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of October 18, and vessels engaged in the Transatlantic The Secretary of State for the Colonies has appointed an trade report an unusually brilliant display of aurora on advisory committee on medical and sanitary questions conthe same night-October 18–19-over practically the whole nected with the British Colonies and Protectorates in route between Europe and the United States of America. Tropical Africa. The members of the committee are :In connection with these reports, it is of interest to note that Mr. H. J. Read, C.M.G. (chairman); Sir Patrick Manson, considerable magnetic disturbance was recorded at Kew on K.C.M.G., F.R.S.; Sir Rubert Boyce, F.R.S.; Mr. C. October 18-19, though nothing at all approaching that Strachey ; Mr. W. T. Prout, C.M.G.; Dr. T. Thomson, recorded on the late occasion. The whole afternoon of C.M.G.; Prof. W. J. Simpson, C.M.G.; and Dr. J. K. October 18 was slightly disturbed magnetically, but there Fowler. Mr. A. Fiddian, of the Colonial Office, will act was a marked sudden development about 8.30 p.m., and as secretary to the committee. a considerable disturbance prevailed thereafter until 6 a.m.

At the general meeting of the Royal Society of Edinon October 19. During this time there was a range of

burgh, held on October 25, the following office bearers and 37%' in the declination, of 130 g in the horizontal force,

members of council were elected :-President, Sir William and of 170 y in the vertical force. The most noteworthy

Turner, K.C.B., F.R.S.; vice-presidents, Dr. R. H. features were that the declination needle remained to the

Traquair, F.R.S., Prof. Crum Brown, F.R.S., Prof. J. C. east of its normal position continuously from 8.30 p.m.

Ewart, F.R.S., Dr. J. Horne, F.R.S., Dr. J. Burgess, on October 18 until 3.30 a.m. on October 19, while the

Prof. T. Hudson Beare; general secretary, Prof. G. vertical force was depressed below its normal value from

Chrystal; secretaries to ordinary meetings, Dr. C. G. the commencement of the storm until 7 a.m. next morn

Knott, Dr. R. Kidston, F.R.S. ; treasurer, J. Currie; ing. There was further disturbance, but of a minor

curator of library and museum, Dr. J. S. Black; character, later on October 19.

councillors, Prof. F. W. Dyson, F.R.S., Prof. D'Arcy MR. W. E. COOKE, Government astronomer, Western

W. Thompson, C.B., Dr. O. Charnock Bradley, C. Australia, informs us that the most magnificent aurora Tweedie, Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., Dr. A. P. Laurie, visible in Australia for half century occurred

Prof. Wm. Peddie, Prof. H. M. Macdonald, F.R.S., Prof. September 25. From reports in the West Australian, it

D. Noël Paton, Dr. W. S. Bruce, Prof. F. A. Baily; J. G. appears that the aurora was observed throughout Australia,

Bartholomew. as well as at Cocos Island, Batavia, Singapore, Rodriquez, Durban, and elsewhere. Magnetic disturbances appear to

The council of the Institution of Civil Engineers has have been recorded generally, interfering considerably with

made the following awards for the year 1908-9:-Telford the telegraph and cable services. The electrical engineer

gold medals, Prof. B. Hopkinson and G. R. G. Conway; in the Western Australia railway department (Mr. Dowson)

Watt gold medals, D. A. Matheson and W. C. Popplewell; informed Mr. Cooke that for the space of half an hour

George Stephenson gold medals, E. H. Tabor and A. J.

Knowles; the “ Indian" the evening of Saturday, September 25, the lines

premium and a Telford premium, between Perth and Kalgoorlie (350 miles), and between

T. R. Nolan ; Telford premiums, S. J. Reed, C. T. Purdy, Perth and Albany, worked well with all the batteries cut

L. A. B. Wade, G. Hobbs, W. Cleaver, J. D. W. Ball, out. The current was at least double that which is usually

Prof. A. H. Gibson, and R. D. Gwyther; the “ James

Forrest employed, and the needle of the ammeter went hard over

medal and a Miller prize, J. A. Wotherspoon ; at 35 milliamperes. The pressure must have been at least

the Miller scholarship, J. A. Orrell; the " James Prescott 150 volts. As the auroral light waxed and waned the

Joule ” medal and Miller prizes, W. E. Fisher and E. B. current followed suit. By a curious coincidence, the last

Wood ; Miller Prizes, W. E. R. Gurney, E. G. L. Lovegreat display in Australia occurred almost exactly fifty

grove, J. Purser, G. C. Minnitt, S. F. Deacon, C. H. years ago.

Bradley, and A. E. Marshall. The Bakerian lecture for the session 1908-9 will be

News of large disturbances of seismographs by distant delivered at the Royal Society on Thursday, November 18,

earthquake shocks was recorded in the Daily Mail of by Sir J. Larmor, Sec.R.S., on “ The Statistical and

Friday, October 22, by Prof. Milne (Shide, Isle of Wight), Thermodynamical Relations of Radiant Energy."

Prof. Belar (Laibach, Austria), and Prof. Michie Smith

(Kodaikanal, southern India). The earthquake occurred at The annual Huxley memorial lecture will be delivered

11.47 p.m. Greenwich time, and the duration of the motion by Prof. Gustaf Retzius on Friday, November 5, at the

more than three hours. Prof. Milne's records inRoyal Anthropological Institute. The subject will be

dicated that “ its origin was about 80° distant, which is “ The North-European Race.”

about the distance of Japan, San Francisco, and Mexico. RECENT American obituary includes the name of Dr. The probability is that it occurred in the east." Prof. Hermann Endemann, a German by birth, who was for Belar reported that “ the place of origin was distant about several years one of the editors of the publications of the 3750 miles to the east.' On the following day telegraphic American Chemical Society, and frequently appeared as messages from Calcutta and Simla announced that there an expert chemist in the courts and before legislative had been a great earthquake in Baluchistan. Belput, committees at Washington and Albany.

about two hundred miles from Quetta, is said to have MR. HORACE G. Knowles, recently U.S. Minister at

suffered severely from the earthquake. Bucharest, has been so impressed by the value of the On Thursday last, October 21, the King performed the sturgeon fisheries of the Danube that he is making an ceremony of opening the new Royal Edward Tuberculosis attempt to re-introduce the sturgeon into the rivers of the Institute at Montreal by means of an electric current sent Atlantic coast, where for many years it has been almost from West Dean Park, Chichester. A special telegraph lire unknown. He has obtained the consent of the Rumanian was laid from West Dean Park to Chichester, and from Government to the shipment to America of a car-load of there the General Post Office lines were used to the Roral the fry of the Black Sea sturgeon, said to be the best in Exchange office of the Commercial Cable Company. The the world. His efforts are warmly approved by the U.S. line used by the Commercial Cable Company was their Fish Commissioner, who believes the experiment will be shortest route via Waterville (Ireland) to Canso Nova successful.

Scotia), from where it was transmitted by land lines to



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Montreal. The arrangements made by the cable company shall be perinanent and substantial, so that they will be a were such that by means of relays and repeaters at the creditable feature of the entire group of buildings to be intermediate points the signal sent by the King travelled constructed ultimately for scientific research. The subthe whole distance without manual help. The current committee recommends, also, that the institute should be transmitted from West Dean Park released a current at under the direction of an officer specially selected in the Montreal which opened the doors of the new institute, United Kingdom for his success in bacteriological research. hoisted a Union Jack, and turned on the electric light. Such an officer, it is suggested, should be appointed on a This is, we think, the first time that a ceremony of this special agreement, and should not expect transfer, war kind has been performed at such a distance, namely, 3000 service, pension, private practice, or any other of the miles, without any outside assistance, and shows the great special privileges open to members of the Indian Medical advance that has been made in telegraphic transmission of Service. iate years. Within one minute of the key being pressed at West Dean Park a return signal was received from

The third part of vol. vi. of the Annals of the South Montreal intimating that the ceremony had been performed

African Museum is devoted to the continuation of Messrs. satisfactorily, and a message of congratulation was sent

Gilchrist's and Wardlaw's description of a collection of

fishes from the coast of Natal, among which several are by the King to the manager of the Commercial Cable Company within four minutes of the first signal. these facts prove that modern telegraphic instruments are IN

paper the remains of Carboniferous airbecoming more and more efficient, and the latest accom- breathing vertebrates in the U.S. National Museum, pubplishment will doubtless advance the closer relationship lished in No. 1696 of the Proceedings of that institution, between the Mother Country and the colonies.

Mr. R. S. Moody directs special attention to the reptile The United States Government, says Science, is now

Isodectes punctulatus, on account of its bearing on the carrying on work at regular forest experiment stations

origin of the reptilian class. The type and only known similar to the agricultural experiment stations in the

specimen, which lacks the skull and nearly the whole of different States. The first forest experiment station created

the fore-limbs, and measures less than 6 inches, is rewas the Coconino Experiment Station at Flagstaff, Arizona,

described in detail. It displays indications of affinity with established in 1908. Investigations covering many phases

the Microsauria, but its ordinal position among reptiles

be determined. Several of forestry in the south-west have already been undertaken

amphibians at this station. The second forest experiment station has

described in the paper. been established this year on Pike's Peak, Colorado. The To the October number of the Popular Science Monthly need for such stations becomes apparent when the long Prof. W. A. Locy contributes a thoughtful article on the time necessary for handling forest experiments is con- service of zoology to intellectual progress. The study of sidered ; in forestry, because of the long time required for this science has been a great factor in the cultivation of trees to develop, scores of years are often required to straight thinking ; " its influence has been great in clearcomplete a single experiment. All experimental work is ing the atmosphere of thought, in dispelling clouds, and in conducted under the direction of men who have had train-freeing the mind from the bonds of inherited prejudice ing in technical and practical forestry. The greatest and traditional superstition.” Another result was the contechnical problem which now confronts the forester inception of the constancy of nature, and, in particular, the handling the great pine forests of Arizona and New Mexico idea that all animal life is the result of one continuous is that of establishing a new stand of trees to replace the and orderly progress. As regards the practical applicaold timber which is cut off. This was the first problem tions of zoology—often in connection with botany—these undertaken by the Coconino Experiment Station. Much have been exemplified during the last decade by the information regarding the factors influencing natural repro- wonderful discoveries as to the modes in which diseases duction has been secured already, but many years of are introduced into the human systems by the intervention systematic study will be required to solve the problem. of insect and other animal carriers, while scarcely less The feasibility of artificial regeneration by planting and important are the benefits which a knowledge of heredity sowing is also being tested. The plans for the near future has conferred upon breeders. Finally, there is the crownprovide for a detailed study of the problems concerning ing service which zoology has conferred upon mankind in the natural and artificial regeneration of other commercial enabling us to realise the existence of evolution, which is trees, such as Douglas fir, Engelınann spruce, and the so comprehensive in its extent that it enters into all realms junipers.

of thought, and largely aids in teaching man We learn from the Pioneer Mail that a committee has prehend himself, and in some dim degree to understand been appointed for establishing a Pasteur institute in

his own future destiny. Burma, and is actively engaged in forwarding the scheme. In a pamphlet entitled Breeding Horses for Use, or Recently the Secretary of State intimated, in view of the Equine Eugenics,” published by Messrs. Swan Sonnenstraitened condition of the provincial finances of Burma schein and Co., Ltd., Mr. Francis Ram seems well pleased and of the fact that there was no guarantee that the initial to play the part of Cassandra, for he tells us that, six-andcapital outlay on the institute would be met from private twenty years ago, he issued under the same title an unsubscriptions, sufficient cause to resort to public money answerable pamphlet, and that if the advice contained had hardly been made out, and consequently regretted his therein had been followed a sum of at least 100,000,000l. inability to sanction the project as outlined in the first would have been saved to the nation, while the breed of instance. A subcommittee, appointed to formulate a work- horses would have been vastly improved. The main feature ing scheme for the building and equipment of the institute, of the scheme seems to be the substitution of stallions for has reported, and is of opinion that it is possible to provide geldings in cavalry and omnibus horses, and the selection for bare requirements for one-half of the available capital. from among these, after severe tests of stamina and The institute, it is hoped, will in course of time find itself endurance, of a small percentage for breeding purposes. in proximity to a general bacteriological institute, and it Perhaps the author might have had a better chance of is considered desirable that the buildings of the institute ' getting his scheme more carefully considered had he not

to comuse


Tun a tilt at judges at horse-shows and other experts, whom structure. It appears that the fishes are well known to he pronounces utterly unfit for their duties. He also seems the native Malays, who actually make of the to possess better vision than most persons, as he asserts luminous organs for catching other fish, cutting them that he can see the true position of the limbs of a gallop- out and attaching them to the hook above the proper bait, ing horse without the aid of photography, while he also

under which conditions they will remain luminous for some accuses Sir Ray Lankester of being in error regarding the hours, a fact which throws an interesting sidelight on the position of the legs and feet in a running dog.

function of such organs. The fishes themselves are,

one would suppose, predaceous, feeding on all the In a paper published in the “ Annals and Magazine of small inhabitants of the coral reef, especially crustacea. Natural History" for 1903, Mr. J. L. Bonhote strongly urged the inadvisability of regarding the numerous island forms of A note on tamarisk manna is contributed by Mr. D. chevrotains as distinct species, and pointed out that there | Hooper to the Journal and Proceedings, Asiatic Society are really only four types entitled to specific rank. This of Bengal (vol. v., No. 2). The substance is obtained view is entirely ignored by Mr. G. S. Miller in a paper from the halophytic shrub Tamarix gallica and from on the mouse-deer (chevrotains) of the Rhio-Linga Archi- Tamarix articulata, while the species Pallasii yields an pelago, published as No. 1695 of the Proceedings of the inferior sweet gum. It has not been ascertained whether U.S. National Museum, in which a rge number of island the manna is produced by insect agency or is a natural 'forms related to the napu are treated as distinct species. secretion of the plant. The ordinary method of extraction Apart from this, Mr. Miller draws some interesting con- consists in pounding the branches or leaves; the saccharine clusions regarding the development of melanism and other ingredient of the manna was found to be cane-sugar. A colour-phases in this group. “ The only conclusion that curious occurrence of manna was observed on certain land seems justified," he writes, “is that the Tragulus napu in Seistan which was subject to inundation; the manna group consists of a series of local species whose colour- shed by the tamarisk bushes had apparently dissolved in pattern, probably for some physiological reason, is varying the water and dried out in lumps as the water evaporated. along two main lines of divergence, both of which are in

On the subject of nomenclature in connection with plant dependent of external conditions as ordinarily understood. Each series is equally incapable of explanation by the hypo- Engler's Botanische Jahrbücher (vol. xliii., part iii.), de

formations, an article by Dr. R. Gradmann, published in theses of Lamarck, Darwin, or De Vries. On the larger

serves careful attention. land-masses such changes as may be taking place are

It is pointed out that three

methods of classification have been advanced, the physiog. uniform over wide areas and relatively slow, while in the regions which, by submergence, have become divided into nomic, adopted by Grisebach, the pioneer in this branch of small land-areas separated by water the changes are

botany; the ecological, exemplified by Warming's “ Plant irregular and rapid, though progressing on different islands last-named, it is observed that while the designation of

Formations "; and the purely floristic. As regards the at a very unequal rate.

formations according to dominant and subdominant or Messrs. WILLIAMS AND NORGATE have forwarded to us typical plants has its practical uses, the only comprehensive the third and fourth parts of the thirty-ninth volume of system is furnished by a complete list of all the plants for Gegenbaur's Morphologisches Jahrbuch, containing papers each individual formation. Three points arise out of this on the development of the vertebral column in Echidna and paper :-first, the basis for a system of classification ; in man, by G. P. Frets; the prothorax of birds and secondly, a convenient designation for each formation ; mammals, by T. Funccius; the saccus endolymphaticus, and, thirdly, the means of differentiation between similar by Giuseppe Sterzi ; the segmental theory of the vertebrate formations. head, by B. Hatschek; the swim-bladder of Malacopterygii, by L. F. de Beaufort ; and the brain-pattern of the interesting paper, by Mr. G. Ř. Putnam, of the United

The National Geographic Magazine (p. 822) contains an anterior cranial fossa, by E. Landau.

States Coast and Geodetic Survey, on modern nautical We have received from the publishers an essay, by Prof. charts. The article contains a popular account of the O. Grosser, on the methods of fætal nourishment amongst

methods of hydrographical surveying and chart construcmammals (including man), forming part iii. of the collection, and charts of different periods are compared. tion of anatomical and physiological lectures and essays The first number of a new volume of the Abhandlungen edited by Profs. Gaupp and Nagel (Sammlung anatomischer und physiologischer Vorträge und Aufsätze, Heft by Dr. H. Leiter, on the question of changes of climate

of the Vienna Geographical Society is devoted to a memoir, iii. ; Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1909, price 60 pf.).

in northern Africa during historic times. An exhaustive The investigations of the Challenger and other deep- examination from different points of view shows that there sea exploring expeditions have long since made us familiar is no evidence that any progressive change of climate has with the fact that many deep-sea fishes possess luminous

taken place. organs of various kinds, but one would hardly expect to

We have received Publications Nos. 3 and 4 of the find such organs in species which live habitually in shallow

Finland Commission for Hydrographic and Biological water. It appears, however, from the observations of Dr.

Investigations in the Gulf of Finland. In the first of Otto Steche, published in a recent number of the Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie (Band 93, Heft iii.), in the mean values of temperature and salinity in the

these Dr. Johan Gehrke discusses at length the variations that we must modify our ideas on this subject. Anomalops

waters of the gulf, from observations made at three stations katoptron and Photoblepheron palpebratus are two fishes which inhabit the shallow waters of a coral reef in the during the years 1902–7. The second memoir consists of

a table giving hourly values of water-level at Hangö from Malay Archipelago. In each case the luminous organ is

1897 to 1903. a large oval body lying beneath the eye. The author was able to keep the fish in captivity, and gives some interest- CAPTAIN P. K. KOZLOFF contributes an account of the ing particulars of the behaviour of the organ in the living Mongolia-Sze-Chuan expedition, carried out under his animal, as well as a detailed account of its microscopical charge on behalf of the Imperial Russian Geographical



Society during 1908, to the October number of the Geo- the pendulum. There was a strong tendency for the pengraphical Journal. The work of the expedition was to dulum to deviate more and more to the west of its mean explore certain unvisited parts of Mongolia, to examine position during winter, and to the east during summer. Lake Koko-nor, and to investigate the region of the upper

The Philippine Journal of Science for June (iv., No. 3) course of the Hwang-ho. Amongst the most important results already obtained from the first part of the journey parasitology, and a study of the diet and nutrition of the

contains several papers of importance on protozoology and is the identification of the dead city, Khara-khoto, with Hsi.hsia, the capital of a Tangut kingdom which flourished

Filipino people by Mr. Hans Aron. from the eleventh to the fourteenth century.

We have received the first part of a volume of memoirs. An important list of the strong earthquakes felt in the

of the Oswaldo Cruz Bacteriological Institute, Rio de

Janeiro (“ Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz,” Tomo i., Philippine Islands during the last half-century has recently

Faciculo 1, 1909). The text is in Portuguese, but in been issued by the Rev. Miguel Saderro Masô, assistant director of the Weather Bureau. The earthquakes, fifty- English is given of each article. It contains three excellent

parallel column a translation in German, French, five in number, vary in intensity between the degrees 7 and 10 of the Rossi-Forel scale of seismic intensity, five

coloured plates and other illustrations. Among the con

tents are a description of a new species of Tabanus, and a of them attaining the highest degree. The year of maxi

contribution on native Tabanidæ, by Dr. Adolpho Lutz and mum activity, when eight strong earthquakes were felt,

Dr. Arthur Neiva ; observations on Brazilian Anophelinæ, was 1897, which was also that of the great Assam earthquake; and, during the decade 1890–1900, sixteen strong modia, by Drs. Aragão and Neiva; a study of a

by Dr. Neiva; descriptions of two new species of Plasshocks occurred in the Philippines, while in the same interval no fewer than nine were felt in Japan. The most

species of Amoeba, by Dr. Aragão; studins on tuberculosis, unstable district in the archipelago is Mindanao, and

by Dr. Fontes; concentration of diphtheria anti-toxin, by

Messrs. Giemsa and Godoy; and the preparation of antiespecially the eastern part of the island, which lies in the neighbourhood of the great geosynclinal of the Pacific plague serum, by Dr. Vasconcellos. Ocean.

A NOVEL type of gas-driven water pump, designed by Mr.

H. A. Humphrey, seems likely to find numerous applicaAn analysis of the underground temperature at Osaka,

tions owing to its simplicity and high economy. The western Japan, by Mr. T. Okada and Mr. T. Takeda, is contained in the Bulletin of the Central Meteorological equal length.

pump consists of a vertical U tube, having legs of un

The longer leg enters at the bottom of Observatory of Japan, No. 2, 1909. The tables show the

the delivery tank, and the shorter leg is partly immersed hourly mean temperature at depths varying from 0.0-0.6

in the tank from which the water to be pumped is drawn. metre for the years 1901-6, and the monthly mean tempera- | The water enters the shorter leg through a number of adture between 00 and 5.0 metres for the years 1895–1904. mission valves, and the upper portion of this leg forms Below the surface the soil consisted of granite sand. At

the combustion chamber, and is fitted with admission, the depth of 60 cm. the diurnal variation is almost in- exhaust, and scavenging valves, and also an electric ignition significant; the minimum occurs between 2h. and 3h. p.m., device. The gaseous pressure acts direct on the surface of and the maximum between midnight and 3h. a.m. The the water in the shorter leg. By taking advantage of the

annual temperature increases up to a depth of oscillations set up in the water contained in the U tube, and 300 cm. and then decreases; at the depth of 500 cm. the the consequent alterations in gaseous pressure in the minimum occurs in May and the maximum in November. combustion chamber, Mr. Humphrey has succeeded in proThe total annual heat exchange is computed to be about ducing a four-stroke cycle, having a long expansion stroke, cne-thousandth part of the total quantity of solar radiation

a long return exhaust stroke, a short suction stroke, and a received by the surface of the soil.

short compression stroke, at the end of which the charge is. STORMS of wind and rain have occurred very generally ignited. Prof. Unwin has tested this pump, and finds the over the British Islands during the past week, and the equivalent coal consumption to be only 1.06 lb. per pumpweather throughout the period was under the influence of horse-power hour, a result doubtless owing to the utilisation cyclonic disturbances, which arrived with considerable fre- of the “toe” of the diagram, which is generally wasted quency from off the Atlantic. On Saturday, October 23, in an ordinary gas-engine cylinder. a south-westerly gale blew in most parts of the country, In continuation of a previous paper, Prof. James Barnes, and at Scilly the wind during the evening blew in squalls of Bryn Mawr College, publishes a note on the new lines with a velocity of ninety miles per hour from the west- in the calcium spectrum in No. 1, vol. xxx., of the Astroward. In London the aggregate rainfall to the morning physical Journal. The spectra measured were produced by of October 27 is 2.65 inches, whilst the average for the

an arc between poles of metallic calcium, enclosed in an whole month is 2.73 inches, and as yet rain has fallen exhausted chamber. The first table gives the wave-lengths. 07 twenty days this month.

of two series of triplets previously measured by Kayser A PRELIMINARY note, by Mr. J. R. Sutton, on the results and Runge, and three series given by Saunders. The freof observations made during three years upon the diurnal quencies can be represented by a formula of the Rydberg variation of level at Kimberley, is published in the Trans

type, the following giving the first line of each triplet :actions of the Royal Society of South Africa for July last.

; for 1 4586.10, the first line of the It appears from the tables that the movements on the

(m + o'927)2 seismograph very great; the maximum westerly least refrangible series, m=3. There are no lines near elongation of the pendulum occurs at 5th. a.m., the ^ 6208, which is the approximate wave-length for m=2; maximum easterly about 4th. p.m., the median positions it therefore appears that the series is a subordinate one, a little before uh. a.m. and 9th. p.m., the mean daily as suggested by Ritz. Prof. Barnes also gives the waverange for the period being 5.5 mm. Not much connection lengths of the two groups at 1 6382 and a 6389, observed with the weather can be traced ; cloud and variations of by Fowler in sun-spots and obtained by Olmsted in the barometric pressure are thought to be the most potent calcium arc in hydrogen, but doubts whether they are disturbers in a small way of the regular diurnal march of due to a compound of these two elements. Between these



1 = 28911 -_109675






two groups other bands were observed, and the wave- described. For the convenience of tourists who wish to lengths are given. It is interesting to note that when explore Cape Colony thoroughly nine tours have been the arc-gap was lengthened the line at 1 4227 reversed mapped out, and particulars are given of the chief towns at the positive pole only, while H and K were much and other interesting places en route. The principal instronger near the negative pole than the positive.

dustries dealt with are fruit and grain growing and ostrich

farming in the western province; sheep, goat, and ostrich The concluding part of the first volume of the Memoirs

farmning and fruit growing in the midland districts; and of the College of Science and Engineering, Kyoto Imperial

the cultivation of maize. Every sort of information likely University, contains a second paper by Mr. Y. Osaka on

to be of service to the traveller is to be found in the book. the mutarotation of glucose. It is shown that the velocity of the change of rotatory power which takes place in A copy of the report for 1908-9 of the council of the freshly prepared solutions of this sugar increases between

Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and 15° and 25° in the ratio 1/2.7. Sodium chloride has no

Newcastle-upon-Tyne has been received. The society is to catalytic action at dilutions below N/15, but at N/10 and

be congratulated upon receiving, by the will of the late N/5 a distinct retardation could be detected, as already Mr. George E. Crawhall, a legacy of 6000l. to be invested noted by Levy and by Trey; in presence of hydrogen

for the benefit of its funds. The legacy was most opporchloride, however, it was found to stimulate the catalytic

tune in view of the many financial needs of the society, action of the acid. In accordance with the author's and it is to be hoped that the council's appeal for donatheoretical conceptions, the addition of a trace of a weak

tions to enable the cost of maintenance of the Hancock

Museum acid (N/300 succinic or acetic acid) was found to produce

at Newcastle-upon-Tyne and of printing the a slight retardation, although larger quantities of the acid society's Transactions to be met will be responded to accelerated the change. The same issue contains a paper generously. The curator's report on the museum shows by Kuhara and Komatsu on a series of isomeric phenyl

that a complete overhauling and re-installation of the fishes phthalimides. Two compounds previously described could in the zoology department has been effected, and that not be prepared again, but, in addition to the ordinary

valuable specimens have been presented to stable, colourless phthalimide, the authors obtained

different sections of the museum. colourless isomeride melting at 83-84°, which readily

A Sixth edition of Mr. Herbert M. Wilson's "

Irrigapassed over into the stable form, and a yellow compound tion Engineering has been published by Messrs. Chapmelting at 125-126°, which could not be transformed.

man and Hall, Ltd., in this country, and by Messrs. John The isomerism of the derivatives of phthalic acid is un

Wiley and Sons in America. The fourth edition of the doubtedly one of the most important of the cases awaiting work

reviewed at length in these columns investigation, and further work in this direction is much January 28, 1904 (vol. ixix., p. 291), and it will suffice to be desired.

to mention some of the distinguishing characteristics of The October issue of Pearson's Magazine contains a the present edition. The book has been re-written almost further instalment of Lieut. Shackleton's narrative entitled entirely, and brings up to date the remarkable progress “ Nearest the South Pole.” In the same number is also

made in construction by the Reclamation Service of the to be found an illustrated article dealing with oak galls.

United States. Much old matter has been eliminated, and

a large amount of new text and eighty new illustrations, MM. A. HERMANN ET Fils, of Paris, have published a

representative of more modern designs for irrigation works, second French edition of the third part of Mr. W. Rouse

have been introduced. Ball's “ Mathematical Recreations and Essays.” The volume includes the chapters on astrology, hyper-space, and

We have received the third part of the first volume of time and its measurement, together with additions by MM. the Journal of the Municipal School of Technology, ManMargossian, Reinhart, FitzPatrick, and Aubry. The

chester. An explanatory note points out that the journal translation is from the fourth English edition, and its

was established to record the original scientific work done price is 5 francs.

in the school by members of the teaching staff or by

students. Such work has accumulated so rapidly, howIn the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts ever, that it has been decided to print. in abstract only, or and Sciences (xliv., 25) Messrs. Gilbert W. Lewis and

in some cases the titles only, of all the work published Richard C. Tolman discuss the principle of relativity, and previous to 1908 which has not appeared in the journal the system of non-Newtonian mechanics required to main-alreadyThe papers for 1908 are to be printed in full. tain such fundamental conservation laws as that of energy

The present issue contains the paper by Mr. J. Prescott and to reconcile them with the experimental results of on the figure of the earth which appeared in the PhiloMichelson and Morley and of Bucherer.

sophical Magazine of October, 1907, and abstracts of A SERIES of volumes on the history of science has been papers from the mechanical engineering, the physics, the arranged by the Rationalist Press Association, and will be electrical engineering, and the chemistry departments. It published by Messrs. Watts and Co. The first two volumes is noteworthy that the excellently produced periodical was

“ The History of Astronomy,” by Prof. George Forbes, printed in the photography and printing crafts department and “ The History of Chemistry (vol. i., from earliest of the school. times to 1850 A.D.), by Sir T. E. Thorpe. Among the authors who will contribute to the series are Dr. J. Scott

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. Keltie (geography), Mr. Horace B. Woodward (geology),

HALLEY's Comer.-In a communication to No. 4263 of Prof. L. C. Miall (biology), and Dr. A. C. Haddon (anthro- the Astronomische Nachrichten (p. 319, October 13), Prof. pology).

Millosevich states that the photographic observations of Tue Railway Department of the Cape Government has

Halley's comet made on September 14 show that the

elements already published need very small corrections, and issued a second edition of its official guide-book under the

that, according to his calculations, perihelion passage title “ Cape Colony To-day.” The book runs to 280 pages, should occur at 1910 April 19.2d. (Berlin M.T.) +0.5d. is profusely illustrated, and provides an admirable account Father Searle, director of the Brooklands Catholic of the distinguishing characteristics of the districts University Observatory (U.S.A.), finds, from the Mount


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