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second year's course. The first method of proving the has been instrumental in rendering familiar to the inverse square law for magnetic poles will not con
students of this branch of science will be found among
them. vince. However, putting aside an occasional criticism
One small slip we notice in connection with the of this kind, we think that the book will well serve
matter of protein nomenclature. The initiation of the its purpose of replacing manuscript instruction sheets
new system of terminology which is now being in a junior laboratory.
adopted for the albuminous substances is wrongly attributed to the British Medical Association. It was
really a committee of the Physiological and Chemical OUR BOOK SHELF.
Societies of this country which set the ball rolling. Théorie des Corps déformables. By E. et F. Cosserat.
The mistake is, however, a pardonable one, seeing Pp: vi+226. *(Paris: A. Hermann et Fils, 1909.) that it was at the meeting of the British Medical AssoPrice 6 francs.
ciation held at Toronto in 1906 that the opportunity The authors, who are well known by their writings on
ol presenting the subject to our American colleagues general elastic theory, here reprint in separate form an
taken advantage of. The success that has appendix contributed by them to M. Chwolson's attended this effort to secure uniformity of nomen"Traité de Physique. The kinematical and
clature amongst English-speaking people has been dynamical theories of the flexible line, the flexible very gratifying; the American system, adopted under surface, and the deformable three-dimensional medium
the auspices of the American Physiological Society are discussed in turn in great detail. The dynamical and the American Society of Biological Chemists, standpoint adopted is that of the principle of action, differs in only small and unimportant details from
W. D. H. which forms, in the authors' opinion, the only satisfactory basis for the “ deductive " exposition of the Behind the Veil in Bird-land. Some Nature Secrets subject. In each case the most general form of the revealed by Pen and Camera. By Oliver G. Pike, function representing the “ action” is sought which with a number of pen sketches by E. R. Paton. is consistent with the necessary invariantive relations. Pp. 106. (London : The Religious Tract Society, This procedure is, of course, not altogether new, and 1908.) Price 1os. 6d. net. an expert, turning over the pages, will recognise much Since the Keartons, some years ago, showed what that in one form or another is familiar to him. The splendid results could be achieved by an intelligent use treatment is necessarily somewhat abstract, and is of the camera as an aid to the study of natural history, mathematically very elaborate, Cartesian methods a host of nature-photographers has arisen, but only a being followed throughout. To many readers the very few have attained the high standard of merit set long train of general investigations, unrelieved by a by the founders of this branch of photography. Mr. single application, may prove deterrent; but the R. B. Lodge and Miss E. L. Turner in this country, authors at all events claim that their procedure has Schillings in Germany, and H. K. Job in America have never before been carried out so resolutely and com- in some respects even surpassed the Keartons; while pletely, and may justly pride themselves on the mathe- | in this display of resource and dogged persistence matical elegance of their work. Apart from its other in the most trying circumstances they stand unqualities, the treatise has a distinct value as a book of rivalled. reference, and furnishes a whole arsenal of formulæ Mr. Pike in this rather pretentious volume has which may save trouble to future writers.
very excellent photographs, but the The book begins with a kind of philosophical intro- Nature Secrets revealed by Pen and Camera " which duction to which the authors attach great importance. he promises in his title-page are conspicuous by their This requires to be read in conjunction with a previous absence. His pages contain hardly one single new treatise, which has also appeared in the French fact, but a great deal that is banal. He solemnly edition of M. Chwolson's work. Those who adopt in
us, in writing of the kestrel, that “ The its fullest extent the empirical view of mechanics will first summer rose, a delicate pink amidst the surperhaps consider that too much weight is attached to rounding green, is a greater picture of spring than discussions of this kind. The historical references ever the sunlit could be "_which statement are, however, interesting, and fairly complete. The contains a great deal of truth !—" and," he conauthors are indeed exceptionally well read in the tinues, a kestrel hovering over a meadow, yellow history of their subject, and admirably conscientious with summer's flowers, tells us a deeper story than in their citation of authorities. In their preface they the eagle soaring over a wind-swept moor." We fail promise a subsequent treatment of the theories of heat to grasp why this should be so. and electricity from a similar standpoint.
“ Bird-land's veil” is constantly being “ lifted up
for him, like the drop-scene at the theatre, and on the Practical Physiological Chemistry. A Book designed stage appear blackbirds, which tell him “ the story
for Use in Courses in Practical Physiological of the leaves and flowers,” and wrens, which reveal Chemistry in Schools of Medicine and of Science. “the secrets of the hedgerows," while skylarks, to By Prof. Philip B. Hawk. Second edition, revised complete the illusion, like the celebrated Grigolati and enlarged. Pp. xvi +447. (London J. and A. troupe in the pantomime, fly to and fro across the Churchill, 1909.) Price 16s. net.
stage, and sing “happy songs”! Perfectly charm. PROF. Hawk's text-book falls into the front rank | ing!
W. P. P. with the numerous additions and improvements which An Account of the Deep-sea Asteroidea collected by have been introduced into the new edition. It is not the R.I.M.S.S. “ Investigator.” By Prof. René only a practical guide, and, as such, should be found Kochler. Pp. 143; 13 plates. (Calcutta : Indian in all physiological laboratories, but forms a very Museum, 1909.) Price 12 rupees. complete, readable, and up-to-date account of
This substantial contribution to the material of the present knowledge of the chemical side of physiology. echinoderm system " consists
of 126 pages of A special feature has been made of the illustrations, minute description, and nine pages of general remarks. which are beautifully executed, and most of which It is a continuation of certain reports of a preliminary will be new to workers in physiological chemistry. and incentive character published many years ago by The crystalline forms of the many protein derivatives the naturalists and pioneers of the Indian Marine which the work of Emil Fischer and his colleagues Survey, but, except that some doubtful identifications
are disposed of and some errors criticised, it does not tensile, shock, bending, hardness, and torsion tests. incorporate that earlier work.
Chapter ii. shows the influence of annealing and of In the descriptive part of the memoir thirty-nine cold work. Chapter iii. is devoted to “ étirage," or species are enumerated, of which thirty are regarded drawing, defined as an operation which has for its as new, and are exhaustively described. The general object the completing of work done by rolling and remarks refer to eighty-eight species-the thirty-nine giving to the metal a cross-section which cannot be species treated by the author, and forty-nine species obtained by rolling," after the manner of wire-drawing dealt with in the earlier reports-and furnish the evi- | ("tréfilage," chapter iv.), which is a special case of dence of the author's main conclusions. These con- drawing where the cross-section is circular. Chapter v. clusions are that the deep-sea starfish of the Bay of gives a short account of methods of straightening Bengal and Arabian Sea are much more Phanerozonia | dressage ”).
A. McW. than Cryptozonia, and that their geographical affinities, so far as they can be discerned at all, are ex- Nutrition and Evolution. By Hermann Reinheimer. clusively Indo-Pacific, with a slight Hawaiian touch. Pp. xii +. 284. (London: John M. Watkins, 1909.)
. Of the new species described by Prof. Koehler, five
Price 6s. net. are separated as types of new genera. These are This is an essay on the importance of nutrition as a Johannaster, which is placed with very justifiable hesi- factor in evolution, and the author is in good comtation among the Plutonasteridæ, for some of its char- pany. For was it not Claude Bernard who said, acters suggest a pentagonasterid connection; Phidi- "l'évolution, c'est l'ensemble constant de ces alternaaster, which seems scarcely distinct from Psilaster; tives de la nutrition; c'est la nutrition considerée dans Sidonaster, which agrees in all points with Porcel- sa réalité, embrassée d'un coup d'œil à travers le lanaster, except that, as in other porcellanasterid temps "'? To have had this thesis worked out in a genera, the elements of the cribriform organs are methodical manner would have been great gain, but papillar instead of lamellar; and Circeaster and Lydi- the author is not strong in scientific method. He has aster, both of which are Antheneids having the abac- gleaned far and wide to illustrate the evolutionary tinal plates of the disk much smaller than those of aspects of nutrition," and while he has a crow to pick
with most of his authorities, who have not the It may be thought that the limits of some at least “ central key of a uniform analysis," he uses them of these genera are cut too fine to last; and of the when they suit him to back up his conclusion “ that in descriptions of species it may almost be said that its silent effects nutrition is one of the most formidthey are accurate expositions of specimens rather than able factors in the shaping of individual and racial impressive definitions of nature's products; but such destinies. The conclusion is sound, but we cannot is the way of systematic zoology nowadays.
say this of many of the arguments. The memoir is most bountifully and most beautifully illustrated by the author's own hand; the plates, which are thirteen in number, are quite above criticism.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. Antimony: its History, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geo- [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions
logy, "Metallurgy, Uses, Preparations, Analysis, expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake Production, and Valuation; with complete Biblio
to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected graphies for Students, Manufacturers, and Users of
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. Antimony. By Chung Yu Wang. Pp. x+217;
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] illustrated. (London : C. Griffin and Co., Ltd., 1909.)
Bessel's Functions. Price 12s. 6d. net.
I ONCE stated that a good style of writing English is MR. WANG observes in his preface that a metallurgical
not a strong point amongst British mathematicians, and work in English by a Chinese author is unusual.
the justice of this remark is exemplified by Prof. Hill's After reading the book, the conclusion is irresistible letter on this subject (NATURE, July 8), since it contains that English metallurgists would gain if Chinese the phrases Meissel's tables, Smith's tables, Aldis' tables, authors were more numerous. Mr. Wang has treated Isherwood's tables, which are correct; and Bessel functions, his subject with the greatest respect, and has drawn British Association tables, which are wrong. It is not in up with methodical care a complete treatise which will general permissible in English to employ a proper noun be very useful to all students of the subject. The
as an adjective, for the rules of grammar require either the long and apparently exhaustive bibliography at the
use of the genitive case, or the conversion of the noun into end of each chapter would alone give the book a right
an adjective, as in the words Newtonian, Lagrangean.
The British Association is one of the most important to a place on metallurgists' shelves, but in many cases
societies in the British Empire; it long ago discarded the facts are sufficiently set forth in the present work.
the insularity of our ancestors, and has become cosmoThe author carried out some practical tests of the politan in its operations. It is therefore not too much to latest volatilisation process of extracting antimony from expect that it will conform to the rules of grammar in its its ores, which was patented last year by M. Herren- publications, and employ its influence in encouraging a schmidt, and seems to have been much impressed by good literary style. its merits. The account of these tests is, however, I do not understand what Prof. Hill means by Neumann's almost the only original matter in the book, which is functions. I believe that Neumann was the first mathemainly a compilation of previously published material,
matician who studied the properties of zonal harmonics and printed without comment. Its merits lie chiefly in the
allied functions of degree 12+), where n is zero or a positive logical sequence and the accuracy of the extracts.
integer; but the subject was afterwards taken up and
greatly extended by Prof. W. M. Hicks in connection with Etirage, Tréfilage, Dressage des Produits métallur- circular
motion. Hicks calls these harmonics giques. By M. Georges Soliman. Pp. 164. (Paris :
toroidal functions, which is a much better phrase, since it Gauthier-Villars and Masson et Cie., n.d.) Price
puts in evidence the fact that these functions are connected 3 francs.
with the potentials of anchor rings or tores.
There is also another class of functions which are zonal This interesting little work, one of the well-known harmonics of complex degree in-. These have been “Aide-Mémoire” series, deals with its subject from studied by Hobson (Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc., vol. xiv., a practical point of view. It is divided into five p. 211), who calls them conal harmonics. chapters, the first considering shortly the general
A. B. BASSET. mechanical properties of metals and alloys such as Fledborough Hall, Holyport, Berks, July 9.
THE THEORY OF CROOKES'S RADIOMETER. MAY I record the existence of musical sands along the shore at the Sandbanks, Poole Harbour ?
HAVE noticed that the theory of this instrument Some years ago the Poole authorities erected a series is usually shirked in elementary books, even the of box groynes along this coast between Poole Head and best of them confining themselves to an account, and the Haven, and these have considerably increased the not attempting an explanation. Indeed, if it were natural accumulations of sand, so that it is “ making necessary to follow Maxwell's and O. Reynolds's caleverywhere, and the growth of the marram grass on the culations, such restraint could easily be understood. dunes is in many places (independently of that recently in their mathematical work the authors named start planted) rapidly extending seawards.
from the case of ordinary gas in complete temperature The beach now, between each groyne, consists of wide and fiat deposits of sand, shells, and 'Aint pebbles, but equilibrium, and endeavour to determine the first about midway between the dunes and the sea, where the
effects of a small departure from that condition. So sand is comparatively free from these, musical zones are
far as regards the internal condition of the gas, their of frequent occurrence.
efforts may be considered to be, in the main, successIn walking along the shore in a westerly direction, start- ful, although (I believe) discrepancies are still outing from the first groyne, the sounding qualities of the standing. When they come to include the influence sand notably increase. Thus between the first and second of solid bodies which communicate heat to the gas groynes there are no musical patches, between the second and the reaction of the gas upon the solids, the diffiand third the sounds are very faint, and between each of culties thicken. A critical examination of these ine other groynes, until one reaches the last at the Haven memoirs, and a re-discussion of the whole question, Point, the intensity of the sound increases. In a small cove at the Point, formed by the last groyne (constructed commended to our younger mathematical physicists.
would be a useful piece of work, and one that may be of barrels of concrete and an old ship), the sand is remarkably musical,
Another way of approaching the problem is to select The increase of sound observed when walking in a
the case at the opposite extreme, regarding the gas as westerly direction is due, I think, to the fact that the so attenuated as to lie entirely outside the field of the prevailing westerly winds, and the littoral drift, separate ordinary gaseous laws. Some suggestions tending in the finer particles from the sand and carry them eastwards, this direction are to be found in 0. Reynolds's memoir, and a microscopic examination of samples obtained from but the idea does not appear to have been consistently distances about a mile apart on this shore confirms this. followed out. It is true that in making this supposi
This musical sand is of the Studland Bay type, and tion we may be transcending the conditions of exnear the Haven gives even better results than any I have periment, but the object is to propose the problem in found there. The occurrence of musical sands along this its simplest form, and thus to obtain an easy and particular shore through the conserving influence of the groynes is an interesting fact, for their existence there unambiguous solution---such as may suffice for the previously was very unusual, being only once noted in very physicist will naturally wish to go further. We
purposes of elementary exposition, although the small quantity during the last twenty years. Parkstone-on-Sea, July 4. CECIL Carus-Wilson.
suppose, then, that the gas is so rare that the mutual
encounters of the molecules in their passage from the The Commutative Law of Addition, and Infinity.
vanes to the envelope, or from one part of the envelope
to another part, may be neglected, and, further, that REFERRING to the review of Hilbert's “Grundlagen der Geometrie, on p. 394 of No. 2066 of Nature (June 3),
the vanes are so small that a molecule, after impact mav I point out that the commutative law of addition can
with a vane, will strike the envelope a large number ne proved without the help of any axioms at all, other than
of times before hitting the vane again. those of general logic? The method, indeed, used by Peano
Under ordinary conditions, if the vanes and the in 1889 (** Arithmetices Principia ...,” Turin, 1889, p. 4), envelope be all at one temperature, the included gas which is only based on axioms of a general nature (such will tend to assume the same temperature, and when as the principle of mathematical induction), and not on equilibrium is attained the forces of bombardment on such special laws as the distributive ones, appears in so far the front and back faces of a vane balance one superior to Hilbert's; and, since all Peano's axioms
another. If, as we suppose, the gas is very rare, the Tere proved in Mr. Russell's “ Principles of Mathematics
idea of temperature does not fully apply, but at any of 1903, Hilbert's proof seems quite superseded. Further, the difficulties arising out of Dedekind's proof of the exist
rate the gas tends to a definite condition which in
cludes the balance of the forces of bombardment. If ence of infinite systems can be avoided without the introduction of “ metaphysical ” arguments about time and
the temperature be raised throughout, the velocities consciousness (see Russell, Hibbert Journal, July, 1904,
of the molecules are increased, but the balance, of pp. 8o9-12), as, indeed, your reviewer
to think course, persists. The question we have to consider possible. But the connection of the fact that the existence is what happens when one vane only, or, rather, one of an infinity of thoughts (which must be in time) with face of one vane, acquires a raised temperature. Hamilton's idea that algebra was interpretable especially The molecules arriving at the heated face have, at in the time-manifold, just as geometry is in the space- any rate in the first instance, the frequencies and the manifold, is not obvious. Philip E. B. JOURDAIN. velocities appropriate to the original temperature. As The Manor House, Broadwindsor, Beaminster, Dorset, the result of the collision, the velocities are increased. July 2.
We cannot say that they are increased to the values Neituer Dr. Hilbert nor the reviewer make any sug
appropriate to the raised temperature of the surface gestion that the commutative law of addition is best proved from which they rebound. To effect this fully would as a deduction from the laws of multiplication. But the probably require numerous collisions. Any general laws of multiplication are so often treated as deductions
increase in the velocity of rebound is sufficient to from those of addition that it is interesting to have a case
unbalanced force tending to drive the of the converse procedure. The fact that both these opera- heated surface back, as 0. Reynolds first indicated. tions and their laws have been treated independently and If we follow the course of the molecules after collision in a strictly logical manner by Dedekind, Peano, and others with the heated surface, we see that, in accordance is, of course, perfectly well known to all who have paid any with our suppositions, they will return by repeated attention to this part of mathematics. Whether Dedekind's collisions with the envelope to the original lower scale critics have really avoided metaphysical arguments without of velocities before there is any question of another at the same time making metaphysical assumptions is a collision with the heated face. On the whole, then, question on which a difference of opinion is permissible.
G. B. M.
I See for example Poynting and Thomson's " Heat," p. 150.
the heated face tends to retreat with a force propor- was undertaken in 1897-8. Mr. Beadnell carried out tional both to the density of the gas and to the area the mapping of the Farafra and Dakhla oases, while of the surface.
Dr. Ball was engaged in surveying that of Kharga, A calculation of the absolute value of the excess of the work in the Baharia Oasis being shared between pressure cannot be made without further hypothesis. the two investigators. Dr. Ball's map of the Kharga If we were to suppose that the molecules, after col-Oasis, with the accompanying official report, is a lision with the heated face, rebound with the same work of great geological value and interest, and Mr. velocities (v+dv) as they would have were the tempera- Beadnell's residence in the district has enabled him to ture raised throughout, the pressure would be in-add not a few important scientific details to the creased in the ratio v+(v+dv): 20 or 1+dv/2V : 1. admirable sketch given by his colleague. On the other hand, if the temperature were actually The whole Libyan Desert forms a plateau, having raised throughout, the pressure, according to the usual an elevation which, at its maximum, is but little less gaseous, law's, would be increased in the ratio than 2000 feet above sea-level, yet with a fairly general (v+dv)? : v2 or 1+2dv/v: 1. On this hypothesis, there- slope towards the north. In this great expanse of fore, the unbalanced increment of pressure on the rough limestone and flint-covered flats, with heated face is one-quarter of the increment that would hillocks and troughs of drifting sand, the cases are be caused by a general rise of temperature to the deep depressions, the bottoms of which vary from same amount. This estimate is necessarily in excess 100 to 300 feet above sea-level, surrounded, for the of the truth, but it is probably of the right order of most part, by steep escarpments, through which only magnitude.
a few passes can be found which are capable of being The supposition upon which our reasoning has been used as camel-tracks. The whole of the deserts are based, viz. that the mean free path of a molecule is underlain by great beds of sandstone (the Nubian large in comparison with the linear dimension of the series), forming two divisions, the “ surface-water vessel, has been made for the sake of simplicity, and sandstones,” never more than 160 feet thick, separated is certainly a very extreme one. It is not difficult to by 250 feet of inipervious grey shales, from a much recognise that in the extreme form it may be dispensed thicker series of sandstones below, the “ artesianwith. All that is really necessary to justify our con- water sandstone,” which has been penetrated by clusions is that the mean free path should be very borings to the depth of 400 feet. large in comparison with the vane. The magnitude
It is by the removal, through denudation, of great and distribution of the velocities with which the masses of Eocene and Upper Cretaceous limestones molecules impinge will then be independent of the and shales that the “surface-water sandstones " have fact that the face of the vane is heated, and this is been exposed on the floors of the oases. These beds all that the argument requires. The repulsion by are the source of springs, and, since the districts have heat of a silk fibre suspended in a moderately rare been occupied by human beings, a great part of the gas was, it will be remembered, verified by 0. area of the Kharga Oasis was covered by shallow Reynolds.
RAYLEIGH. lakes, probably formed by the outflow from these
springs. But these great lakes have been gradually
dried up, and the constant drain on the limited supplies LIFE IN AN OASIS."
of water afforded by the “surface-water sandstones
been frequently visited by travellers—Poncet in 1 irrigation. The accounts of the various deposits laid the seventeenth century, Browne in the eighteenth | down in these old lakes, with their interesting concentury, and Cailliaud, Drovetti, Edmonstone, tents of worked flint-flakes and pottery, are among Hoskins, Rohlfs, Zittel, Schweinfurth, Brugsch, and the most novel and interesting portions of Mr. others in the nineteenth century—yet none of these Beadnell's book. authors enjoyed anything like the
Far more important, however, than the surfacefor the study of these remarkable districts which have water sandstones, as a source of irrigation water, fallen to the lot of the writer of the work before us. the “ artesian-water sandstones, which, by For nine years Mr. Beadnell, as a member of that means of borings, have been drawn upon from the active body the Egyptian Geological Survey, was earliest times, and constitutę even now a practically engaged in the study of the Libyan Desert—including inexhaustible means for promoting the cultivation of the four cases of Baharia, Farafra, Dakhla, and
the oases. On all questions connected with the nature Kharga-while during the last three years, as director and amount of the yield of the different kinds of of the operations of a development company, he has wells, the author of this book writes as an authority, resided in the last mentioned, and has carried out and he is able to give the results of numerous inimportant observations and experiments in connection genious experiments, carried on, in some instances, for with the questions of water supply, the effects of many months. That the enormous quantities of water moving masses of sand in increasing the fertility of contained in the thick sandstones of the Nubian some
while overwhelming and destroying system have their source, in part in the highlands of others, as well as of many other problems of great Abyssinia, in part in the Sudan, and to some extent historical and antiquarian interest.
in the upper waters of the Nile, where it flow's over Now that the opening of a railway from Qena, a these pervious sandstones, there can be little doubt, little north of Luxor, to the village of Kharga has though as to the proportional parts played by these been completed, the long and tedious camel-journey of several factors of the supply there is still much room four or five days along very rough caravan routes is for doubt-a doubt which can only be removed by avoided, and excursions from the Nile valley to this prolonged observations. typical oasis will doubtless become much more fre- The manner in which the ancient wells have been quent. The appearance of the present work is, there made, kept open, and from time to time repaired, has fore, very opportune. The detailed topographical and engaged the author's attentive study. It is surprising geological survey of the Libyan Desert with its oases to learn how much has been accomplished with the
1 "An Egyptian Oasis: an Account of the Oasis of Kharga in the Libyan aid of very simple appliances; and the long subDesert, with special reference to its History, Physical Geography, and terranean aqueducts—tunnels driven for miles into Water Supply." By H. J. Llewellyn Beadnell. Pp. x+248; with 28 plates and 4 maps and sections. (London: John Murray, 1909.) Price ros. 6d.
the sandstones for the purpose of increasing the flow
of water-with numerous manholes up to the surface,
are wonderful monuments of persevering toil. The Persian rule, Cambyses sent an ill-equipped expedition introduction of modern boring machines and other to conquer the oases, but the whole army of 50,000 labour-saving contrivances may probably do much men, probably through the treachery of guides, towards increasing the productiveness of the land of perished miserably in the desert. The Romans long these oases in the future. Very interesting informa- held sway in the oases, and many of the most retion is given concerning the cultivation carried on in markable of the monuments of the district must be the Kharga Oasis, and its possible extension in the referred to the period of their rule. The work before future. The chief crops at present are rice, date and us indicates the great numbers of objects of archæodoum palms, and lucerne, though grapes, oranges, logical interest which are found in the district, and other fruits are produced to a small extent. Many , including many Græco-Roman temples and a wonof these fruits, with cotton and other useful vegetable i derful early-Christian necropolis, as well as very early products, may be largely supplied from these districts, now that communication has been improved by the construction of the railway. In spite of the traditions concerning the existence of deposits of gold, silver, and other metals in the oases, it is probable, considering the geological structure of the district, that it is never likely to yield mineral pro. ducts of greater value than the ochre, alum, and epsom salts, which the ancients obtained in small quantities as the result of an altogether disproportionate expenditure of labour and pains.
The author, being evidently a keon sportsman, is able to give many interesting details concerning the feral life in these singular depressions of the desert. The wild mammals consist of the Dorcas gazelle, with three species of fox, and occasional striped hyænas and jackals; the birds, of sand-grouse, rock-pigeons, turtledoves, and quail. But British sportsmen must be prepared to find, among the primitive inhabitants of these lands, competing sportsmen, as enthusiastic and probably more experienced and persevering than themselves.
Although it is to the questions of water supply, and the dependent problem of agricultural development, that we look mainly for information to this work, yet its author has not been unmindful of many other points of general interest concerning the population of 8000 to 9000 souls and its distribution. They belong to Berber tribes, quite distinct from the fellahin of the Nile Valley, but with admixture from various other sources, and the author has been able, during his sojourn among them,
Encroachment of Sand-dunes at Meherig. From “An Egyptian Oasis.” to learn much that is of interest about their habits and customs. Their flint implements and pottery. We learn that Mr. personal characteristics, peculiarities of land- and Pierpont Morgan has already had explorations comwater-tenure, their taxation and commercial methods menced for the enrichment of American museums, are well described, and the features of their villages and the completion of the railway may not improbably and farms are admirably illustrated. Their modes of lead to excursions to Kharga and its temples becomcombating their great enemy the drifting sands from ing as popular as the trips to the cataracts and the north, which tend to form ever-advancing sand- temples of the Nile are now. The book before us, dunes, receive especial attention. Some of the results which is dedicated to the memory of an old colleague attending this constant sand-drift are illustrated in the of the author, Mr. Thomas Barrow, who fell a victim figures taken from the work.
to the climate during explorations in the Sudan, ought The Egyptian kings, certainly from as far back as to help to make known the points of interest at. the eighteenth dynasty (1545-1350 B.c.), have claimed taching to these wonderful depressions in the great dominion over these oases. When Egypt fell under Sahara.
John W. JUDD.