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the life and customs of other nations at a time when their piano wires tested S was of the order 1, and for the copper, own opinions are forming, with a minimum of incon- and brass wires of the order 1.5. The lengthening of a venience to their academic work and the least possible steel wire 0.97 mm. diameter and 2.3 metres long for a expense, with the view of broadening their conceptions twist of one turn in the length was about 0.0019 mm. and rendering them of greater economic and social value. This lengthening on twisting should be taken into account Lord Strathcona has consented to become president for

in accurate determinations of the rigidity.—The wave. the United Kingdom. The list of vice-presidents includes motion of a revolving shaft and a suggestion as to the the names of the Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors of angular momentum beam of circularly polarised many British universities, the Prime Minister, the Lord light : J. H. Poynting. When a shaft of circular section Chancellor, and other well-known men. A large and re- is revolving uniformly, and is transmitting power uniformly, presentative committee has also been appointed. Additional a row of particles originally in a line parallel to the axis objects of the movement are to increase the value and will lie on a spiral of constant pitch, and the position of efficiency of present university training by the provision the shaft at any instant may be described by the position of certain travelling scholarships for practical observation

of this spiral. The motion of the spiral onwards may be in other countries under suitable guidance. In addition to regarded as a kind of wave motion. Its velocity with a academic qualifications, the selected candidate is what is given speed of revolution will only be the natural popularly known as an " all-round

man, the selection to velocity v(up) of twist waves, along the shaft for a be along the lines of the Rhodes scholarships. It is certain torque on the shaft. For any other torque the hoped to afford technical and industrial students facilities

velocity is forced," "and forces from outside must be to examine into questions of particular interest to them applied to maintain it: at every point where the twist is in manufactures, &c., by observation in other countries changing. The group velocity of waves of this kind is and by providing them with introductions to leaders in Taking a uniformly revolving tube as a mechanical industrial activity. It is proposed to establish two students' model of a beam of circularly polarised light, and assuming travelling bureaux, one in New York and one in London ;

that the relation between torque and energy holding for to appoint an American secretary (resident in New York)

the model holds also for the beam of light, the angular and a British secretary (resident in London), to afford momentum delivered per second to unit area of an absorbevery facility to any graduate who wishes to visit the

ing surface upon which the light falls normally is Pa/21, United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom for the

where P is the pressure of the light and 1 is its wavepurpose of obtaining an insight into the life of those length. In light-pressure experiments P is detected by the countries. It is hoped to provide twenty-eight travelling

torque produced on a disc at the end of an arm about scholarships, fourteen of these being available for universi

The value is therefore about 100,000 times as great ties in the United Kingdom, ten for universities in America,

the torque on the same disc, due to the angular and four for universities in Canada. The total cost of

momentum. If the angular momentum of circularly the scheme, inclusive of the maintenance of two travelling polarised light only has this value, there does not appear bureaux and the provision of twenty-eight scholarships per

to be much prospect of detecting it at present. The effect annum, is estimated at 13,500l. for a period of three years,

of a magnetic field on the electrical conductivity of fame : equivalent to an annual expenditure of 4500l., the relative

Prof. H. A. Wilson. This paper contains an account of annual expenditure being estimated at 24001. in the United

some experiments on the change in the conductivity of a Kingdom, bool. in Canada, and 1500l. in the United States.

Bunsen flame produced by a magnetic field. The current Promises of support may be sent to the hon. secretary,

through the flame was horizontal, and the magnetic field Mr. Henry W. Crees, at the University. Club, Birming- ratio of the potential gradient in the flame to the current

was also horizontal, but perpendicular to the current. The ham, and it is hoped that all interested in promoting the success of an educational scheme of far-reaching signifi

was taken as a measure of its resistance. The results in the English-speaking world will contribute

show that SR/R=AH? + BH, where H denotes the magfinancially.

netic field, R the resistance, and A and B are constants. The velocity of the negative ions can be calculated from

the term AH”, and the result is 9600 cm./sec. for i volt SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

per cm., which agrees with Mr. E. Gold's results obtained

by an entirely different method. The term BH is preLONDON.

sumably due to the upward motion of the flame gases, but Royal Society, June 24. -- Prof. J. rossar Ewart, vice- its value is about fifty times greater than the value calcupresident, in the chair.-Pressure perpendicular to the lated from the ionic theory.-Studies of the processes shear planes in finite pure shears, and on the lengthening operative in solutions ; xi., the displacement of salts from of loaded wires when twisted : J. H. Poynting. When solution by various precipitants : Prof. H. E. Armstrong a solid is subjected to a finite pure shear the lines of and Dr. J. V. Eyre.—The thermal conductivity of air and greatest elongation and contraction are not the diagonals other gases : G. W. Todd. The paper gives an account of the rhombus into which a square is sheared, but lines of a determination of the thermal conductivities of air making, respectively, 16/4 with the diagonals of the and other gases at atmospheric pressure. The conductivity square, where e is the angle of shear, and these lines was obtained from observations of the steady flow of heat are at right angles to the order of e. If we assume that between two horizontal circular metal plates maintained a pressure P is put on along the lines of greatest con- at different temperatures, the upper one at the temperature traction, and a tension Q along the lines of greatest of steam and the lower one at room temperature. The elongation, we may put P=ue + pe?, Q=ue - pe, where u upper plate was fixed, and the lower one could be moved is the rigidity and p is a constant to the second order of e. up and down so as to vary the distance between them. For equilibrium a pressure R=(ju + p)e is required per- If the temperatures of the plates are kept constant, the pendicular to the shear planes. This is zero only if quantity of heat passing per second from the upper plate p= -ļu, a supposition for which there is no apparent to the lower, when the distance between them is x, is

To keep constant volume a stress may be needed given by Q=K/x+R+Ex, where the constant K is preS=qe perpendicular to the plane containing P and Q, a portional to the thermal conductivity, R is the heat pressure if 9 is positive. Suppose that a wire is twisted radiated, and Ex is the effect due to the edge. The latter by a torque with axis along the axis of the wire. To keep is negligible when x is small compared with the radius of the volume constant at every point it would be necessary the plates, so that the relation between Q and x is give! to apply the system of forces R and S from outside. if by a rectangular hyperbola. Hence the relation between this system is not applied we may expect the wire to O and 1/x is a straight line the slope of which gives K, change in length and diameter by amounts calculable in: from which the conductivity is determined. The interterms of the elastic constants. The change in length section of this line with the axis of Q gives the value R should be an increase dl= Sa’62/1, where S is a function of the radiation. The value of the conductivity so obtained of the constants, given in the paper, a is the radius, and was independent of the nature of the surfaces of the plates. A is the twist in length l. Such a lengthening has been and also independent of the dimensions of the plates, the found to exist for piano-steel, copper, and brass wires latter proving that convection currents were absent nwhen loaded enough to straighten out kinks. For the negligible. The conductivities of some gases other than

cance

reason.

air were determined by comparing the rates of flow of ceeding very slowly. No similar property is possessed by heat through them with the rate of flow through air when glucose or mannose. These properties of fructose indicate the plates were at a fixed distance apart. The paper con- that this sugar when added to yeast-juice does not act cludes with a calculation of the “ radiation constant," from merely as a substrate to be fermented, but bears some a determination of the absorption coefficient of the surfaces specific relation to the fermenting complex. All the facts of the plates when painted black, and the radiation R.- are consistent with the supposition that fructose actually The possible ancestors of the horses living under domestica- forms a part of the fermenting complex. When the contion, part i. : Dr. J. C. Ewart. By some naturalists it centration of this sugar is increased, a greater quantity is believed that domestic horses are the descendants of a of the complex would be formed, and, as the result of this Pleistocene species (Equus fossilis)-now represented by the

increase in the concentration of the active catalytic agent, wild horse (E. przewalskii) of Mongolia-by others, the the juice would become capable of bringing about the rehorses living under domestication are said to be a blend action with sugar in presence of phosphate at a higher of a coarse-headed northern species allied to Prejvalsky's rate, and at the same time the optimum concentration of horse, and a fine-limbed southern species which in pre- phosphate would become greater, exactly as is observed. historic times inhabited North Africa, or a blend of a —The electrical reactions of certain bacteria applied to the Prejvalsky-like northern species and a southern species detection of tubercle bacilli in urine by means of an electric closely allied to E. sivalensis of the Pliocene deposits of current: C. Russ. The aim of these experiments was to India. The examination of the skull, teeth, and limb ascertain whether bacteria suspended in an electrolyte are bones of horses found at Roman settlements and in the transmitted during electrolysis to either electrode, with the vicinity of pile-dwellings indicates that domestic horses view of the recovery of pathogenic bacteria from a pathooriginally belonged to several distinct types, viz. (1) a logical fluid by such means. During electrolysis of certain type characterised by long limbs, by a long face, broad salts in which bacteria were suspended, the organisms and convex between the orbits, and strongly deflected on were found to migrate to one electrode ; in some instances the cranium, and by the crown of the fourth premolar there was no migration. The effect was noticed to occur being from before backwards about 2.5 times the length with killed as well as with living bacteria. By testing of the grinding surface of its pillar"; (2) a type with certain organisms in the same (but a small) series of slender limbs, a fine, narrow, slightly deflected face, and electrolytes some differences of effect were found, though the crown of the fourth premolar about three times the this line of inquiry was not pursued. To utilise this length of its pillar”; (3) a type with fairly slender bacterial movement, an electrolyte in which tubercle bacilli limbs, a long, narrow, somewhat deflected face, and the had shown marked kathodic aggregation was added to crown of the fourth premolar about twice the length of tuberculous urine, and the kathode arranged in the form its " pillar "; (4) a type characterised by short, broad of a bacterial trap. After electrolysis tubercle bacilli metacarpals, a short face, broad and fat between the entered the trap, which was eventually withdrawn, and the orbits, and nearly in a line with the cranium, and by the organisms recognised in a stained film prepared from its crown of the fourth premolar being twice the length of contents. A series of such urines was tested in this way, its “ pillar "; and (5) a type with short, wide metacarpals, and in each case tubercle bacilli were found in the trap. the face long and strongly deflected, and the crown of the In the final experiment a number of tubercle bacilli fourth premolar about 1.5 times the length of its “pillar." (estimated at 500) were added to 100 c.c. normal urine, and Only the varieties characterised by molars with short their detection attempted by separate investigators by “ pillars ” are dealt with in this communication. The means of the centrifuge and current. By the centrifuge possible ancestors of the short-pillared varieties are Equus none were found, while the current recovered 128 bacilli. sivalensis of Indian Pliocene deposits, E. stenonis of the The results of this preliminary investigation may be sumPliocene deposits of Europe and North Africa, and a new marised as follows:-Certain bacteria under the influence species, E. gracilis. Arabs, barbs, thoroughbreds, and of a suitable current aggregate at one or other electrode. other modern breeds with a long deflected face, broad and The aggregation varies with the nature of the electrolyte, prominent between the orbits, and the limbs slender, seem and is probably due to affinity between the products of to have mainly sprung from E. sivalensis, while certain electrolysis and the bacteria. It occurs with killed as well unimproved breeds with a deflected face, but very short as with living bacteria. The aggregation by electrical

pillars,' are probably related to E. stenonis. Exmoor, currents affords a means of collection and examination. Hebridean, Iceland, and other ponies of the

type, The differences in behaviour of various bacteria are such as well as ponies found in the south of France, the West as to suggest the possibility of utilising the method for Indies, and Mexico, characterised by a fine narrow skull, purposes of specific discrimination, but in this particular slender limbs, and the absence of ergots and hind chest

the data hitherto obtained are not sufficient to warrant nuts, are regarded as the descendants of E. gracilis, which definite statements.—The effect of the injection of the intraincludes (1) the small species of the English drift described cellular constituents of bacteria (bacterial endotoxins) on by Owen as a fossil ass or zebra (Asinus fossilis); (2) the the opsonising action of the serum of healthy rabbits : Dr. small species of French Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits

R. Tanner Hewlett. In this investigation the effect of known to palæontologists as E. ligeris, and the small the endotoxins of the Bacillus typhosus, Micrococcus species of North African Pleistocene deposits known as pyogenes aureus, and B. tuberculosis on the opsonising E. asinus atlanticus, and hitherto believed to be closely action of the serum of normal rabbits has been studied. related to, if not the ancestor of, zebras of the Burchell The endotoxins were prepared by the Macfadyen process, type. By crossing experiments evidence has been obtained the rabbits were inoculated subcutaneously, and the speciof the wide distribution of horses of the E. gracilis type ; mens for counting the number of bacteria ingested by that broad-browed Arabs and thoroughbreds, with the face | leucocytes were prepared in the usual manner.

Human nearly in a line with the cranium, are mainly a blend of a leucocytes were employed, and the counts were made on southern variety of E. gracilis (E. caballus libycus) and a fifty cells. (A) Typhoid Endotoxin.—The results for this horse of the " forest"

or Solutré type, and that heavy endotoxin are approximate only, as agglutination and breeds have not inherited their coarse limbs from a species bacteriolysis are complicating factors. The amount of closely allied to the wild horse of Mongolia.—The alcoholic endotoxin injected was

mgrm., prepared from ferment of yeast-juice; part iv., the fermentation of avirulent strain. One day after injection a decided negative glucose, mannose, and fructose by yeast-juice : A. Harden phase had developed (opsonic index about 0-2), two days and W. J. Young. (1) Mannose behaves towards yeast- after injection the index was rising (1.4), and attained a juice, both in the presence and in the absence of added maximum on the third day (3-3), after which it fell. Diluphosphates, substantially in the same manner as glucose. tion of the serum to 1 in 5 and 1 in 10 tended to increase (2) Fructose resembles both glucose and mannose in its phagocytosis. (B) Staphylococcus Endotoxin.--Endotoxin behaviour, but in presence of phosphate is fermented much prepared from an old laboratory strain in a dose of more rapidly than these sugars, and the optimum concen- 0.1 mgrm. produced a rise in the opsonic index to 1.6, tration of phosphate is much higher. (3) Fructose has which persisted for some weeks. Endotoxin (0.1 mgrm.) the property of inducing rapid fermentation in presence of prepared from a recently isolated strain produced a rise to yeast-juice in solutions of glucose and mannose, containing 2.5. An equivalent dose of staphylococcus vaccine such an excess of phosphate that fermentation is only pro- (1000 x 10 cocci) produced a rise of the opsonic index to

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1.8, which fell subsequently to a point lower than that due to the experimental arrangement, but was a real effect. with either endotoxin. Estimations of the opsonic indexes The fact that the Brays from uranium, actinium, &c., made with the recently isolated strain gave results higher are absorbed by matter according to an exponential law is than those obtained using the old strain. With another shown to be a proof, not of their homogeneity, but of endotoxin, varying doses (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 mgrm.) all their heterogeneity. Groups of rays can be built up which produced marked rise in the opsonic indexes, the rise corre- represent the properties of these rays with respect to sponding with the dose. (c) Tubercle Endotoxin.-Injection absorption. Further experiments were made on the change of 0.002 mgrm. of endotoxin caused a rise in the opsonic of velocity of the rays after passing through absorbing index to 1.9 sixteen days after. A similar dose of German material, and it was found that the velocity of the rays, tuberculin R. produced hardly any effect. A large dose contrary to the view expressed by H. W. Schmidt, is (1.0 mgrm.) of endotoxin caused a marked negative phase appreciably reduced as they penetrate matter. The law of (index 0.5) forty-eight hours after injection, with a sub-absorption of the B particles when measured by the ionisasequent rise to 1.8. Endotoxin (1.0 mgrm.) prepared from tion method involves a considerable number of factors, tubercle bacilli previously extracted with ether also pro- and, as might be expected, no simple relation could be duced a negative phase, with a subsequent rise to 1.5. found betwcen the absorption of the rays and their velocity. (1) Keeping Power of Endotoxin Solutions.-Experiments ---Experimental researches on vegetable assimilation and were performed with staphylococcus and tubercle endotoxin respiration ; v., a critical examination of Sachs' method solutions which had been kept for seven weeks after pre- for using increase of dry weight as a measure of carbon paration ; there was little diminution in activity. Other dioxide assimilation in leaves : D. Thoday.—The reproduc, experiments indicate that the solutions deteriorate but little tion and early development of Laminaria digitata and for three to six months after preparation. (E) Negative | Laminaria saccharina : G. H. Drew. The processes of Phase.—Experiments indicate that endotoxin produces reproduction and early development in both L. digitata decidedly less negative phase than a vaccine.--The and L. saccharina are very similar. The plant is the occurrence of protandric hermaphroditism in Crepidula gametophyte, and is monæcious. The reproductive areas fornicata: J. “H. Orton. Crepidula fornicata is

as dark patches on the lamina, and consist of streptoneurous gastropod belonging to the family Calyp- gametangia embedded among paraphyses. The gametangia træidæ. Individuals of this species associate together contain small spherical gametes, 0.003 mm. in diameter, permanently in linear series, forming “ chains." The and a number of globules of an oily substance. When chains may consist of from two to twelve individuals. The mature, the gametangia rupture at their distal extremity sex relations of the individuals were noted in about 300 and liberate their contents. * The liberated gametes develop chains. It was found that the individuals which occur two flagella of different lengths, which are inserted close at the attached ends of the chains are always females, together ; they are phototactic, and move in the direction those occurring near the top of the chains are males, while of the longer flagellum. Cultures from the reproductive those about the middle often possess the secondary sexual areas were made in a culture solution consisting of various characters of both sexes. In intermediate positions in the salts dissolved in sea water. The solution was sterilised chains occur forms which, in their secondary sexual by heat, and all Alasks, pipettes, &c., were sterilised by characters, are intermediate between females and herma- | boiling. Division cultures containing the planogametes phrodites on the one hand, and between hermaphrodites were made, and eventually cultures free from growths of and males on the other. Thus the chains present a tran- the Ectocarpaceæ and other algæ were obtained. In such sitional series, beginning with the males, which are the cultures, stages of isogamous conjugation, resulting in a youngest individuals, and ending with the females, which spherical zygospore, were observed. Later a process grew are the oldest individuals. Microscopical examination of out from the zygospore, and expanded at its end, and then the gonad has shown that there is as complete a tran- the cell contents passed along this process, forming a sitional series in the primary sexual characters as occurs spherical mass at the expanded end. This became cut off in the secondary ones. All the adults are sedentary, but by a cell wall, and the remains of the zygospore de. the young are able to move about freely. One thousand generated. The cell thus formed developed chromoplasts, young ones have been examined, and found to be all males. increased in size, and divided, producing typically a chain There is, therefore, no doubt that all the individuals begin of cells each having an outer and an inner cell wall. This life as males, and change gradually in the course of their stage probably represents the sporophyte (2x) generation. life-history into females. It is highly probable, from known Any cell of the chain may then rupture its outer cell wall, descriptions of allied species, and from observation on and by repeated divisions give rise to the laminaria plant species of allied genera, that protandric hermaphroditism which emerges from the ruptured exosporium. The young is common in the Calyptræida.. Further, it seems probable plant consists of a flattened lamina made up of cubical that the family will present a series in the evolution of cells, having at its base a number of colourless unicellular protandric hermaphroditism. If such a series be found rhizoids. The stipe is developed from the basal part of the there is little doubt that a study of the earlier stages would lamina. The disc-shaped expansion develops at the base lead to the discovery of the nature of the sexes, i.e. in of the stipe and partially envelops the primary rhizoids; Mendelian terms, whether the male is heterozygous and the hapteres arise as outgrowths from this disc.-The the female homozygous, or vice versa. Ten other strepto- germicidal action of metals, and its relation to the proneurous hermaphrodites are known. It would seem, there- duction of peroxide of hydrogen : Dr. A. C. Rankin.fore, that one of the chief distinctions between the Strepto- Surface flow in calcite : G. T. Beilby.--A preliminary note neura and the Euthyneura is beginning to break down.- Trypanosoma eberthi (Kent)-(Spirochaeta eberthi. Sensitive micro-balances, and a new method of weighing | Lühe), and some other parasitic forms from the intestine minute quantities : B. D. Steele and K. Grant.-The of

magnesium hydride : Prof. . The of homogeneous B rays by , on The author has previously discovered that many of the the variation of the absorption of the rays with velocity : band lines peculiar to the sun-spot spectrum are identical Il'. Wilson. The experiments were made with the view of with lines composing the green sluting attributed to determining the manner in which the absorption coefficient magnesium hydride by Liveing and Dewar. The present of the B rays varies with the velocity. Radiuin, which paper gives the results of a further investigation of this gives out ravs the velocities of which vary between verv spectrum with high dispersion, together with details of wide limits, was used as a source of radiation. A beam of wave-length determinations. The principal results may be rays from the radium passed into a magnetic field, by briefly summarised as follows :-(1) No sufficient reason means of which approximately homogeneous rars could be has been found for modifying Liveing and Dewar's conbrought into an electroscope. The velocities of the rays clusion that the spectrum is produced by the combination could be determined from the strength of the magnetic of magnesium with hydrogen. (2) Lines are shown at field. Screens of metal of different thicknesses were inter- short intervals in all parts of the spectrum from the posed in the path of the rays, and it was found that the extreme red to 1 2300, and definite groups of flutings law of absorption was not exponential, but approximately begin at 5621:57, 5211•11, 4844.92, 4371.2, and near 2430. linear, except for large thicknesses of absorbing material. (3) From photographs of the magnesium arc in hydrogen Various experiments were made to show that this was not at low pressures, taken with a 10-feet concave grating, the

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positions of close upon 2000 lines, composing the three tion of the salt, nor to the speed of the ions, but might principal bands, have been determined. The wave-lengths be explained by the assumption of some association of were derived from the interference standards of Fabry and molecules and ions.-Seismic radiations, partii. : Dr. Buisson, but have been corrected to Rowland's scale to C. G. Knott. Following up results regarding reflection facilitate comparison with solar spectra. (4) Twelve of the and refraction of seismic disturbances given twenty years series of lines which compose the green band have been ago (see also Phil. Mag., 1899), the author calculated the traced, and it is shown that none of the formulæ which surface disturbances which accompany the reflection of have been proposed is sufficiently general in its applica- the various types of elastic wave at the surface of an tion to represent all of these series within the limits of elastic solid. When the incident wave is condensational error of measurement. For the longer series the closest there is always a reflected distortional wave as well as a approximation is given by Halm's equation. (5) The reflected condensational wave, and a simple harmonic disidentification of magnesium hydride in

the sun-spot

turbance produces at the surface a simple harmonic disturbspectrum has been fully confirmed, and is clearly demon- ance along a line differing at most incidences by a few strated by photographs submitted for reproduction.

(6) It

degrees from the direction of the incident disturbance. is shown that many of the bright interruptions of the dark When, however, the incident wave is distortional there background of the spot spectrum are not bright lines, but is, after a certain critical angle, no reflected condensational merely clear interspaces between lines or groups of lines

For incidences greater than this critical value the in the spectrum of magnesium hydride. (7) The presence original simple harmonic motion of the incident wave is of the magnesium hydride flutings, together with flutings not, in general, accompanied by a simple harmonic motion of titanium oxide and calcium hydride discovered at Mount of each particle of the .surface, but each point of the Wilson, accords with the view that spots are regions of surface is thrown into elliptic motion of all degrees of reduced temperature, and that their darkness is at least ellipticity from circle to straight line. Details were worked partly due to absorption. (8) The investigation of the out for certain assumed values of the elastic constants. possible presence of lines of magnesium hydride in the The results indicate how misleading in certain cases is the ordinary solar spectrum is for several reasons inconclusive, phrase “ emergence angle,” much, used by seismologists. but there is evidence that very few, if any, of the thousands

Paris. of faint lines tabulated by Rowland are to be accounted for Academy of Sciences. June 28.-M. Émile Picard in by this substance.-The discovery of remedy for

the chair.-Integral equations of the first species : Emile malignant jaundice in the dog, and for redwater in cattle :

Picard. The gases of volcanic fumaroles : Armand Prof. G. H. F. Nuttall and S. Hadwen.—The comparative Gautier. The gas samples were collected under experipower of alcohol, ether, and chloroform, as measured by mental conditions designed to exclude the possibility of their action upon isolated muscle : Dr. A. D. Waller. the admission of atmospheric oxygen, and to preserve gases EDINBURGH.

alterable by water, such as carbon oxysulphide. Gas Royal Society. June 21.-lur. Burreis, vice-president, in the taken from fumaroles at Vesuvius near the top of the chair.-The pharmacological action of protocatechyl- was found to consist of hydrochloric acid, carbon tropeine: Prof. C. R. Marshall. Like

other dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. No sulphur tropeines, this substance paralyses, but only for a short compounds could be detected, and carbon monoxide, oxides period, the so-called vagal endings of the heart; it also of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and fluorides were absent. depresses the neuro-muscular junctions in voluntary muscle Gases collected from fumaroles Vesuvius eighteen and the muscular tissue itself. Its most interesting action, months after an eruption showed hydrochloric acid to be however, is upon the respiration. Medium doses, intra- absent, and 0.5 to 2.0 of carbon monoxide present. It venously administered, rapidly paralyse the respiration. was noted that, although no halogen acids could be This effect is generally transitory, and is not concomitant detected, the gases leaving the fumaroles rapidly attacked with other effects produced by the compound. Tappeiner steel and copper.--Ordinary carbon: H. Le Chatelier and Pohl have observed similar transitory effects after and M. Wologdine. By modifying the graphitic oxide intravenous injection of other derivatives, and Pohl's ex- reaction, graphite has been proved to be present in planation, which ascribes the effect to paralysis of the carbon from acetylene and in other varieties of carbon respiratory centres, was shown to be the true one for proto- produced at moderately low temperatures, hitherto assumed catechyltropeine. The relation between chemical constitu- to be free from graphite. Carefully, purified amorphous tion and pharmacological action as exemplified in the carbon from various sources has a density of about 1.8. tropeines was considered, and an attempt made to show -The existence of trachytes with quartz (bostonites) in that definite action could not with certainty be attributed

the Mont-Dore massif : A. Michel Levy and A. Lacroix. to the two constituent, groupings of the tropeines.—The - The polished stonework in the Haut-Oubanghi: A. toot poison of New Zealand ; an investigation into its

Lacroix. The ornaments

made of worked and pharmacological action : Prof. C. R. Marshall. This polished quartz; the process of manufacture is described poison, which includes three definite species of Coriaria, in detail, and shown to be strikingly analogous with has proved a serious hindrance to the rearing of stock in similar work in Neolithic deposits.-The origin and evoluNew Zealand. The active principle, isolated by Easter- tion of fresh-water shrimps of the family of Atyidæ : field and Aston, is a glucoside named tutin. The effects E. L. Bouvier - The hydration of potassium carbonate : produced are chiefly stimulation of the medullary centres M. de Forcrand. A thermochemical paper.—The action and epileptiform convulsions, which are mainly of cortical of metallic oxides on methyl alcohol : Paul Sabatier and pontine origin. Pontine convulsions

very

and A. Mailhe. Alumina, at temperatures about 300° C., susceptible to anæsthctics. A fall of temperature always

furnishes a large yield of methyl oxide; thoria and occurs after the administration of tutin. . The substance titanium dioxide 350° behave similarly; oxides of also depresses the sentient centres, and in man causes loss

chromium and tungsten give a mixture of methyl oxide of memory. Coriamyrtin and picrotoxin have a similar and formaldehyde, the latter being partially split up into action, but are more powerful, and in some respects more

carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Other oxides give the transient in action, than tutin.-Hydrolysis of salts in latter reaction exclusively:-Observations of the comet amphoteric electrolytes : Miss H. H. Beveridge. The 1909a, made at the Observatory of Lyons with the bent two principal methods in general use for determining the equatorial of 32

aperture : J. Guillaume.—The degree of hydrolysis of salts-catalysis of methyl acetate variations of brightness of Encke's comet and the sunand electrical conductivity-give results in the case of spot period : J. Bosler. The graphical comparison of the salts of amphoteric electrolytes which are not at all con

variations in brightness of Encke's comet and the cordant. The hydrolysis of anthranilic hydrochloride was number of sun-spots shows that the two phenomena are therefore investigated by several independent methods. Of clearly related.-Comparison of the spectra of the centre these, the solubility, distribution between two solvents, and the edge of the sun : H. Buisson and Ch. Fabry.catalysis of diazo-acetic ester, and electromotive force all The physical and historical interpretation of some markpointed to the catalysis values being correct, while values ings on the moon's surface; from the eleventh part of obtained from depression of the freezing point and electrical the photographic atlas published by the Observatory of conductivity differed widely from these. The divergence Paris : P. Puiseux.-An extension of the theory of conwas due, not to any abnormality in the degree of ionisa

tinued fractions: A. Chatɔlet.-The calculation of the.

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roots of numerical equations: R. Montessus.- of Guyra. It is surrounded by low basalt hills, except Remarks on a note by M. Petit on a new wave detector for a depression in these to the south-east. The lagoon, for wireless telegraphy and telephony: E. Tissot. It is which, before 1902, had held water so far back as the suggested that the arrangement of a fine metallic point oldest settlers in the district could remember, is now dry. resting on a crystal of natural pyrites is really one of There has been no diminution in the rainfall to account for the thermoelectric detectors.-Comparison between the this. It is thought that the changing of the limited catcha rays produced by different radio-active substances : Mlle.

from pastoral to agricultural country may Blanquies.--The temperature of the oxyhydrogen flame : account for the present dryness of the lagoon. Field Edmond Bauer. This was found to be 2240° C.-The observations seem to indicate that the depression is a “ initial re-combination" of the ions produced in gases by

crater-lake.-Note on diurnal variations in the temperature a particles : M. Moulin.—The magnetic transformation of of camels : Dr. J. B. Cleland. During the examination lead : M. Loutchinsky. The coefficient of magnetisation of a certain number out of 500 camels in the north-west is ten times greater in lead crystallised by fusion than in of Western Australia, a wide diurnal variation in their lead hammered out or drawn into wire.—The practical temperatures, sometimes of 7° F., was met with. This method for the simultaneous calculation of atomic weights : would seem to be due to the high temperature of the G. D. Hinrichs.--The bromide of dimercurammonium, atmosphere during the day, coupled with the fact that NHg,Br : H. Gaudechon.--The formation of oxygen com- camels only visibly perspire at the back of the neck over pounds of nitrogen and their metallic combinations (iron

a small area,

and the coolness of the nights. The wide and lead) in the production of ozone for the sterilisation diurnal range suggests

resemblance to cold blooded of water : Ed. Bonjean, The amount of oxides of animals.--Some rare Australian Gomphinæ (Neuroptera : nitrogen produced in commercial forms of ozonisers is Odonata), with descriptions of new species: R. J. sufficient seriously to attack lead and iron pipes used in Tillyard. The present paper brings up to date our know. the construction. This has not been considered in the ledge of Australian Gomphinæ. Five new species are design of sterilisation apparatus on the commercial scale. added to the list, and the male of Austrogomphus risi, —The separation of graphite in white cast iron heated Martin, of which only the female was known, is described. under pressure : Gcorges Charpy. Carbon arising from -Studies in the life-histories of Australian Odonata ; i., the decomposition of iron carbide produced at tempera- life-history of Petalura gigantea, Leach: R. J. Tillyard. tures between 700° C. and 1100° C., and under pressures The species is one of the few remaining forms of a rising to 15,000 atmospheres, separates in the form of very ancient family. graphite.-Contribution to the study of uranyl chloride : Echsner de Coninck.--A new alkaloid extracted from

CONTENTS.

PAGE the bark of Pseudocinchona africana : Ernest Fourneau. Ruwenzori and Central Africa. By Sir H. H. The crystallised alkaloid studied has the composition of Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.

31 quebrachine (C,H,,N,0), and resembles this alkaloid in The Planet Mars, 1890-1901. By Dr. William J. S. many of its properties. They differ in rotatory power, Lockyer

33 quebrachine being dextrorotatory and the new base lævo- The Geometry of Forces. By Sir Robert S. Ball, rotatory.--The formation of lactones from acid alcohols : F.R.S..

34 E. E. Blaise and A. Køhler. An e-octolactone can be The Distribution of Gold Ores. 'By J. W. G.

34 prepared from the acid C,H,.CH(OH).(CH2),.CO,H by Swine in America

35 slow distillation in a vacuum, but the S-lactone could not Our Book Shelf:be prepared from the next higher homologue in the same Beattie and Dickson : "A Text-book of General Patho. way. If the dehydration is attempted by heating with logy for the Use of Students and Practitioners' 50 per cent. sulphuric acid, a migration of the hydroxyl Scheiner : “ Der Bau des Weltalls” ; Peter : “Die group takes place, a -lactone being sormed in both

Planeten" instances.--Soluble starch : Ch. Tanret.-The action of Formánek : “Untersuchung und Nachweis organischer hydrogen. peroxide upon crystallised oxyhæmoglobin : I. Farbstoffe auf spektroskopischem Wege”.

37 Szreter.-The cholalic acids : Maurice Piettre.-Re

Redgrove : "On the Calculation of Thermochemical generation in species of Syllis : Aug. Michel.--The

Constants."-A. F...

37 mechanism of the immunity of snakes against the

Hodgson : an Angler's Season.”- L: w.B.

37 salamandrine : Mme. Marie Phisalix.–Concerning a note Lotters to the Editor :of M. Devaux entitled “ The Relation between Sleep and A New Departure in Seismology.-Prof. John the Retention of Interstitial Water”: Raphael Dubois.

Milne, F.R.S. The author points out that this note confirms his results Tables of Bessel and Neumann Functions. - Prof.

the phenomena accompanying sleep in hibernating M. J. M. Hill, F.R.S. animals.—The metamorphosis of the splanchnic muscles Baskets used in Repelling Demons.

Dr. N. in the Muscideæ : Charles Pérez.—The ratio of the weight

Annandale of the liver to the weight of the body in birds : J. de La The Sinhalese People and their Ari. (Illustrated.) Riboisière.-The glacial origin of Loch Lomond and By C, G. S..

39 Loch Tay: Gabriel Eisenmenger.–The hydrology of the A Discussion of Australian Meteorology. By Bracas (Basse-Pyrénées) and of El-Torcal (Andalousie) : R. G. K L E. A. Martel.—The earthquake at Corinth on May 30, Possibility of an Extra-Neptunian Planet 1909: D. Eginitis.

The Sorby Research Fellowship

42 New South Wales. Prof. T. W. Bridge, F.R.S. .

42 Linnean Society, May 26.—Mr. C. Hedley, president, in

Notes

43 the chair.-Metasomatic processes in a cassiterite vein

Our Astronomical Column :from New England : L. A. Cotton. The vein examined Comet 1909a, Borrelly-Daniel lies some six miles south-west of Inverell. A transverse A New Form of Comparison Prism section, about 11 inches in width, was taken and cut into Halley's Comet. six pieces, in planes parallel to the plane of the vein. The Polarisation of the Solar Corona Sections were then cut, and a series of four analyses made. The Solar Constant and the Apparent Temperature of Of the latter, three were of the vein, while the fourth

the Sun was of the country rock, an acid granite. Examination The National consumption of Water. ' By Maurice of the slides showed that the central part of the vein was Fitzmaurice, C.M.G.

47 highly silicevus. The remaining slides of the vein-material The War against Tuberculosis showed an abundance of a peculiar pale mica of a Vision in Relation to Heredity and Environment

49 paragonite-sericite nature. This mica was found to replace Child Employment and Evening Continuation the quartz, felspar, and biotite of the acid granite.

Schools

50 Fluorite was also found as a secondary mineral, and it is Evolution in Applied Chemistry. By Prof. Otto N. possible that a small amount of topaz was present.-Note

51 on the Guyra Lagoon, N.S.W.; L. A. Cotton. The University and Educational Intelligence

54 Guyra Lagoon lies immediately to the west of the town Societies and Academies

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