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the additions made to geographical knowledge during the : The first paper read in Section E on Friday, August 27. year by the journeys of Dr. Sven Hedin, Dr. Aurel Stein, also by Prof. Mavor-a summary sketch of the and Lieut. Shackleton, Sir Duncan Johnston devoted the economic geography of Canada. Mr. J. Stanley Gardinei, bulk of his address to the subject of topographical maps, F.R.S., then gave a semi-popular account, illustrated by considering specially the preliminary triangulation for such many beautiful lantern-slides, of the Seychelles, a subject maps, the methods of detail survey, the scale of the map, on which he sent a report to the association as secretary the scale of the field survey, the methods of representing of the committee for the investigation of the Indian Ocean details on the map, and the methods of reproduction. The appointed by the association. Two papers relating to address was printed in NATURE of September 9.

physical geography followed. The first of these, by Prof. The remainder of the first morning sitting of the section W. H. Hobbs, of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, was taken up with the reading of papers by Miss Luella developed an interesting theory of the cycle of Alpine A. Owen, of St. Joseph, Mo., on Hoods in the great glaciation, showing how many of the phenomena of glacial interior valley of North America ; by Mr. James White, erosion found their explanation in the alternation of th» head of the Geographical Department of the Dominion of conditions bringing about the advance and retreat of Canada, on the nomenclature of the islands and lands of glaciers. This paper will also appear in the pages of the Arctic Canada ; and Dr. Robert Bell, formerly head of the Geographical Journal. The other was by Prof. Dodge, of Geological Survey of Canada, on the Hudson Bay route Columbia University; . on

the formation of arroyos in in its present aspect. The first of these papers, written by adobe-filled valleys in the south-western United Staics. an eye-witness of the flood of 1903, when at the end of The origin of these arroyos, or wadis, as they would be May and the beginning of June the valley at Kansas City termed in arid regions frequented by Arabic-speaking

was filled from bluff to bluff with the turbulent muddy peoples, was attributed in this paper to the introduction waters, which on June 2 completely submerged the of sheep, the grazing of the herbage by which in gently entrances to the main waiting-room of the Union station,' sloping valley Hoors first gave the water an opportunity gave in a compact form an account of the conditions which to become concentrated in streams instead of running off produce floods in the region in question and of the the surface in sheets, a theory which confirms an observadiversified character of their consequences, and then con

tion of the Navajos, the native race of the region.

Thr sidered the possibility of their future control as a subject last paper read that morning was by Mr. Lawrence J. of vital interest to the United States, and one involving Burpee, of the Carnegie Library, Ottawa, on the water a careful examination of the methods of control in order route from Lake Superior to the westward. Of the three to avoid the possibility of bringing about evils more

routes, that of the Kaministikwia, that by Grand Poriage, disastrous than the floods theniselves. Mr. White's paper and that by way of Lake Nipigon, the first-mentioned necessarily consisted entirely of details, but as these are was the first to be discovered, but was neglected and forof no little interest in the history of geography, geographers gotten after the discovery of the Grand Portage route, and will be glad to learn that they will be made available in

remained forgotten until the Canadians ascertained that the pages of the Geographical Journal. In the third of

Grand Portage lay in the territory of the United Stairs. the morning papers Dr. Bell reiterated the views he has Search for another route led to the re-discovery of that long held and urged as to the practical importance of the

by the Kaministikwia, and rendered the nearly simulHudson Bay route for the development of the north-west taneous discovery of the Nipigon route of no practical of Canada, emphasising on this occasion the urgency of importance.

Two hours of the morning of Monday, August 30, were development is taking place and the effect which it may taken up with a discussion on the teaching of geography be expected to have in promoting more intimate com

in secondary schools at a joint meeting of Sections E and mercial relations between that region and the mother

L, held at the meeting place and under the chairmanship country.

of the president of the latter section. The discussion was No separate meetings of Section E were held in the opened by an informatory and helpful paper by Prof. R. E. afternoons, but the afternoon of Thursday, August 26,

Dodge, of Columbia University, New York, and followed was devoted to a joint meeting of that section with the

by one (read in the absence of the writer by the recorder subsection on agriculture, at which a paper contributed of Section E) by Dr. C. H. Leete, principal of the Sachs to Section E by Prof. A. P. Brigham, secretary of the

School for Girls, New York, who has been engaged in American Association of Geographers, on the development

the secondary teaching of geography for upwards of a of wheat culture in North America, was followed by_one

quarter of a century. Several professors and teachers of contributed to the subsection on agriculture by Prof. geography took part in the discussion that followed, and Mavor, of Toronto, on the agricultural development of

almost all these coincided with the view expressed by Canada, 1904-9. The first of these papers will be pub

Prof. Dodge, that the teacher of geography should look lished in full in the annual report of the association, as

upon it as his business to let the relation of the earth well as in the Geographical Journal. Here, therefore, it

man dominate his presentation of the subject. The will be enough to say that it laid stress on the enormous

remainder of the morning was taken up with a lecture by possibilities still remaining for the expansion of wheat

Mr. A. O. Wheeler, president of the Alpine Club of production even in the United States, directing attention,

Canada, on some characteristics of the Canadian Rockies, among other things, to the large production of wheat

which attracted a larger audience in Section Ethan relatively to population in some States not generally

was assembled on any other occasion during the meetthought of as wheat States, such as Maryland, which this ing: year produced eleven bushels of wheat per head. Prof.

The meeting on Tuesday, August 31, was opened by a Mavor's paper was a continuation of his well-known report carefully prepared and instructive paper on the influence of to the Board of Trade on the same subject, coming down

mechanical transportation upon the framework of cities, by to the year 1904, and, like it, protested against some of

Mr. George E. Hooker, civic secretary to the City Club the more sanguine estimates of the possibilities of wheat

of Chicago. It was, unfortunately, read to a very meagra production in Canada, although he admitted that his

audience, but there is reason to hope that it will appear estimates of 1904 ought to be increased. An animated dis

somewhere in a permanent form. Prof. A. P. Coleman, cussion followed the reading of the two papers. The pre

of Toronto University, followed with paper vailing note of that discussion was sanguine, both as to

Yellowhead Pass and Mount Robson, an adjacent peak, the the possibility of enormously extending the area under highest in the Canadian Rockies. Prof. j. W 'Gregory, wheat in North America and increasing the production in

of Glasgow, then gave a brief but very illuminating account the area already placed under that crop. Major Craigie, of the remarkable success which has attended the replacechairman of the subsection on agriculture, directed atten

ment of kanaka by white labour on the sugar plantations tion, however, to the dependence of that increase on the

of Queensland. The last two papers read that morning distribution of population, and thus implicitly raised the

furnished two illustrations of the action of waves and question of the future rate of increase of wheat productio:1 currents in bringing about changes in shore-lines. The in North America, and the possibility of maintaining that

first was by Prof. Douglas M'. Johnson, of Harvard t'riincrease without a concurrent advance in prices.

versity, and dealt with the physical history of Nantasket



on the waves



Beach, a spit running northwards from the east end of

PHYSIOLOGY AT THE BRITISII the south shore of Boston Harbour. This beach consists of sand, gravel, and cobbles deposited by wave action

ASSOCIATION. between several drumlins which formerly existed as islands, and with the aid of a series of lantern-slides the reader of THE president's address on " The Physiological Basis of

Success," as distinguished from simple survival, has the paper showed how the form of the beach ridges and

already appeared in SATURE (September 23, p. 38+). their relation to abandoned marine cliffs on the drumlins

The report of the committee on Andsthetics formed prove the former existence of several drumlin islands now

the basis of an interesting discussion. Presented by Dr. entirely destroyed by the sea. The second of these papers Waller, the chairman, the report gave, in the first instance, was by Dr. F. P. Gulliver, secretary to the geographical

a summary of the work done during the year by the and geological section of the American Association for the

inembers of the committee, each of whom added appendices Advancement of Science, and dealt with what he called

on the particular branch of the subject they had investithe Wauwinet-Coscata Tombolo, Nantucket, Mass. The

gated. Appendix i. gave the results in clinical practice term tombolo, the Italian for a pillow," applied in Italy

of Drs. Hewitt and Blumfeld, who employed a mixture of to the low ridges or necks connecting Mt. Argentario with two parts of chloroform and three parts of ether; this the mainland, Dr. Gulliver proposes as a general designa. they consider to be safer than chloroform alone when given tion for such necks. The paper described and illustrated

by the open method. by lantern-views the opening of the neck referred to by a Appendix ii. described Dr. Waller's chloroform balance, storm in December, 1896, when a channel navigable by

which shows at a glance the percentage of chloroform small boats was formed, and the closing of this channel given to the patient. Appendices iii. and iv. summarise br and nearly twelve years later

Dr. Waller's results the comparative anæsthetising November, 1908.

power of chloroform, ether, and alcohol, and Appendix vi., Some of the most interesting papers read in the section by Drs. Waller and Symes, gave a method of intraduring the meeting were reserved for the last day, Wednes

venous anæsthesia which can be used for the basis of day, September 1, which was so far fortunate that the

a similar calculation. The very important results are winding up of several other sections on the previous day reached that i gram of chloroform is equivalent to 8 grams allowed of the gathering of a larger audience in this section of ether and 32-40 grams of alcohol, according to the than was present on most of the other mornings. The method used for the calculation. Further, the effect of first two papers were by Mr. James White, of Ottawa, mixtures of anæsthetics is that of the sum of the conone of them on the progress of the geographical knowledge stituents. As the anæsthetic action of ether (and still more of Canada from 1497 to 1909, the other on the economic

of alcohol) is so much less than that of chloroform, a mixdevelopment of Canada from 1867 to 1909. The subject ture of ether and chloroform will behave in practice treated of in the first of these two papers, which will like dilute chloroform, so far as the experiments have appear in full in the Geographical Journal, was illustrated

gone. by a number of maps for different dates, for the most part In the discussion that followed all the speakers expressed at intervals of fifty years, illustrating for the earlier years their appreciation of the scientific value of the determinathe extent of exploration within the territory of the present tions that had been made. Dr. N. H. Alcock referred to dominion, and for the later years the extent of territory the excellent results that had been obtained by the administhat remained unexplored. The subject of the second was tration of known percentages of chloroform vapour, and illustrated mainly by means of statistical diagrams. These summarised the work that had been done on the individual were followed by a very interesting paper by Mr. J. B. variations in susceptibility to the drug. He regretted that Tyrrell, formerly of the Geological Survey of Canada, on the case of sudden death under a mixture of chloroform a remarkable forgotten, or nearly forgotten, geographer, and ether (Times, August 5) had supplied such an inMr. David Thompson, a native of London but of Welsh auspicious comment on Appendix i. of the report. parentage, who, in the latter part of the eighteenth and Prof. A. R. Cushny considered that the results obtained the early part of the nineteenth century, travelled more by Messrs. Buckmaster and Gardiner were of great importthan fifty thousand miles in the western wilds of ance to the general theory of pharmacological action. He Canada, making surveys wherever he went, and producing considered that as the concentration of chloroform in the a map which was for many years the only one available, blood of patients who had succumbed during anæsthesia and was distinguished by such accuracy as to induce the had not yet been ascertained, it was possible that the reader of the paper to claim for its compiler the designa- concentration was not unduly high. tion of the greatest practical land geographer who had Prof. W. T. Porter suggested that the unhappy result in ever lived. This paper also will appear in full in the some of these cases could not at present be averted by Geographical Journal. Dr. L. A. Bauer, director of the the most skilful anæsthetists, and that the cause might department of terrestrial magnetism at the Carnegie be sought in the hyper-irritability of the heart and vasoInstitution of Washington, then gave a brief general motor apparatus. account of the progress of the general magnetic survey of Dr. Webster contributed a paper on the use of atropine the earth in recent years, a subject dealt with more fully and allied drugs in conjunction with anæsthetics, giving in a paper read by the same author to Section A. It may the results of numerous experiments. The conclusion here be mentioned, however, that the author stated that reached was not favourable to the use of drugs of this since April 1, 1904, the declination and dip of the mag-class in conjunction with a general anæsthetic. netic needle and the intensity of the magnetic current had Prof. A. B. Macallum read two papers on the inorganic been determined at some 900 land stations in different parts constituents in the blood of fishes, the first dealing with of the world, and a general magnetic survey of the Pacific the osmotic pressure and the second with the relations of Ocean had been made, in the course of which the non- the inorganic salts to one another. He also read a third magnetic cruiser Galilee had made cruises amounting paper, on the inorganic composition of the blood in puer

about 60,000 nautical miles. The last paper read peral cclampsia, in which he pointed out the greater prebefore the section was by Mr. Allorge, of the Oxford ponderance of magnesium, and especially potassium, in School of Geography, on the eastern (Tunisian) Atlas comparison with sodium. Mountains, their main structural and morphological A group of papers on the tracts in the spinal cord was features, a paper embodying the results of a journey furnished by Dr. Page May and Prof. Sutherland Simpson. made by Mr. Allorge and a companion in Tunis last Dr. Page May, who exhibited microscopical specimens and spring.

lantern-slides, gave a further description of a descending It may be mentioned. in conclusion, that a somewhat tract discovered by him, and which he names the “ posterodramatic incident marked the ciose of the meeting of this septal tract. The origin and course, as determined by section. The last paper had been read, the audience had Wallerian degeneration and by retrograde chromatolysis, is withdrawn, and the two secretaries, after winding up the from a joint region of the optic thalamus and corpora work of the meeting, were just about to leave also, when quadrigemina along chiefly the mesial fillet into the they were summoned to the telephone to be informed of posterior column of the spinal cord, where it lies symmetricthe reported reaching of the North Pole by Dr. Cook. ally on either side in close contact with the posterior septum,


with any




terminating in the tenth and eleventh thoracic segments, Cushny, Dr. Alcock, and Dr. Hardy also joined in the Its function is still undetermined, a series of detailed

discussion. experiments showing only that it is not concerned with

On the last day of the meeting Dr. Alcock gave a the pyramidal or voluntary motor path,, or

demonstration of his chloroform apparatus in the theatre obvious vasomotor process of the spleen, kidney, and other

of the Winnipeg General Hospital, and subsequently thera organs, as examined with the plethysmograph.

a discussion on the structure and function of the Dr. Page May also demonstrated, by the method of

nucleus, in which Prof. A. B. Macalluin and Dr. W... retrograde chromatolysis, the delimitation of the motor

Hardy took part. area in the cerebral cortex. The method is free from the fallacies that attend stimulation and ablation, and has enabled the author and Dr. Gordon Holmes to map out the cerebral motor area with great precision. This area in UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIOVAL man and the higher mammals is definitely precentral,

INTELLIGENCE. as Sherrington and Grünbaum have found by other methods.

CAMBRIDGE.-At a meeting of the master and fellows or Dr. Sutherland Simpson and his pupils described the

St. Catharine's College, held on October 19, Prof. R. H. pyramidal tract in the sheep and guinea-pig. The fibres Biffen, of Emmanuel College, was elected to the vacant were traced by the degeneration method after removal of professorial fellowship. Prof. Biffen, who was a scholar the motor cortex of one side, the staining being carried of Emmanuel College, was placed in the first class in out with Marchi's method. In the sheep it was found part i. of the natural sciences tripos in 1893, and in the that no pyramid fibres could be found in the posterior first class in part ii. of the same tripos in the following coluinns, the proportion of direct fibres was large as year. Shortly after taking his degree he was elected to compared with the crossed fibres, and the fibres could the Frank Smart studentship at Gonville and Caius not be traced at all below the first cervical segment.

College, and soon afterwards he undertook a research Prof. Siinpson also communicated a paper by Mr. E. C. which greatly modified the process of the manufacture of Peterson on the ascending tracts in the spinal cord of the india-rubber. Later, as professor of agricultural botany,

he has done much to produce new wheats, some of them The report of the committee on the ductless glands, rust-resisting, others combining a high yield with the drawn up by Prof. Swale Vincent, furnished an interest- strength " which bakers desire. This autumn, for the ing group of papers by Mrs. W. H. Thompson (of first time, the seeds of these wheats are being distributed Winnipeg), Drs. Halpenny and Brandson, and Dr. to agriculturists. Prof. Biffen is also well-known Young

authority on fungoid diseases of plants. Mrs. Thompson (who illustrated her paper with a series Mr. V. H. Mottram, of Trinity College, has been of excellent diagrams), as a result of the study of the appointed additional demonstrator of physiology until thyroids and parathyroids throughout a wide range of the

Michaelmas, 1912. animal kingdom, supported the views of Vincent and Jolly, Mr. W. McD. Scott has been elected to a John Lucas and Forsyth, that these bodies are not separate and inde- Walker studentship, and Dr. C. W. Ponder, of Emmanuel pendent, but are very intimately related. Although distinct College, has been elected to a second studentship. in the lower Vertebrata, and of somewhat different The Arnold Gerstenberg studentship has been awarded to embryological origin, in the Mammalia they form, in fact, Mr. C. D. Broad, scholar of Trinity College. one apparatus.

Dr. Halpenny discussed the operation of parathyroid- MANCHESTER.-In response to the appeal made by Prof. ectomy, and also the effect on the parathyroids after Perkin at the opening of the new extension of the chemical excision of the thyroids.

laboratories on October 4, the following dorations have Dr. Young investigated the effect of excluding the blood

been received towards the cost of the necessary apparatus, passing through the adrenals from the circulation ; he material, and equipment :-Dr. Hugo Müller, 300l.; found no fall of blood pressure even after several hours ; anonymous, 2501. ; Mr. Vernon K. Armitage, 2501.; Mr. there was, however, a distinct rise when the ligature was M. J. Fernandez Ferreira, gol. ; Mr. Noah Kolp, gol. removed.

The sum of 1100l. is still required. In presenting the report of the committee on Arum Dr. C. P. Lopage has been appointed lecturer in observaspadices, Dr. Waller referred to the result obtained by tion of children and school hygiene. him of the effect of local heat on vegetable and animal tissues. “ Thermic shocks,” short of actual injury to the

OXFORD.-The geographical scholarship for 1909–10 has tissues, produce no excitation, in contradiction to the usual

been awarded to Mr. H. Wallis, scholar of Hertford text-book statement, but give an electrical effect of opposite | College. sign to that given by excitation.

Prof. E. J. McWeeney read a paper on the bacilli connected with food poisoning, for the details of which the MR. A. P. I. COTTERELL has been appointed lecturer on report must be consulted.

sanitary engineering in the faculty of engineering of the The joint discussion with Section B, to which Dr. E. University of Bristol. The faculty is provided and mainI'rankland Armstrong, Dr. E. J. Russell, and Prof. J. tained in the Merchant Venturers' Technical College. Wilson communicated papers, proved one of the most successful features of the meeting, and it is to be hoped

Dr. A. CAMPBELL Geddes has been appointed successor that the precedent thus set will be followed on future

to the late Prof. A. Fraser in the chair of anatomy at the occasions. Dr. E. Frankiand Armstrong directed attention Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Prof. Geddes was to the difference in composition of different proteins, and formerly assistant to the late Prof. D. J. Cunningham. pointed out that not only should the total nitrogen be F.R.S., Edinburgh. taken into account in comparing the different foods, but due regard should also be paid to the composition and

To show his personal interest in the new Hong Kong nature of the constituent units. Dr. E. J. Russell referred

University, the King has directed that holders of Governto the very great difference in food value between different

ment scholarships shall be styled“ King Edward VII. samples of hay and roots, which showed but small variation

scholars.' Lord Crewe, the Secretary of State for the with the usual methods of analysis. Prof. J. Wilson gave

Colonies, suggests that the scholarships should be confined a most interesting historical account of the practice of

to Hong Kong Chinese and Chinese born in the Straits farmers in feeding live-stock, particularly bullocks.


He pointed out the great economic importance of the knowledge of the proper amount of the different proportions of

The corporation of Yale University has received from

Messrs. W. D. and H. T. Sloane, of New York, a gift the more expensive protein to the less expensive fat and carbohydrate, and showed how the practice of farmers

of 425,000 dollars for the erection and equipment of a had changed in this matter.

physics laboratory. Among other recent gifts are 25,000 Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Prof. dollars from Mr. A. G. Vanderbilt toward the general No. 2.86, VOL. 811






endowment, and 15,000 dollars for the school of forestry the letter the Prince said :-“ The steady growth of the from Mr. G. H. Myers, a graduate of that school.

college and the record of work accomplished during the

first twenty-five years of its life are evidence that it has THE Joint Matriculation Board of the Universities of adapted itself to the needs of the community. This Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, and Sheffield has appointed 'development is particularly noticeable in the technological Mr. J. Murray Crofts, of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and medical schools, and, thanks to the generous support

their organising secretary for the inspection and of the coalowners of South Wales to the former and the examination of schools. Mr. Crofts was for two years assistance specially given by the Treasury to the latter, assistant master at Giggleswick, for two years junior still further vigour and usefulness may be looked for from inspector of the Board of Education, secondary branch, these departments. To Principal Griffiths and the students and for five years headmaster of the Johannesburg College, past and present I offer my hearty congratulations upon Transvaal, a post which he recently resigned.

the good results achieved by the college. Meanwhile, we

must look ahead and endeavour to be ready to meet all We learn from the Scotsman that during the recent the requirements of scientific and intellectual progress. recess many alterations and additions to the buildings in The imperative necessity for higher education and research connection with the physiological department of the Uni- is becoming more and more recognised, and I feel sure it versity of Edinburgh have been carried out, and that the is not lost sight of by those who direct the great comadditional accommodation will be available in the course of mercial industries of the district. The University College the present month. By utilising what was formerly the of South Wales is destined to provide the want, and I lecture-room, a new physiological chemical laboratory has confidently believe that the people of South Wales, through been obtained, and the former chemistry room has been whose patriotic generosity so much has already been re-fitted as a laboratory for special research in chemical accomplished, will by their continued sympathy and physiology. In addition to the foregoing, a new lecture- material support not only extinguish the debt upon the room has been erected on a piece of vacant ground at the new buildings, but secure the funds necessary for still south-west corner of the new buildings of the University. further developments.' It is a one-storey building, designed to harmonise in appearance with the older adjacent buildings, and accommo- The trustees of the Oxford University Endowment Fund dates about 350 students.

have completed the first year of their administration of

the fund. The total sum received by the trustees The Electrician for October

1, reprints in slightly 86,5701., the greater part of which was forwarded to them abridged form from the Electric Journal an article by

as the result of Lord Curzon's appeal for donations for Mr. F. W. Taylor, an employer and past president of the the further endowment of Oxford University. Among American Society of Mechanical Engineers, on the reasons

grants made by the trustees the following may be menwhy manufacturers dislike college graduates. The

tioned. A grant of gool. a year has been promised for difficulty in America appears to be that the graduate, on

eight years to the curators of the Bodleian Library. The first entering works, becomes dissatisfied with the

trustees have also provided the funds required to convert simplicity of the jobs allotted to him, and only after

the North Gallery into a new reading-room, and have a year two of shop experience develops character

undertaken to meet the cost of constructing an underenough to do monotonous, unpleasant, or disagreeable ground chamber for the storage of books belonging to the work. Mr. Taylor suggests remedy year of

Bodleian Library. It is estimated that this chamber will hard work in the shops to follow immediately the first

cost 10,000l. Five hundred pounds have been offered to year of college life of all students, whether they are in

meet the cost of equipment for further accommodation if tended ultimately for the engineering profession or the space can be found by the University for the expansion of Church. He believes they will in this way get a sounder the school of geography. The trustees have agreed to pay knowledge of man and his duty in this world than can

for three years the salary of the newly appointed lecturer be gained by any other means. The Electrician, in a

in Japanese, so that the school of Japanese—the first to leading article devoted to the question raised by Mr. Taylor, be established in any English university-may be initiated cordially endorses many of the opinions he expresses. without more than nominal calls upon the funds of the PROF. W. OSLER,

University. A school of engineering has been provided, F.R.S., formally opened October 15 three new laboratories for physiology, chem- largely by gifts allocated by donors and passing through

the hands of the trustees. From the sum thus provided istry, and physics, respectively, at the London Hospital the trustees have promised a payment of 600l. a year for Medical College. The laboratories have been constructed

five years as a contribution to the cost of the engineering and equipped at a cost of about 8oool., and afford accom

school, and have paid 300l. for equipment.

Out of the modation for some 120 students. In declaring the labora

general income of the trust fund a further sum not exceedtories open, Prof. Osler said that, after all, laboratories are the foundation-stones on which the work of a hospital ing 1502 per annum has been promised for three years

to furnish accommodation for the professor, for whom at Medical students cannot spend too long a time in them.

The present there is no adequate laboratory available. Medical students ought to get their laboratory methods so thoroughly ingrained into their constitution

sum of 61,5531. has been invested. The income will enable that they carry them with them to their dying day. If

the trustees to make annual grants in aid of studies at

present endowed inadequately, or in the establishment and they are to be good practitioners they have to carry their

initiation of new studies. laboratory, work with them into their practice. Prof. Osler said he would like every medical student in one or other of the laboratories to undertake during some portion of his career a small piece of research work. It is difficult, but it altogether depends upon the individual will of the

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. individual man. All can do it if they only make up their

MANCHESTER. minds to it, and in view of their large research endowment fund there is no reason why some of the money Literary and Philosophical Society, October 5.—Mr. should not go to helping the research work of some of Francis Jones, president, in the chair.-A new binary prothe younger men.

gression of the planetarv distances, and on the mutability

of the solar system: Dr. H. Wilde. In his table of The new University College of South Wales and Mon- | planetary orbits the author has adopted the radius vector mouthshire at Cardiff was opened on October 14 by Lord of Mercury as the unit to which the other planetary Plymouth, president of the college. The King, as Protector distances should be referred, the terrestrial unit being a of the University of Wales, sent wishes for the success survival of the geocentric system of the universe. The and prosperity of the future work of the college. The change in the unit of distance has revealed a new binary Prince of Wales, as Chancellor of the University, sent a progression of the planetary distances nearer the observaletter to Lord Plymouth to be read at the ceremony. In tions than that of Bode's law.



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1909, and the accompanying solar phenomena: Emile Academy of Sciences, October 11.-M. Bouchard in the Marchand. chair.—The total sugar of the plasma and globules of the

Cape Town. blood : R. Lépine and M. Boulud. The sugar estimated

Royal Society of South Africa, September the blood by the ordinary methods is called by the

Borchard's form of the eliminant of two equations of the authors the immediate sugar of the blood ; after heating oth degree : Dr. T. Mujr. with hydrofluoric acid the maximum amount of sugar found is called the total sugar. An investigation is de

DIARY OF SOCIETIES. scribed on the estimation of the immediate and total sugar

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 21. in the blood from dogs both in a normal healthy condition INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY, at 8.-- The Influence of the and after deprivation of food.-Observations on the surface

Railrc ads of the United States and Canada on the Mineral Industry: Dr. of the planet Mars from June 4 to October, 1909 : R.

J. Douglas. - The Development of Heavy Gravitation Stamps : W. A.

Caldecott. Jarry-Desloges. The work was done at two observa


8. – The Theory of Vision and Colour Perceptia : tories, both at a high altitude, at Revard (1550 metres Dr. F. W. Edridge Green. above the sea) and near Massegros (900 metres). The

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 22. paper is illustrated by two diagrams.—The effects of PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-On Cadmium Amalgams and the Normal Westen mechanical shocks on the residue of condensers : Paul L.

Cell: F. E. Smith.-The Production of Helium from Uranium and

Thorium: Frederick Soddy. - The Production of Radium from Uranium : Mercanton. A glass condenser was charged to about Frederick Soddy:- Note on a Gravitational Problem: Dr. C. V. Burton. 400 volts, and the effects of mechanical shocks and also

TUESDAY, OCTOBER 26. vibrations on the amount of the residual discharge studied. QUEKETT MICROSCOPICAL Club, at 8.--Notes on the Lise history of the The results are summarised in tabular form.—The reduc

Tachnid Fly, Phorocera serrirentris, Rondani : W. Wesché. - Note on a

Quick Method of Preparing and Staining Pollen: W. Wesche.-Low-power tion of weighings to vacuum applied to the determination Photomicrography, with Especial Reference to Stereoscopic Work: A.C. of atomic weights : Ph. A. Guye and N. Zachariades. Banfield. The substances studied in this work, twenty-six in all,

WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 27. were chosen from material actually used in atomic-weight

BRITISH ASTRONOMICAL ASSOCIATION, at 5. - Annual Meeting : Address

by the President. determinations. The reduction to vacuum weights was

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 29. first applied in the usual way from the known densities INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Prof. W. E. Dalby's of the substances, and the results compared with direct

Report on Heat Transmission (Resumed Discussion). weighings in a vacuum. The differences on 100 grams of material varied between 1 and 32 milligrams, and the


PAGE conclusion is drawn that it is completely illusory to weigh The Species Question Re-opened. By Prof. R. bodies closer than i part in 10,000, or to calculate atomic

Meldola, F.R.S.

481 weights with a greater precision, whenever the weights of

of The Geographical Distribution of Lepidoptera. By powdered substances, determined in air, are reduced to W. F. K. vacuum by calculation.-The probable influence of the Agricultural Fertilisers. By M. J. R. D.

482 motion of the moon on atmospheric radio-activity. Some

The Nature of Attention

483 meteorological consequences : Paul Besson. The radio- Tables for Mathematicians and Physicists activity of the principal spring of Uriage-les-Bains has

Our Book Shelf:been found to vary with the barometric pressure and also Raffety: “An Introduction to the Science of Radio. with the movements of the moon. If this latter effect is


485 confirmed, it would result that the moon, by increasing Abraham : “ British Mountain Climbs"

485 or reducing the number of condensation nuclei, would have Ewald : “ The Pond and other Stories "

48; an effect on weather.--The asymmetry created by a con

Letters to the Editor :tinuous current in liquid chains, initially symmetrical,

Magnetic Storms.—Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. .

48; formed by aqueous couples of identical viscosity : M. Why has the Moon no Atmosphere ?-Prof. Alex. Chanoz.–The revision of the density of gaseous hydro

Johnson chloric acid ; the atomic weight of chlorine : Otto A “Canaan Stone.”—G. Harold Drew .

486 Scheuer. Twenty-eight determinations, made in seven

Oitbite in North Wales.-Herbert H, Thomas series, of the density of hydrochloric acid gas give 1.6394

Drought in South-west Ireland.-Geo. A. Armstrong 487 grams the normal weight of a litre (1=0° C., The Meteor in Sunshine, October 6.-W.F. Dending 487 H=760 mm., h=o, y=45°). This leads to the figure An Aurora Display on October 18.-W. Harcouit. 35-45 as the atomic weight of chlorine.—The spectrographic

Bath analysis of blendes : G. Urbain. The spectra were taken Jupiter's South Tropical Dark Area.-Scriven Bolton 487 from the arc, iron being taken as the comparison spec

Further Experiments with the Gramophone. (Illus. trum. Out of sixty-four blendes, thirty-eight gave clear

trated.) By Prof. John G. McKendrick, F.R.S. . evidence of the presence of germanium, and amongst these

Peat in Norih America. By G. A. J. C. five contained the element in such a proportion that all An Anthropological Survey of the Sudan. By Dr. the germanium lines were observed. Indium was found A. C, Haddon, F.R.S.

491 in forty-one blendes, three being remarkably rich. Nearly

North Sea Fishery Investigations.

491 all the blendes contained gallium, there being only five in Studies .

492 which gallium could not be detected. The other elements Notes. (Illustrated.).

493 noted included iron, copper, silver, tin, antimony, cobalt,

Our Astionomical Column :bismuth, arsenic, and molybdenum.-Some derivatives of

Mars hexahydro-oxybenzoic acid : P. J. Tarbouriech. This Solar Observations: a Novel Spectroscope acid was first obtained by Bucherer from cyclohexanone.

The Aurora of September 25 This latter substance can now be readily obtained in September Meteors quantity by the Sabatier and Senderens reaction, and Hydrogen Layers in the Solar Atmosphere Bucherer's work is repeated and extended.--A new series Percy Sladen Memorial Expedition in South-west of leucobases and colouring matters derived from diphenyl- Africa, 1908-9. II. (Illustrated.) By Prof. H. H. W. ethene : P. Lemoult.-The liquid crystals of the combina


499 tions of cholesterol and ergosterol with urea : Paul Modern Methods of Illumination (Illustrate:I.) By Gaubert.—The Dioscorea cultivated in tropical Africa,

Leon Gaster

500 and on a case of natural selection relating to a species

Annual Meterological Reports

50; spontaneous in the virgin forest : Aug. Chevalier—The Work of the Physikalisch-technische Reichsanstalt stratigraphical position of the Heterodiceras Lucii lavers

504 at Saléve : E. Joukowsky and J. Favre.-The distribu- | Zoology at the British Association

501 tion of granites in the French Congo: H. Arsandaux. Geography at the British Association.

505 -The earthquake of October 8, 1909 : Alfred Angot. The Physiology at the British Association

507 earthquake felt in Croatia was registered in the observa- University and Educational Intelligence. tories of Parc Saint-Maur and Grenoble.-Some remarks Societies and Academies on the great magnetic disturbance of September 25, Diary of Societies.






48 490

498 498 495 498 495

in 1908

508 500

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