten labels to or of training for other occupations; and the extent to bottles, to fill packets of tea, or the like. It is not so which such boys subsequently obtain regular employment much a question of a skilled trade not being taught as (skilled or unskilled) as adults. Mr. Jackson was given of work which is deteriorating, absorbing the years of the power to make any feasible suggestions of a remedial boy's life when he most needs educational expansion in the character indicated by the facts, and he limited his in- widest sense. vestigations to a consideration of the prospects of perman- Mere skill of hand or eye is not everything. It is ence and educative value for adult industry of the occupa- character and sense of responsibility which requires to be tions entered upon by the boys with whom he fostered, and “ not only inorals, but grit, stamina, mental concerned.
energy, steadiness, toughness of fibre, endurance, As regards the methods of inquiry adopted, it may be be trained and developed. Work which is monotonous said that Mr. Jackson was able, from the sources of kuis development, and work which is intermittent destroys statistical information he found available, to obtain an perseverance and power of concentration. The waste of idea of the various occupations in which there was an boys' brains, character, and strength is ultimately not apparent excess of boys who could not when adults be
only destructive of the individual, but a serious economic absorbed in the same branch of industry. He afterwards, loss to the community. It is probable that boy labour is by interviews and by the distribution among employers of not really cheap at all, owing to the undeveloped respecial forms to be filled up, obtained some further in- sponsibility and carelessness of the young, but if the unformation as to these occupations; but he met with many skilled men who spring from them have been mentally difficulties, and only a small proportion of the forms were , and physically stunted, the loss to the employers is returned to him. In addition, a form of industrial bio- enormous, for they cannot earn a sufficient wage to live graphy for young men was issued to obtain direct evidence properly, and their output is below that required from an of the length of time boys remain in particular occupa- adult citizen. tions and the age at which they were displaced if they In the large industries there should be a readjustment have been in boys' work which does not lead to permanent of conditions, but probably the initiative must come from employment as adults; but a third only of the forms
an extension of State regulation of boy labour. This can circulated were filled up and returned—“ Lads are always be most easily effected by further raising the age of school suspicious of anything which they think is prying into attendance, or by a system of compulsory continuation their affairs, and they believe there must be something schools. It must be recognised that much boys' work is behind,'" says Mr. Jackson.
wholly uneducative, and deteriorates instead of developing There has been a steady diminution in the number of the man, and that this must be prevented. One of the boys employed under fifteen during the last quarter of a largest industries—the textile-is still partly based on hallcentury. With the recent stimulus given to secondary time child labour. It is probable that the operatives are education, and counting on the zeal of new education really more to blame for this than the employers, many authorities, there is reason to believe the decrease may be of whom are not very satisfied as to the advantages of even more marked in the next census return. There are, child labour. The old contention that the manipulative however, exceptions to this decrease. The census general skill required compelled the employment of children of report of 1901 states, “while owing to the restriction of twelve, because after that age their fingers lose supplechild labour, the total number of boys under fifteen years, ness, is not now heard so frequently. returned as employed, showed a decrease of 12.9 per One thing which appears likely to be of far-reaching cent. on the numbers enumerated in 1891, the number of benefit to the boy is increased education. Thus Mr. messenger boys at the same ages declined by only 5.1 per Kittermaster gives as his remedies :cent. It is, however, satisfactory to note how few are the (1) Boys should be kept at school until the age of trades in which an actual or a proportional increase in fifteen instead of fourteen. the number of boys is shown. As Mr. Jackson says, (2) Exemption below this age should only be granted messenger boys have a very short life as such, and this for bors leaving to learn a skilled trade. form of occupation ceases as soon as the boys begin to (3) There should be school supervision until sixteen, and require higher wages. It is unfortunate, therefore, that replacement in school if not properly employed. it should be just in this class that the decrease in boy Prof. Sadler and the Rev. Spencer Gibb suggest comemployment is least marked.
pulsory half-time schools, or, at any rate, some compulsory The problem presented by the results of Mr. Jackson's school until sixteen or seventeen. Mr. Gibb would like inquiry is very grave in character, and the various state- to see further amendments of the Shop Hours Acts so as ments of it collected in the present volume may be com- to avoid the possibility of excessive hours of labour on mended the careful consideration of those who certain days of the week. He points out, also, that the administer our educational affairs. Similarly, the opinions present Acts need to be more thoroughly enforced. here collated of schoolmasters, of men working in boys' This inquiry seems to show that these reforms are clubs, &c., of trades unionists, of distress committees,
The raising of the age of exemption would and others, deserve earnest study.
strengthen the boy, and he would be kept longer under The analysis of the numerous forms received by Mr. discipline, and would become both steadier in character Jackson proved a long and difficult task, and he is to be and more intelligent. It can hardly be seriously contended congratulated upon the important facts he has been able that the boy of the working man is really more fit for to gather together. The information respecting the life than the public school boy at the age of fourteen who capacity of boys, the wages they are able to earn, and is admittedly unready at that age. the precise conditions regulating boy labour in specially It must not, however, be supposed that the present selected industries, will repay careful deliberation, and may education given in the schools is all that can be desired.