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There is a widespread feeling that it is too academic, and many, whose scientific results are like the grains of sand, must be made more practical. In any case, it must aim the importance of which lies in their aggregation. at developing character and intelligence rather than merely But a chemist, to be worthy of the name, should also imparting book knowledge.
be able to step forth from his own small sphere of activity If it is urged that further time for schooling is com- and to look upon his science and allied domains of human mercially impossible, it must be remembered that our thought as a whole, to contemplate its history and its great trade rivals, the Germans and the United States, future, its aims and progress, and to glean a few useful have compulsory continuation schools or a higher exemp- truths from such considerations. This is what I shall try tion age. In Germany it is the custom for parents to put
to do. their boys to a skilled trade, and apprenticeship is as The simple daily wants of mankind in a primitive con-' flourishing there as ever it was. “ The Imperial Law on dition are all supplied by nature. It is the progress of the “Regulation of Industry' of 1891 decreed that the civilisation which led to the necessity of transforming her masters in any branch of industry were bound to allow gifts, and thus created a chemical industry. Human their workers under the age of eighteen to attend an chemical work supplements the chemical work of nature, officially recognised continuation school for the time and is therefore subject to the same governing laws. It fixed as necessary by the authorities.” The local council is strange that no attempt has yet been made to trace might make such attendance obligatory for all male workers the many coordinated points which exist between biology, under the age of eighteen. Every raising of the school the science of life, and chemistry, the science of molecular age or Factory Act limiting child labour has been in turn changes, without which life is an impossibility. objected to as fatal to industry, but the community has The subject is extensive enough for a book. I cannot very quickly adapted itself to the new conditions.
hope to do justice to it in a short lecture, but I shall The removal of the supply of cheap boy labour under try to point out some of the relations existing between the fifteen would probably lead to very useful readjustments of results of biology and applied chemistry. industry and to the substitution of mechanical labour for Biology as a science is of very recent date. The manner some of their work and for a greater employment of adult in which our forefathers tried to gain an insight into the labour. It is, of course, true that to start boys at fifteen overwhelming variety of the vegetable and animal instead of thirteen or fourteen will not prevent a period kingdoms was purely systematic. Linnæus, de Candolle, of transition from boys' to men's jobs, but it will give Cuvier, and others, enabled us by their systems to classify a better chance of skill to the boy. A better and longer nature, but they did not teach us to understand it. education should give the boys firmer and more disciplined Hardly a century ago the dawn of a deeper insight began characters and a greater power of adapting themselves to rise on the horizon of science, and just fifty years have
new work. Increase of efficiency, even in unskilled elapsed since that memorable meeting of the Linnean labour, means increased wage to the mutual benefit of Society in which the flaming truth of evolution was given employer and employed. It is the over-supply of unskilled to humanity by one of the greatest minds that ever stood labour which is not worth a good wage which is the real up amongst
Botany and zoology, the pedantic difficulty.
histories of plants and animals, became suddenly united Again, in skilled trades proper there is little doubt that in biology, the great science of life, itself a living thing, there is room for more boys, and they are not supplied capable of development and evolution. now with the best material available. It is probable Evolution is no longer a working hypothesis of natural that labour exchanges for boys leaving school would be science; it has become a new way of thinking, a method of very great value in securing that all the more intelligent of harvesting everlasting truth from the fleeting changes and able boys had a chance of securing good openings. of passing life. It is not applicable to living plants and It is the ignorance of the boy which so often leads him animals only, but to everything that is capable of growth, into employment which is not suited to him.
alteration and improvement. Why should this method Further, some better grading of wages is most desirable. not be extended to the study of human achievements, of At present, comparatively high initial wages are often science as a whole? Why not to applied chemistry, which paid to tempt boys into an unprogressive occupation. The is so full of changes, and more vigorous in its growth and value of the old apprenticeship scales lay in their attempt development than many another discipline? to make the wage increase with the capacity, but the low It seems to me that England, the country which has initial earnings have been the reason of the unpopularity given to all the other nations the invaluable gift of of apprenticeship with the more needy and less far-sighted. evolution, is the classical soil on which an attempt might It is quite possible that the boy leaving school at fifteen be made to apply it in a new manner. It may help us will still not earn more than he now does at fourteen. to understand, and therefore to forgive, the struggle for There is little doubt that in that case the employer would existence, which in chemistry and its applications is as gain, because he would get a better article, but the boy rife as amongst the organisms of the deep sea or the would also gain, because he would be a better article and tropical forest. Looking at that struggle with the calm more fit to develop into a still higher efficiency, com- soul of the man of science, we shall easily recognise the manding better wages later. It is better that he should underlying promise of the survival of the fittest and of be paid less in his early years and be worth more as an certain progress in coming days. adult. Under existing conditions he is bribed by large As a rule, one takes it for granted that anything wages to spend his time on uneducative work which gives | applied must have existed before its applications. It is him no opportunity afterwards, and he is unfit to spend not so with applied chemistry. Chemistry as a science wisely the large wages which he receives. The present is, as we all know, a comparatively new creation. Its system demoralises the boy. The temptation to leave one applications, on the other hand, have existed since times job to get higher wages in another is almost irresistible, immemorial, and may be traced back
the very and the resulting instability is detrimental to himself and beginnings of human civilisation. The men who in the not economical to his employer, who is perpetually trying past devoted their thought and energy to problems which to train new boys.
we now call chemical had to reach their ends with the help of sound empiricism. Though their progress was show it was
so that to this day we have sometimes EVOLUTION IN APPLIED CHEMISTRY.1
occasion to marvel at their successes. More than that, we
may safely say that some of our best industrial methods EVERY chemist, to be worthy of the name, should in would never have been discovered if we had had chemical
his own work be a specialist; but there are few theory only to guide us. Science itself stands on amongst us to whom it has been given to produce in their empirical basis—we cannot draw general conclusions unless own particular line of research results of deep general we have well-established observations to start from. interest. Our distinguished president,
It is perhaps not superfluous 10. remember these facts Ramsay, is one of the privileged few; I am one of the at the present time, when the brilliant success of theoretical
1 Address to the combined sections of the Seventh International Congress chemistry is apt to make us forgetful of the services of Applied Chemistry on Monday, May 31, by Prof. Otto N. Witt, of derived from purely empirical methods of research. Berlin.
Empiricism investigates without foregone conclusions,
whilst thcoretical science verifies logical deductions. Eastern nations. It is an undoubted fact, and if it were Science forces nature to divulge its secrets; empiricism is not, a single visit to the South Kensington Museum would quite content to pick up the treasures it may come across prove it, that the people of Persia, India, China, Japan, in its ramblings through unexplored regions. Nature is the inhabitants of Burma, Siam, Cambodja, and the instill full of unknown treasures. Why should we cease to numerable islands of the Pacific, are possessed of methods search for them? Why should we expect success only for the treatment and utilisation of the products of nature from logical deduction ?
which are in many cases equal, if not superior, to our It is true that the scientific method of invention is a
These methods must be to a large extent based quicker road to
Rapidity is everything in our upon chemical principles. Is it not strange that we know times. Whirling along in a motor carriage to
so little about them, and that little generally only indirectly known destination is distinctly more agreeable than tramp- through the accounts of travellers who were not chemists? ing on foot in the glaring sun of a summer's day; but If all these peculiar methods were fully known and you cannot pick the flowers blooming by the roadside or described by persons who have seen them applied and stumble over hidden treasures at the rate of sixty miles watched their application with the eyes of a chemist, it an hour. The two methods of progress have both their would certainly be, not only of interest, but also of the own peculiar advantages, and should both be followed. greatest utility to our own industry; for it is the elucidaNow and then they will meet, and make success doubly | tion of empirical methods which, in the new light that certain.
science sheds upon them, leads to new departures and to One of the best combinations of empiricism and theory progress. Who can deny the advantage which the indusis the examination of old empirical industrial processes by try of cotton dyeing and calico printing derived from the the methods and in the light of modern chemical science. dy of the Turkey-red process, which a century ago was A great deal of valuable information has been obtained in bought as an Eastern trade secret by the French Governthis way; much more remains to be discovered. It is ment and generously placed at the disposal of European this conviction which led me to propose to the last congress dyers? Would the making of porcelain have been invented at Rome that a special section should be established in in Europe if the impulse for it had not come from the these congresses for the history of applied chemistry. The East? Is there no connection between the introduction of history of chemical science, as it exists now, is almost Chinese porcelain and the invention of Delft, the curious entirely devoted to theoretical systems and to the life of observations of Réaumur on devitrification, and even the those who created them. The history of industrial methods work of that great and original genius, Josiah Wedgwood? is not so complete as one might wish it to be.
And would that supreme triumph of the application of So far as the history of our nineteenth-century chemical pure chemical science to industry, the synthesis of indigo, industry goes, the materials for studying it are not want- ever have been accomplished if indigo, as a natural dyeing. The patent literature of the various countries is in stuff, and its extraordinary method of application by vatitself an inexhaustible source of information, which can dveing, had not come to us from the East? What a stir be largely supplemented from text-books and endless files has been created, even in these very latest days, by the of periodicals; but it is not so if we begin to inquire into extension of this ancient Eastern method of dyeing to the applied chemistry of previous centuries, The other shades than those of indigo ! mysterious communications of the mediæval alchemists We live in a period when the intellectual nations of have been frequently examined; but Pliny remains our the East wake up from their political sleep of centuries. almost exclusive source of information about the chemical when they issue from their seclusion and demand their arts of the antique world. Yet these arts were many and share of Atlantic civilisation ; but their awakening means highly developed, and Pliny's information was distinctly going to sleep for their industrial methods. These superficial.
methods, ingenious as they undoubtedly are, cannot comHow much more might be gathered about the chemistry pete with ours in being applicable on a manufacturing of past times has been shown by the researches of such scale. So our processes are transferred to the coasts of men as Berthelot and Edmund von Lippmann, who com- the Pacific, and their own methods are abandoned and bined the accomplishments of distinguished chemists with forgotten. The Eastern industries cannot keep pace with those of the Orientalist in the study of Arabic and Hebrew ours, not because they are inferior in their results, but authors. Who knows what a host of information may yet because they, toil on foot whilst ours are motoring. In be lying dormant in unread Egyptian papyri and this struggle for existence the fittest means the quickest palympsests?
and the cheapest. But the sovereign means of discovering these lost secrets Yet I am certain that many a new and good result is in the careful study and analysis of the products which might be obtained from the combination of Eastern and ancient times have fortunately left us as proofs of their Atlastic achievements. Examples of such happy blending skill and knowledge. How much has been done in that not missing. See what that great and original respect by that one great master, Marcellin Berthelot, who English inventor, Lord Masham, the very type of an found in such work the recreation of the later years of Atlantic genius, has made of the wild silks of India ! his life? How much more remains still to be done?
It seems to me that these international congresses ought Thus we may hope to know at som future time more to make it one of their important duties to watch over of the accomplishments of past generations than we do the intellectual wealth of the past and to collect it before at present; and we may also hope that some of the it disappears for ever. Let the chemists of all countries methods thus re-discovered will awake to fresh life like who flock together in these gatherings entrust to their mummy wheat, which is said to take root and grow if keeping the old indigenous industrial methods of their you plant it in fresh soil. Have we not greeted with nations ; let the reports of these congresses, which are delight the terra sigillata of the Romans, when the process distributed over all the world, become a treasure-trove of for its manufacture re-discovered by Fischer, ancient motives for new development ! Bavarian potter, and has a considerable industry If we consider how our present chemical industry has sprung from the resurrected use of lanolin, wool. been evolved from empirical processes such fat, which was a panacea of the Greeks two thousand ancestors practised them, and as they still exist in the years ago?
countries of the East, and even in some parts of Europe, Yet such discoveries will remain inheritances from the can easily observe a gradual transformation similar dead, and the cases of their resurrection to life will not in many respects to the one that living nature had to go be numerous; but we have living empiricism at our doors, through in evolving the present types of plant and animal which we allow to die and to sink into oblivion, without life. It is here that the parallels between biology and attempting to study it and to learn the lesson it has to chemistry offer themselves. They are interesting, and not teach--a treasure of information of incalculable magni- | useless to consider. It would be strange indeed if we tude hoarded up in the course of centuries by the skill could not gather some acceptable hints from surveying and patience of countless millions of men who were, and the broad expanse of the human toil and thought of are, as keen in the study of nature as they are reluctant centuries. to draw general conclusions from their observations.
One of the most characteristic changes that have taken This great treasure is the industrial experience of the place is the transformation of handicraft into manufacture.
lle have replaced personal skill by division of labour in and Germany. Brilliant the work done by gas chemical work just as much as in all the other branches specialists in connection with these attempts undoubtedly of human industry. In so doing we have certainly un- is, the success is, to say the least, indifferent, and will consciously copied nature. Do not her earliest creations, remain. so until the water-gas question will again have the unicellular organisms, in which one cell is made to undergone so complete a transformation and adaptation to fulfil all the functions of life, resemble the patient crafts- European industrial conditions that it will once more be nian, who works at the object that he wants to turn out paramount to a new creation. from the beginning to the end, and then, with a last loving Another example. Just at the present time a glance, hands it over to his client? And are
country is about to join the concert of industrial nations. factories of the present day comparable to the complicated Norway, in the rocky solitudes of which the bear. was wont organisms of the later epochs of creation, with their many to ramble and the elk and the reindeer to graze, the blue coordinated and subordinated organs that work in unison, fjords of which knew no other craft than fishing smacks and in their joint activity are much more powerful than and occasional pleasure yachts, is beginning to develop a their tiny unicellular ancestors ?
chemical industry of vast dimensions. Will that industry One of the most interesting chapters in the evolution be similar to the one existing in this country or in of animated life is the gradual transformation of aquatic Germany? Certainly not. Its factories will have no organisms into those living in the air and on solid ground chimneys, no fires. They will be activated by the “ white -a tremendous change, and one which could only be effected coal," the force of roaring torrents. Our engineers have by many and varied attempts and by means of the most pondered over the problem of economically transforming marvellous adaptations. Right into the midst of our heat into electricity; the task of the Norwegian manuepoch, when the conquest of land as a permanent dwelling-facturer is just the reverse.
One of the fundamental place for plants and animals is practically accomplished, problems of our German chemical industry is the utilisareaches the perpetuation of intermediate forms, which can tion of our overwhelming wealth of sodium and potassium adapt themselves to land or water, as the circumstances salts; the Norwegians neutralise their synthetic nitric acid may require.
with limestone, because they have no cheap alkali. Many Now what is the lesson we can learn from the study other points of the same kind might be mentioned, but I of this wonderful development in comparing it to what
think these are sufficient to show that, whatever that new has happened in our own industry? I think it is obvious Norwegian industry may prove to be, when fully developed and of the greatest importance. It is this, that no it must be different from what the world has seen so far. industry, and especially no chemical industry, can be trans- The first activity which the human race develops in planted, such as it is, from the place in which it has been taking possession of wild districts is agriculture, and we successfully developed, into any other without having to know full well that no two countries are alike in their undergo a complete change, which taxes to the utmost agricultural methods and results. An agricultural country the organising and inventive power of those who make has to develop a dense population, and, in its work, the the attempt.
peculiarities due to its soil and its climate, before it can This is a truth too often forgotten in our times, when attempt to create an industry. The blending of the old the keenest struggle for success is rife everywhere, and agricultural interests with the newly acquired industrial people who have to suffer from the competition of factories ones means in itself a convulsion. Is it then probable that established in other countries are apt to vent their grief so fundamental a change may be brought about by the in uncharitable accusations. Yet how frequent are the mere importation of a miserable copy of what has been examples, when manufacturers, who have risen to great born and nurtured to maturity on other soil and under prosperity, suffer tremendously by transferring their own
another sun? business into some new locality. In many cases it is If we study the life of plants and animals we are struck merely a move in their own country, yet it
by the marvellous economy reigning everywhere. There genarally, a far-reaching adaptation to altered conditions ; are few physiological processes which be called but if it becomes a question of transplanting a manufacture
wasteful. Every bye-product of the important from one country into another, it must be quite a new chemical reactions that take place in the organisms of creation if it is to be a success.
new creation it plants and animals is utilised and made to serve should command our respect, and though it may be in- purpose. In plants, for instance, the refuse of the chemical convenient it should not be disparaged. It was the destiny work of the protoplasm seems to be deposited as encrustof aquatic organisms to conquer land as a dwelling-place, ing material in the enclosing cellulose. The encrusted and it is the destiny of the industrial countries of the cell is then made to serve as a mechanical support for present day to carry industry to the nations that are ready the body of the plant, whilst new and more vigorous cells it
are formed to fulfil the functions of life. Some of the There fortunately, no two countries alike in this bve-products of the chemical work of the plant are transworld, and most of them differ, from a manufacturing formed into dye-stuffs, others into perfumes, both with the point of view, more than land and water for plants and object of attracting the insects which are necessary for animals. Whenever an industry leaves its native country fertilisation. Everywhere in animated nature we see the it has to be re-modelled. Take, for instance, the gas principle of storing up food, either to serve in cases of industry, which was born in England, and has been carried need or to provide for a future generation. Even in those by English enterprise over all the world. No sooner it cases where nature seems to be wasteful, as, for instance, crossed the channel and was established in France and in producing germs and seeds in far greater numbers than Germany than it had to be materially transformed, not seem to be required for the continuation of the species, in its principle, but in the constructive details and the the seeming superabundance is merely a wise calculation dimensions of the necessarv plant. Our coal was different of the probabilities for the development of the germs. from yours, our fire-clay had to be prepared and worked More marvellous, perhaps, than any of these examples is differently for the production of the necessary retorts, our
the economical use of the energy required for sustaining condensers and gas-holders had to be altered and encased the functions of life. So far as I am aware, there is not to withstand the sudden and wide changes of temperature a single engine of human invention which can utilise the of a Continental climate, our yields proved lower, and the energy supplied to it in so perfect a way as, for instance, economy of the process was materially different. Still a horse utilises the calories contained in its food for the greater changes awaited the gas industry on the other production of mechanical power ;
and though the side of the Atlantic. Though the United States mechanical equivalent of light as a form of energy is, so nossessed of good gas-coal, the freights for it to the New far as I am aware, yet an unknown constant, we may England States proved to be too high. On the other safely say that the perfection with which living plants hand. anthracite was incomparably cheaper there than it utilise the energy of sunlight for carrying out the endo
and the same was the case with mineral oils thermic reactions upon which their nutrition and growth of a high boiling point. All this led to the successful depends is far superior to the methods which we have so substitution of carburetted water-gas for the illuminating far discovered for similar purposes. gas of Europe. At present we try hard to acclimatise this Are not these principles of economy which so universally American adaptation of the gas industry both in England / pervade living nature also the very essence of all indus
is with us,
trial chemistry? Are not such considerations as economy sum sufficient to pay the aggregate national debts of energy in its various forms, high yields, and the avoid- of all the civilised nations. Uncivilised nations are blessed ing, or, if unavoidable, the utilisation of bye-products the with neither national debts nor heat-regenerating applifundamental principles which we try to instil into the mind of the young chemist about to begin his career as a My last comparison between biology and applied chemmanufacturer ? The history of applied chemistry is teem- istry I should like to choose from a chapter which one ing with examples where the survival of the fittest means might call biological sociology, though I am not aware neither more nor less than a victory of economy.
that that name is commonly given to it. It treats of the We all know that that marvellous creation of human wonderful phenomena of symbiosc and aggregation. ingenuity, the closed ring of industrial chemical processes Symbiosis is, as we now know, of very frequent occurworking in connection with Leblanc's method of pro
Plants or animals of totally different nature and ducing soda, is practically extinct on the Continent and organisation, or even plants and animals, may combine materially reduced in its importance in England. This for joint life and activity with the object of helping and fate it had to suffer, because it was a wasteful process- protecting each other in the great struggle for existence. wasteful in its utilisation of material and wasteful in its What neither of them would be able to fulfil or obtain consumption of energy. The skill and resource exerted by its own strength and power they can do with ease in its invention and constant improvement will for ever and certainty in their faithful allegiance. Gregariousbe gratefully remembered ; but they were unable to check ness—the flocking together of organisms of the same kind the progress of the Solvay process, which is more -arises from the same spirit of mutual help and protececonomical in its use of energy, and of the electrolytic tion. methods for splitting up the alkaline chlorides, which pro- There is a great deal in human life and institutions, in duce no bye-products.
our niorals, politics, and science, which reminds us that The progress of industrial chemistry does not always the human race, as an intrinsic part of animated nature, depend on the introduction of more perfect, but also more has also inherited its all-pervading tendency for combining complicated, machinery and plant into the factories. Of forces; and what is thus apparent in the doings of man. course, every chemical process requires thorough working kind in general cannot be absent in the special field of out from a mechanical point of view, and many of the activity which forms the object of our exertions. The most brilliant successes of our modern chemical industry various forms of chemical industry essentially are mainly due to a clever adaptation of mechanical means symbiotic. They depend upon each other for their success to a chemical end; but, taken a whole, the real
and progress. A solitary chemical factory in a country progress of the chemical industry does not so much consist otherwise devoid of chemical industry is a practical in the improvement of the apparatus as in the simplifica- impossibility. Chemical works come in shoals if they tion of the fundamental chemical reactions. More than
come at all. The maker of acids and alkalis wants other once a seemingly insignificant chemical alteration of an chemical enterprises to use his products, and these, again, industrial process has produced the same or a better effect are constantly on the look-out for customers. The more than the introduction of the most ingenious and costly varied and numerous the factories are, the more they plant.
prosper, in spite of their complaints of growing comThat the great principle of economy is not only applic- petition. able to the material necessary for carrying out chemical The chemists themselves are gregarious. They form reactions, but perhaps even more to the energy consumed societies and academies and institutes and syndicates by by them, is a distinctly modern idea. It is not so very the score, and who can deny the fact that brilliant results long since we have begun to have, if I may say so, have been achieved by such combinations of forces ? a conscience for fuel. Previous generations took it for If we remember, in terms of unmeasured gratitude, the granted that industrial work consumed coal, and that grcat originators of our science and its applications, we the necessary coal had to be provided and to be paid for. cannot forget the help rendered to its progress by such We are now awake to the fact that the quantity of fuel institutions as the Royal Society and Royal Institution, required for an industrial process is very much dependent the French, Italian, and German academies, the leading on the way in which it is made to do its work.
chemical societies, and the innumerable universities in all Of course, the calorimetric effect of any given fuel is parts of the world, the rapid growth and extension of a constant, and it is also true that we can never utilise which is the true gauge of our progress. more than a certain proportion of it; but this proportion Last, but I hope not least, in this list of brilliant aggremay vary considerably. It was alarmingly small almost gations stand our congresses as a new, but most successful, through the whole of the nineteenth century, and we may creation. They represent a modern form of symbiotic congratulate ourselves upon its present ascendent tendency. l effort amongst chemists, which is the more remarkable A striking example of the transformation of our views because it is international. They proclaim the great truth about fuel and its proper use is the history of the smoke that science knows no boundaries and frontiers, that it is question. There was a time, both in England and on the Continent, when smoke was considered a necessary
the joint property of all humanity, and that its adherents evil which had to be suffered. After a while smoke began
are ready to flock together from all parts of the world
for mutual help and progress. It is the great truth proto be looked upon as a nuisance, and war was declared
claimed by one of our past presidents, Marcellin Bertheagainst it by those who suffered from its disagreeable lot“ La science est la bienfaitrice de l'humanité entière properties; but now we know that smoke is a waste, and -which our congresses might write on their banner, for that nobody has better cause to wage war against it than it expresses the spirit which led to their foundation and he who produces it. A smoking chimney does not only ensures their success. carry visible unburned carbon into the atmosphere, but in nine cases out of ten also invisible carbonic oxide and methane, with all the latent energy they contain. Smoking chimneys are thieves, and their misdeeds should not rise
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL unavenged to heaven.
INTELLIGENCE. But even chimneys that are innocent of incomplete com- Dr. H. KOBOLD, professor of astronomy at the Kiel bustion may be guilty of stealing energy if they allow University, has been called to the similar post at Berlin. the gases of combustion to escape into the atmosphere MR. J. E. BARNARD has been appointed lecturer on with a higher temperature than is necessary to activate the draught. The lost energy of such gases may be
microscopy in the department of general pathology and trapped and recovered by the regenerating and recuperating
bacteriology, King's College, London. apparatus now so largely used by many industries. Re
Dr. G. S. West has been appointed to the chair of generative gas-heating is not only a sure prevention of
botany and vegetable physiology in the University of smoke, but also the most powerful means of economising
Birmingham, rendered vacant by the retirement of Prof. heat, and therefore one of the greatest acquisitions of
Hillhouse. modern industry. It is perhaps not saying too much that PROF. W. W. PAYNE has retired from the chair of the saving of national wealth effected by it may amount astronomy at Goodsell Observatory, which he founded at
Carleton College, Northfield (Minn.), in 1877, but retains tion to Science,'' and will include lectures on Galileo, the co-editorship of Popular Astronomy. Dr. H. Wilson, Vesalius and others, by such well-known authorities as his co-worker, has been appointed to the professorship. Prof. Osler, Prof. A. Macalister, and Mr. Marconi. In
addition to the general course on Italy, lectures and classes Dr. C. GORDON Hewitt has accepted the appointment
have been organised for economic and political science, and as entomologist to the Dominion of Canada in succession
a special class on practical map-making will be conducted to the late Dr. James Fletcher, and has resigned, in con
by Mr. N. F. Mackenzie. Application for tickets, and sequence, his post as lecturer economic zoology in the
all inquiries in connection with the meeting, should be University of Manchester. . He will leave England in
addressed to Mr. J. A. R. Marriott, University Extension September to take up his new duties at Ottawa.
Office, Examination Schools, Oxford. We learn from the Westminster Gazette that the heirs
We learn from the Pioneer Vail that a vesting order of the late Herr Heinrich Lanz, head of the Mannheim
relating to the Tata Research Institute has been issued. engineering firm, have given a million marks for the
The order recapitulates the bequests of the late Mr. Tata, establishment of an academy of sciences at Heidelberg,
and enumerates other gifts which have been made for the which will stand in the same relation to the university as the similar institutions in Leipzig and Göttingen stand
purposes of the institute; it then proceeds to outline the
scheme for the government of the institute. The Viceroy to the universities in those cities.
is to be an ex-officio patron, and the heads of local LORD STRATHCONA has just presented the
of Governments of India are included as vice-patrons. There 100,000l. to the McGill University, Montreal, of which will be also a court of visitors, on which the Government he is Chancellor. Of this amount, 90,000l. is needed to of India and the Government of Mysore will be reprecomplete and equip the new medical buildings, the old sented, and Messrs. Tata, the sons of the benefactor, will buildings having been destroyed by fire in 1907. The be members during their lives. The director-general of remaining 10,000l. is intended as a subscription to the education, the directors of public instruction to local sund for increasing salaries throughout the University. Governments, and professors of the institute will be exAt the meeting on June 28 of the council of the Uni
officio members. There will be a council of twelve, a versity of Paris, the rector, M. Liard, announced,
senate, and a standing committee of the court of visitors. learn from the Revue scientifique, a gift by M. Henry
The council, on which four professors will serve, will be Deutsch of 500,000 francs, and an annual grant of 15,000
the executive body of the institute, its proceedings being francs, towards a scheme for the creation of an aëro
subject, however, to review by the standing committee technical institute. He also announced a donation from
referred to. There are now, we learn from the same M. Basil Zakaroff of 700,000 francs for the foundation of
source, ample resources at the disposal of the governing
body of the institute. The sum available for initial exa chair of aviation in the faculty of sciences of the University.
penditure includes building grants of 5 lakhs and 2 lakhs
respectively from the Mysore Durbar and the Government The Belfast University Commissioners have made the
of India respectively, with 11 lakhs from the Madras following, among other, appointments to professorships
Government to be spread over three years, and there are and lectureships in the Queen's University of Belfast :
in all 13 lakhs practically in hand. As the endowment professor of economics, Mr. Thomas Jones; professor of is on a liberal scale, the financial future of the institute botany, Mr. D. T. Gwynne-l'aughan ; lecturer in organic is assured. It may be added that the actual buildings are chemistry, Dr. A. W. Stewart ; lecturer in physics, Dr.
estimated to cost Rs. 6,57,000. Robert Jack; lecturer in bio-chemistry, Dr. J. A. Milroy ; lecturer in geology and geography, Dr. A. R. Dwerry- Tue new buildings of the University of Birmingham house ; lecturer on hygiene, Dr. W. James Wilson.
were opened by the King and Queen yesterday as we went New buildings in connection with the Merchant
to press. The following message upon this development Venturers' Technical College, Bristol,
of university work has been sent by Mr. Chamberlain to were opened by
the Birmingham Gazette :-" The University formally Lord Reay on June 24. The college will, for the future, provide the faculty of engineering in the newly established
opened by their Majesties in person to-day is the crownUniversity of Bristol, and in consequence of this arrange
ing point of the work undertaken by our city, and endows
us with an institution we have long contemplated. His ment certain changes in the curriculum and time-table will in all probability come into effect at the beginning of
Majesty's consent to perform the opening ceremony is one next session. These probable modifications are outlined in
inore example of his constant interest in all that concerns
the welfare of his subjects. It singularly enhances the a short illustrated prospectus of the day classes of the college which was published recently. There are depart- Royal approval the work which has thus been accom
importance of the occasion and distinguishes with his ments for the study of many branches of engineering, plished. Nothing in the history of education in this including civil, mechanical, electrical, mining, and motorcar engineering, the last-named subject being in charge of
country is more surprising than the recent growth of
Formerly university institutions.
ancestors a special professor.
satisfied with the three universities of Oxford, Cambridge, A NEW departure has been made in connection with the and Durham in the whole of England and Wales; now faculty of engineering of the University of Liverpool. A in the last twenty years we have added to them other special course on refrigeration has been introduced into universities to provide for the wants of the towns and the honours school of mechanical engineering. The
districts which are of provincial importance, and we have general theory and actual testing of refrigerating machines found that with the growth of these bodies has come the is included in the course on heat engines, but, in the demand for instruction of the higher kind. Accordingly final year of an honours student's four years' work, a
a fully equipped university has been course of lectures and laboratory, work on heat engines established, and higher education has been placed within and refrigerators is provided. In addition, a special reach of all. By the generosity of our citizens and the optional
has been arranged refrigerating munificence of some personal friends we in Birmingham machinery and cold storages, comprising the design of have been enabled to provide and equip the principal refrigerating machinery, the construction of cold storages, technical departinents of our university on a scale which ice-making plants, and the general practice of refrigeration. previously has been unattempted in this country ; but what This experiment, which constitutes, it is stated, the first we have accomplished is only the beginning. Much still attempt in this country to establish special instruction on remains to be done. The buildings are complete, and the refrigeration, will be watched with interest.
endowments are altogether inadequate; the foundations The programme of the Summer School of University have been laid, but the building up of the structure lies Extension Students, which is to be held this year at
with the citizens of Birminghan.". Oxford from July 30 to August 23, covers a sufficient
A scheme is being developed to provide an interchange range of subjects to appeal to the most diverse tastes. of University students between the United Kingdom, Pure science scarcely takes the prominent place accorded Canada, and the United States. The object is to provide to it in previous years; we notice, however, that one opportunities for as many as possible of the educated section of the work arranged is entitled “Italy's Contribu- 1 youth of these countries to obtain some real insight into