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relationship lies rather with the Veddahs of Ceylon of each material are described, also the preparation and the other straight-haired Proto-Dravidian races

for use, varieties met with, impurities and adulterants, that still exist sparsely in India and the Malay defects, and tests for quality, including both laboratory Islands."

tests and simple practical tests such as may be applied He says we have a good deal of information as to by the workman. In every case the author is careful their burial customs, which differ totally from those to point out the application of correct scientific prinof the Australians, and their language

to ciples, and from his practical knowledge is able to have differed entirely from the Australian and to show suggest many useful tests not generally known. remote connection with the Andamanese" (p. 31). The work is thoroughly up to date, from both a

His last chapter discusses the biological relations of scientific and a practical point of view, and the latest Australia and Tasmania, and the evidence for the results of investigation into such matters as the connection of Australasia with Antarctica. He is setting action of cement, the rusting of iron, and the convinced that the fauna and flora of Australia micrography of metals are clearly and broadly stated entered it from the south and not from Asia. As he in their bearings upon the practical use of material. truly remarks, the marsupials are most numerous This book will prove of great value to students inand of the most primitive types in southern Australia, / tending to take up architecture as a profession. The while they are comparatively rare and most specialised builder, also, and the practical man will be glad to in northern Australia. If they had migrated from take advantage of much of the information given. In Asia the opposite arrangement would have been fact, many teachers in the architectural and building expected.

departments of technical colleges will be glad to know The author still accepts Galaxias as evidence of of the book with the view of recommending it to their the

recent connection of Australasia and South students. America; he admits that it visits estuaries, but con- This being the first edition, it is hardly to be siders that it can only have spread across the southern expected that the book is entirely free from defects. Pacific along the shelf around the Antarctic land. The diagrammatic illustrations given seem to be the After Mr. Boulenger's letter (NATURE, 1902, vol. Ixvii., least satisfactory part of the work. While the work p. 84), with its convincing evidence that Galaxias has been written so lucidly as to render numerous breeds in the sea, the distribution of that fish is no figures unnecessary, it would seem that more than indication of a former land connection. One slip, in nine illustrations might be legitimately employed to fact, is 'the statement that the tree Senecios are assist the reader in grasping the subject. There is unknown in the tropics (p. 133). They are the largest room for some improvement, too, in the chapter on trees in the alpine zone of Kenya and other east timber, several inaccuracies having escaped correction, African mountains. The author represents Tasmania e.g. on p. 295, what is described as decay due to as not a biological appanage of Australia, as he holds worms should rather be ascribed to the larvæ of that it acquired its present distinctive characters certain beetles, &c. Also, on p. 296, the Teredo, ibefore its separation from the mainland. Although although popularly regarded as a worm, should really this view is probable, the striking differences which be classed with the mollusca. In dealing with dry rot the author well describes between the faunas of the on p. 294, the temperature conditions are not referred two areas indicate that the separation happened long to. although these play an important part in the enough ago for many of the Tasmanian mammals to development of the fungus. have developed into new species. The most striking A few statements in other parts of the book seem part of the book is Mr. Smith's valuable contributions to call for reconsideration or correction, e.g. p. 20, to knowledge of the primitive Tasmanian fresh- $ 3:-“ If two vessels containing the same liquid be water shrimps, of which he discovered a new genus. connected, the level in each will become the same They are allied to those of the European Carbon- whatever i the form or distance of the connecting iferous Crustacea, and are one of the groups of pipe. Again, the statement, p. 277, Shearing and archaic animals still living in Australasia.

torsional stresses are identical, apart from the method

of applying the force producing them,” although PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS.

true, needs explanation to the mind not trained in

mechanics. Introduction to the Chemistry and Physics of Building The explanation given on p. 323 as to the optical

Materials. By Alan E. Munby. Pp. xx+345. theory of the production of a green pigment from (London: A. Constable and Co., Ltd., 1908.) Price yellow and blue powders, will hardly explain fully 6s. net.

how it happens that the same blue powder, mixed UNLIKE many books intended chiefly as short with a red one, will produce purple. Turning to the

success in examination, this work useful table on p. 63, the tyro may be puzzled again seeks to impart in a clear, concise, and accurate to know why, if the substance denoted by CaO,H, is manner the scientific principles underlying the proper termed calcium hydroxide, the substance PbO,H, is use of material in construction.

termed lead hydrate; or, if Co, is called carbon Part i. contains chapters devoted to natural laws, dioxide, why SiO, is called silicon oxide. On p. 18 measurement, the air, heat, chemical principles, the author correctly says, “ To move a heliostat reflectwater, acids and bases, coal, and a useful outline of ing a beam of light requires no more effort than would geology. In part ii. all the chief building materials be necessary in the dark," but the heliostat being are dealt with in detail. The origin and occurrence

į Italics not author's.

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the form, structure, food requirements, and conditions Subsequent chapters deal with

unknown to most students of building materials, it cooled, are less subject to intestinal disturbances than might be advisable to substitute the more familiar children fed on raw milk. At the same time, it must “ mirror."

be admitted that the pasteurisation of milk already However, in spite of a few minor points like these,

filled with bacteria, and the products of their acitivities,

will not remedy its defects. The undesirable subthe book as a whole is well written, and admirably

formed by the bacteria not entirely adapted to the class for whom it is intended. It destroyed by the heating, and may still cause injury deserves to take a permanent place among the text- to the person consuming the milk. books upon the subject, and in future editions the By resorting to pasteurisation, a dealer may be points referred to will no doubt receive attention.

able to dispose of milk that would otherwise quickly H. B.

become unsaleable. Similarly, the failure to cool the pasteurised milk quickly and to keep it at a tempera

ture of 50°, or below that, may lead to the rapid multiECONOMIC BACTERIOLOGY.

plication in the milk of germs producing injurious or

poisonous substances. Hence, pasteurised milk should Bacteria in Relation to Country Life. By Dr. Jacob be consumed within twelve hours, or should be imme.

G. Lipmann. Pp. xx + 486. (New York: The Mac-diately cooled down to between 45o and 50°.” millan Co.; London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., The subject of tuberculosis in relation to milk is 1908.) Price 6s. 6d. net.

fully discussed. It is pointed out that large numbers

of tubercle bacilli may pass into the excreta of tuberW RITTEN in non-technical language, this book

culous cows, a fact which was fully confirmed by the gives a good account of the activities of micro, experiments of our Royal Commission on Tuberculosis organisms. It may therefore be recommended to all

as contained in the last report, and it is concluded that those who desire to obtain a general knowledge of the functions of bacteria and the important rôle they play

“Whatever difference of opinion there may prevail

as to the extent of human tuberculosis caused by the in relation to daily life, while the intelligent agricul consumption of milk and milk products, it is conceded turist will find a large amount of information which by sanitarians that persistent efforts should be made

to eradicate bovine tuberculosis."

milk beverages, of growth of bacteria, successive chapters deal with butter and cheese, canning, ensilage and fermented these organisms as met with in air, water, and sewage. liquors. The relation of water to health and disease is discussed, The book is adequately illustrated and clearly and the chief factors in connection with the con- printed.

R. T. HEWLETT. tamination and purification of water are detailed. A readable account is given of the disposal of sewage and of bacterial systems of sewage disposal. Next

FORESTRY. follow the most important sections of the book, viz. (1) Our Forests and Woodlands. By Dr. J. Nisbet. the relation of bacteria to soil fertility and the influence New and revised edition. Pp. xxiii + 348. (London : of manures. We here find acc 'unts of the sources of J. M. Dent and Co., 1909.) Price 3s. 6d. net. nitrogen in the soil, of nitrification and denitrification, (2) Trees: A Handbook of Forest-Botany for the of the action of leguminous crops in fixing nitrogen, Woodlands and the Laboratory. By the late H. and of soil inoculation with pure cultures of nitrogen- Marshall Ward. Vol. v., Form and Habit. Pp. fixing organisms. The proper methods of storing

xi + 308.

(Cambridge: University Press, 1909.) farmyard manure are dealt with at some length, and Price 4s. 6d. net.

'HE first edition of Dr. Nisbet's well-known the from the manure

book, “ Our Forests and Woodlands," three or four months may range from 15 to 20 per cent. appeared in 1902. The second edition has now been to 40 to 50 per cent. of the initial quantity, and valuable issued, and will doubtless be welcomed by a large suggestions are made on the best means of conserva- circle of readers, not only on account of the interesttion of manurial constituents, both by proper methods ing and important information it contains, but the of storage and by the use of chemical fixatives. price is such as to bring it within the reach of many

The chapters which follow on milk, its production who cannot afford the more expensive, though exceland preservation, are also excellent. Details are given lent, works on forestry at present available to the which show that careful hand-milking yields a better English reader. A very important, and probably the milk as regards bacterial contamination than any milk- most outstanding feature of the new edition is the ing machine, unless extreme precautions are taken in preface, in which the author has given a résumé of the sterilisation of the latter. The subject of pasteur- the progress which has been made in forestry since isation of milk is also critically discussed, and the the appearance of the first edition. The doings of the following extract sums up the author's views on the various Governmental committees and commissions advantages and disadvantages of the process, views which have sat of late years are clearly set forth. with which we fully agree and which should be widely There is also given a very striking table in the form known :

of an abstract from the “Annual Statement of the “ Pasteurisation is effective for the destruction of Timber Trade of the United Kingdom ” for 1906 and disease bacteria in milk and for the improvement of

1907. Here it is shown that the gross total imports its keeping quality. It is agreed that city children fed of wood and timber, wood-pulp, and manufactured on pasteurised milk, properly heated and properly | wood-pulp come to about 37,500,000l. To supply these

it is shown that under different conditions. ret stora in (1) THE

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present demands, leaving out of consideration the in- previous one, has been seen through the press by Dr. creasing consumption, which will no doubt continue, Groom, who informs us in the preface that he has the author points out that it would require 3,000,000 reduced changes from the original to a minimum. acres of conifer and other woodlands, or an annual cut

The few alterations and additions which were found of 50,000 acres of timber worked on a sixty years' necessary have been indicated by enclosure within rotation. Contrary to opinions held in other quarters, square brackets. Part i. deals in a general way with Dr. Nisbet anticipates the decrease in the supply, to the habit or form of trees, and, in addition to the this country at least, of pitwood. At present large text, the form or habit of the tree is indicated in supplies come from Bordeaux, but signs are not many instances by illustrations, while the form of the lacking that the quantity of suitable timber is decreas- branch-system is also indicated diagrammatically. A ing, while the French collieries themselves show series of Mr. Henry Irving's well-known photographs increasing demands. It would be a serious blow to illustrating the outward appearance of the bark has all our industries dependent on coal should the supply been included. of pitwood fail, and in any case the price is likely to In part ii. the trees are detailed according to their increase, which will, other things remaining the same, form and other external appearances. The system of raise the price of coal.

tabulation adopted is similar to that employed in the Another very important question to which the previous volumes. At the end we have an appendix author directs attention is the wood-pulp industry. which contains a classification of trees and shrubs At the present time the United States dominate the according to their seedlings, and here we have many paper market of the world, but there is an increasing excellent drawings by Miss E. Dale from actual shortage of suitable timber for the making of paper- seedlings, the scale of magnification or reduction pulp, which is, therefore, naturally increasing in price, being indicated in each case. No doubt this appendix, and the recent large rise in the price of paper is due as Dr. Groom points out, is not so complete as the to the growing shortage in the supply of spruce. Since author evidently intended to make it, yet it is, in1904, the cost of mechanical wood-pulp in this country cluding the drawings, valuable so far as it goes, and has increased from 855. a ton to 1208., while in is well worthy of careful study. America during the past ten years the price has Taking the whole work as it now stands, we have increased threefold. The demand for pitwood and five volumes which deal respectively with buds, leaves, wood-pulp is bound to continue; in other words, there fowers, fruits, and form, and it will be admitted on is a sure market for such produce, and the author, all hands that the late Prof. Marshall Ward has left who is a widely recognised authority on such matters, behind a monumental work which will long be conpoints out that our waste lands and poor pastures are sidered a standard on trees. to a very large extent capable of producing conifers and soft-wood crops which could be established at comparatively little cost, and would yield good returns to

NEW BOOKS ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. the owner, and at the same time supply pit-wood for (1) Modern Organic Chemistry. By Dr. C. A. Keane. our mining industries and therefore indirectiy benefit Pp. xiv + 503. (London : The Walter Scott Publishall industries dependent upon coal; and, lastly, with a ing Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price 6s. sufficient supply of raw material for the making of (2) Practical Organic Chemistry. By Dr. J. J. Sudpaper-pulp a new industry would be created in this borough and T. C. James. Pp. xviii + 378. country.

(London : Blackie and Son, Ltd., 1909.) Price 5s. There are altogether eleven chapters in the book, net. with an index at the end. Some very fine illustrations (3) The Elements of Organic Chemistry. By E. 1. are also included. The first two chapters are mainly

Lewis. Pp. viii +224. (Cambridge: University taken up with historical matters, which provide Tutorial Press, Ltd., 1909.) Price 2s. 6d. extremely interesting reading. The next two chapters (4) Abhandlung über die Glycole oder Zwei atomige deal with the sylvicultural characteristics of the oak Alkohole. By Adolf Wurtz. Pp. 96. Ostwald's and beech. In chapter v. the remaining hardwoods

Klassiker, No. 170. (Leipzig: W. Engelmann, are considered, while the soft woods, such as alder, 1909.)

anyone

sound elementary Coniferous plantations of pines, firs, and larch are treated in chapter vii. Chapter viii. is more arbori- strongly recommend Dr. Keane's book. It is not a cultural, as it deals with hedges and hedgerow trees. text-book, for there is no systematic arrangement Chapter ix. is occupied with the consideration of high- of the materials, and the properties of individual woods, copses, and coppicewoods, while the last two substances and the relations of different groups chapters, viz. x. and xi., are devoted to woodlands, not brought into relief. If, for example, game and sport, and the improvement of British the student wishes to learn something about forestry respectively.

ordinary phenol, he will find bits of scattered The book is full of sound and trustworthy informa- information in four different places. Systematic tion. Its price is moderate, and it deserves a hearty instruction is obviously not the object of the book. reception from all those interested, directly or in- But although the treatment is unconventional, and directly, in our forests and woodlands.

frequent digressions are made into regions not usually (2) This volume dealing with the form of trees is ' embraced by organic text-books, this very fact rather the final one of its series.

The volume, like the , enhances than detracts from the interest of the

:

birch, lime, and poplars, are dealt with in chapter vi(1) Tokawwledge of organic chemistry we

can

are

volume. The subject is brought into touch with other determination of physical constants such as are playbranches of the science. Thus, under hydrocarbons, ing an increasingly important role in the study of we read a little about thermochemistry; under alde- structure. The descriptions are clear and full, and hvdes there is a reference to autoxidation; under acids the photographic illustrations are masterpieces of their there are a few words about steric hindrance; under kind. Altogether the book is probably the most comethereal salts (a rather antiquated term) a short plete among those of home manufacture on the account is given of mass action, and so forth. In subject of practical organic chemistry that has yet addition to this there are separate chapters on appeared. laboratory methods, stereochemistry, the sugars, (3) This modest little volume, which is one of the dynamic isomerism, heterocyclic compounds, and the University Tutorial Series, should form an excellent physiological properties of organic compounds. introduction to the study of organic chemistry, and

That the subjects are treated rather broadly than if the process of practical instruction can be carried deeply seems no serious defect. They are sufficient on concurrently with theoretical teaching, as the for the general reader, who is provided with elaborate author does with his own class, nothing better could references if he desires to extend his knowledge. In be desired. He takes a few of the commonest organic conclusion, we would direct the author's attention to substances and uses them, as they can easily be used, a few inaccuracies which have been noticed, and which to illustrate quite a large variety of chemical operamight be modified or corrected in a future reprint. tions and products. If the substance of the book can The two isomeric dimethylethylenes, which are stated be assimilated in the course of four school terms, as to be known in only one form, have been prepared by the author states, we think that both teacher and J. Wislicenus (p. 310); the molecular weight of student should be satisfied with the result. May we triphenylmethyl has been determined, and corresponds suggest that the name of Wurtz should be spelt to the double formula (p. 423); Fischer and Slimmer without the diæresis and Senderens without an a? were unsuccessful in effecting an asymmetric synthesis (4) One turns from the intricacies of a modern (p. 301); it is incorrect to state that propylene and treatise on organic chemistry to Wurtz's classical hydrobromic acid give exclusively isopropyl bromide me moir on the glycols with the same sense of relief (p. 45).

that one listens to the simple melody of an early We would also suggest the following :-Thiele's composer after the confused sounds of a modern hypothesis requires amplification to be understood orchestral symphony. Short and simple though it is, (p. 46); it is very questionable if the explosiveness of it is difficult to overrate the far-reaching results of a compound depends upon its breaking up into stable Wurtz's research. It was not merely the discovery molecules, for many silver salts share with silver of a new class of alcohols and organic oxides, or an oxalate this property, whereas a substance like platinic extension of Williamson's water type. It afforded for chloride does not explode; the statement that ethyl the first time clear experimental evidence of the existand methyl “cannot exist in the free state because

of what then termed “polyatomic ” they contain one of the carbon affinities unsaturated” radicals. To quote Wurtz's own words :(p. 27) is inconclusive, especially as triphenylmethyl “ The main result, which, in my opinion, is derived is referred to later as possibly existing (pp. 36, 423); from these synthetic experiments, is not the discovery without some qualification it is misleading to say

of the new compound, glycol—there are enough new that Dumas's theory of types was especially de- compounds in organic chemistry--it is not even the veloped by Gerhardt,” and “received the support of

synthesis of glycerine nor the difficulties connected

with its preparation which have been successfully Williamson and Wurtz” (p. 17). In the first place, overcome ; but it is the manner of the formation of Williamson originated the idea of Gerhardt's types, glycol and the antecedent reactions which made it which were simple inorganic compounds in which possible; it is the conversion of the allyl compound hydrogen could be replaced by radicals. They were

by which the iodide passed into glycerine. All these intended to denote chemical behaviour and not rela- experiments, which were directed to the same end, tionships. Ether had no generic relationship to acetic

have shown that an organic group united to 2 atoms

of chlorine or bromine can replace two atoms of silver, anhydride, though they belonged to the same type. and are therefore equivalent to two atoms of hydrogen, Dumas's types, on the other hand, were organic sub- and that an organic group united to three atoms of stances which were intended to show relationships chlorine or bromine can replace three atoms of silver produced by substitution rather than chemical and is equivalent to three atoms of hydrogen." behaviour.

The theory of polyatomic radicals, like ethylene and (2) The “ Practical Organic Chemistry" of Sud- glyceryl, soon developed into that of the polyatomic borough and James is rather a laboratory handbook elements or the theory of valency, upon which the or book of reference than a course of practical instruc- whole fabric of modern organic chemistry rests. tion. As stated in the preface, examples are given of Wurtz himself held perfectly clear ew's on the difdifferent types of operations. These types are grouped ferent valency of the elements. In his address to the together. Thus, there is a chapter on the preparation Chemical Society in London in 1862 on ethylene oxide, of hydrocarbons, one on alcohols, another on halogen he points out that as ethylene oxide represents a compounds, acids, esters, nitro-compounds, sulphonic diatomic radical united to oxygen, so many of the acids, and so forth. In addition, there is a pre- metals may be regarded as diatomic elements. The liminary chapter on organic analysis and molecular- paper is well worth re-reading, and is not by any weight determinations, and, at the end of the volume, means the least interesting addition to the Klassiker, a number of useful examples of analyses and the

J. B. C.

ence

were

viii + 351.

75. net.

PHYSICS FOR THE LECTURE ROOM AND tric waves, and to the appendix on ship's magnetism. LABORATORY.

Both these portions are very well done, though we

would have thought them fairly strong meat for those (1) The Elements of Electricity and Magnetism. A

who are making a “ first systematic study of the Text-book for Colleges and Technical Schools. By subject.” However, whether a student takes then Prof. W. S. Franklin and Barry Macnutt. Pp. in completely in his first study or not, he will be very

(New York: The Macmillan Co.; glad to find them here ready to hand when required. London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1908.) Price

(2) The second of the volumes under review “repre

sents primarily an attempt to secure a satisfactory (2) A Short University Course in Electricity, Sound articulation of the laboratory and class-room phases

and Light. By Dr. Robert A. Millikan and J. of instruction in physics.” Expressed otherwise, it Mills. Pp. v+389. (Boston and London : Ginn consists of a description of laboratory work, each and Co., n.d.) Price 8s. 6d.

experiment being preceded by as much theory as is (3) Naturlehre für höhere Lehranstalten auf Schuler- necessary to make a complete logical exposition of the

übungen gegrundet. By Dr. Friedrich Danneman. subject under study. We think that this plan is an Teil ii. Physik. Pp. vii + 204. (Hanover and excellent one; and it has been very satisfactorily Leipzig: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1908.) Price carried out. Of course, it will be understood that the 3.50 marks.

theoretical part is not sufficient to replace a text-book (4) The Elementary Theory of Direct Current Dynamo dealing specially with the theory.

Electric Machinery. By C. E. Ashford and E. W. E. Although electrostatics is introduced in the first Kempson. Pp. vii + 120. (Cambridge: University chapter, electric capacity is not defined until later, Press, 1908.) Price 3s. net.

when it can be measured by means of a ballistic gal(5) Electrical Laboratory Course for Junior Students. By R. D. Archibald and R. Rankin. Pp. vi +95. this, but we think that the course of experiments

vanometer. There may be something to be said for (London : Blackie and Son, Ltd., 1908.) Price

would be considerably improved and the student would Is. 6d. net.

get a more vivid idea of what capacity is if experi(1) THE order in which the elements of electricity and ments were added on parallel plate condensers used

magnetism are presented in the first volume along with a gold-leaf electroscope or an electrostatic under notice is :-(a) Electric current; (b) magnetism;

voltmeter. (c) electrostatics; (d) electric waves. This order is one

In sound, a series of experiments on diffraction is which does not make the exposition perfectly happy. included. The experiments on light begin with Thus it does not seem natural when it is found neces

diffraction, a fact which prepares us for the exclusive sary to refer provisionally to the measurement of cur

use of the wave-method in proving the general rents by their magnetic effect (p. 7) prior to any state phenomena of reflection and refraction. The final ment as to how magnetic effects themselves chapter is on radio-activity, and contains some simple measured. Surely the natural order is to take mag- experiments on uranium and thorium salts. The book netism before considering the electric current, even

is altogether a most excellent manual. though it may be preferred to deal with both before

ore (3) We find in our third volume a well-selected series considering the phenomena of electrostatics. The of very elementary experiments in the whole round author passes naturally and easily to the exposition of physics suitable particularly for school use. Though of the last-named. phenomena, and as many prefer the subject is dealt with satisfactorily as a rule, it is this order this portion may certainly be commended to

not beyond criticism. The diagram of the paths of them.

rays in a microscope would be improved if the rays The author is convinced that “elementary science represented as passing through the eyepiece were the instruction must be made to touch upon the things same as those transmitted through the objective. The of everyday life if it is to be effective.” This sentence experiment on the velocity of electricity ” would be may be taken as the keynote to the entire book. Thus best left out of such an elementary book; the stateelectric resistances are usually represented as electric ment that electricity travels with the velocity of light lamps. Those who are accustomed to abstract think is, of course, absurd. ing may smile at these concrete representations; but

(4) We are in entire agreement with the authors of it must be remembered that this is only an elementary this book, that in the training of an electrical engineer book, and it must be admitted that much of the diffi- there should be included a knowledge of the theory culty which many junior students feel is connected of the subject built up logically from first principles, with the unreality of the subject as it appears to them. each step being illustrated with the help of some piece We commend the book for endeavouring, in this and of machinery or practical appliance of a general and other ways, to make the subject more real than it simple rather than an elaborate or necessarily up-tousually is.

date type. The present volume is intended to be used More attention is given than is customary in an only as a note-book accompanying a course of experielementary course to phenomena connected with recent mental lectures. The authors are to be congratulated discoveries, such as kathode rays, radio-activity, electric on the excellence of their little manual. The diagrams waves, &c. We conclude that in America a junior in particular are very carefully designed. course is in some respects more advanced than with (5) The last of this group of text-books covers an

This remark applies most to the chapter on elec- elementary first year's evening course and part of a

are

a

us,

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