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the British Isles, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse; the fauna and relation to heredity, Miss H. C. I. Fraser; the nucleus flora of the Trias of the British Isles, which will be supple- of the yeast plant, H. Wager, F.R.S., and Miss Peniston ; mented by an account of the progress of this investigation, some problems connected with the life-history of Tricho. illustrated by lantern slides, ħ. C. Beasley; and the discus elegans, Miss E. J. Welsford. Ecological papers : fossiliferous drift deposits of Kirmington, Lincolnshire, and The fundamental causes of succession among plant associathe East Riding of Yorkshire. This is the final report of tions, Prof. H. C. Cowles; some observations on Spiraea the Coinmittee. The papers will include :-the composition Ulmaria, Prof. Yapp. Other papers: A paper on the and origin of the crystalline rocks of Anglesea, E. anatomy of the Osmundaceæ, Prof. Gwynne-Vaughan; Greenly; the faunal succession in the Carboniferous Lime- (1) the evolution of the inflorescence, (2) the rubber indusstone of the British Isles, Dr. A. Vaughan, which will be try, J. Parkin. The annual semi-popular lecture will be supplemented by an account of the progress of these re- given by Mr. Harold Wager, F.R.S., on the perception searches, illustrated by lantern slides, by Prof. Sidney H. of light in plants. In addition to the above, there will Reynolds, of Bristol ; critical sections in the Palæozoic rocks be a joint sitting with Section B and the Agricultural of Wales and the west of England, W. G. Fearnsides; the Subsection of K for a discussion on
Dr. O. microscopical and chemical composition of Charnwood Rocks, Stapf, F.R.S., will contribute a paper towards this disProf. T.' T. Groom ; the igneous and associated rocks of cussion, on the systematic history of wheat. Several other Glensaul and Lough Nafovey areas, co. Galway, Prof. papers
been promised by prominent American S. H. Reynolds; geological photographs, with illustrations botanists, but the titles are not yet to hand. of British scenery in relation to geology, Prof. S. H. SUBSECTION K (AGRICULTURE). President, Major P. G. Reynolds; the Glacial Lake Agassiz, Prof. Warren Upham; Craigie, C.B.-Joint meetings : (1) With the Economic the advances in the knowledge of the glacial geology of Section, Thursday afternoon, August 26. The future South Wales, Dr. Aubrey Strahan; unconformities in lime- possibilities of extending the food production of Canada, stone and their contemporaneous pipes and swallow-holes, Prof. Mavor. (2) With the Chemical and Botanical E. E. L. Dixon; on new faunal horizons in the Bristol | Sections, Monday morning, August 30. Subject, wheat coalfield, Herbert Bolton; on the Permian succession in the problems. Papers :--the miller's requirements; a review north of England, Dr. D. Woollacot; a mineralogical paper, of recent chemical work on the strength of wheat, Dr. A. Hutchinson. Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., and Dr. E. F. Armstrong; factors determining the yield of wheat, Tempest Anderson now making extended tours in A. D. Hall, F.R.S., and Dr. E. J. Russell ; milling Australia and the South Seas, and it is expected that they properties of certain Canadian wheats, Prof. R. Harcourt; will have valuable and interesting communications to make Canadian wheats, F. T. Shutt; wheat breeding in Canada, to the section. An extended tour for four days has been C. E. Saunders. Papers also by Dr. W. Saunders and by arranged to the mining districts of Corall and Sudbury, C. A. Zavitz. Ordinary meetings : Presidential address, under the direction of Prof. W. G. Miller, and Dr. J. W. Major Craigie; methods of crop reporting in different Spencer will lead a party to Niagara and the glacial outlet countries, E. W. Godfrey; the experimental farm system of Lake Erie.
in Canada, Dr. W. Saunders; the fruit industry of Section E (GEOGRAPHY). President, Sir Duncan John- British Columbia, R. W. Palmer. Prairie soil problems : ston, K.C.M.G.-The following are among the papers to Geography of the prairie soils, R. W. Brock ; chemical be brought before the section :--some characteristics of characteristics of the prairie soils, F.T. Shutt; soil the Canadian Rockies, A. 0. Wheeler; the evolu- moisture and crop production, Prof. F. H. King : soil tion of wheat culture in North America, Prof. moisture as related to dry farming, Prof. F. J. Alway. A. P. Brigham; water routes from Lake Superior Papers by A. D. Hall, F.R.S., and Dr. E. J. Russell.
the west, Lawrence J. Burpee; Yellowhead Pass Live-stock problems: Paper by Prof. W. Somerville; the and Mt. Robson, the highest point in the Canadian evolution of a breed of cattle, Prof. J. Wilson ; some Rockies, Prof. A. P. Coleman; the influence of traffic or special features of the Danish system of cattle breeding, transportation upon the framework of cities, with an intro- P. A. Morkeberg; paper by J. G. Rutherford. Forestry ductory reference to the influence of geography in the problems : Paper by Prof. W. Somerville ; Canadian forest same direction, G. E. Hooker; the cycle of Alpine glacia- resources, R. H. Campbell ; the insect pest problem, Prof. tion, Prof. W. H. Hobbs; the teaching of geography in Lochhead; some forestry problems of the great plains of secondary schools in America, Prof. R. E. Dodge (to be North America, C. E. Bessey. read at a joint meeting with Section L); the formation SectioN L (EDUCATIONAL Science). President, Dr. of arroyos in the south-west of the United States, Prof. H. B. Gray.--After the president's address on August 26 Dodge; the development of Nantasket Beach, near Boston, a discussion on moral instruction in schools will be Mass., Prof. D. W. Johnson ; floods in the great interior opened by Prof. L. P. Jacks, editor of the Hibbert Journal. valley of America, Miss Luella A. Owen; the precious He will be followed by Mr. Hugh Richardson, and it is metals as a geographical factor in the settlement and hoped that American and Canadian educationists will also development of towns in the United States, Prof. Hubbard. take part. On Friday, August 27, there will be a disMr. J. Stanley Gardiner, F.R.S., will give a lecture, illus- cussion on practical work in schools, which will be opened trated by lantern slides, on his work in the Seychelles, and on behalf of the subcommittee of the association which is there will probably be papers also by Prof. Goode, Dr. now considering the question by Mr. W. M. Heller. Dr. C. H. Leete, and Prof. Hoke.
C. W. Kimmins will contribute some account of the SECTION G (ENGINEERING). President, Sir W. H. White, London trades schools, Miss Lilian J. Clarke will speak K.C.B., F.R.S.-In addition to Sir W. H. White's presi- on practical work in girls' secondary schools, and Mr. dential address, a report will be presented by the com- W. Hewitt on practical work in evening and continuamittee on gas explosions, and a paper on the some subject tion schools. On Monday, August 30, there will be a will be contributed by Mr. Dugald Clerk. Other papers joint meeting with the Geographical Section of the associaare as follows:-Skimming boats, Sir John Thornycroft ; tion for the discussion of geography teaching. Prof. the Isthmian Canal, Col. Goethals; the work of the Inter-R. E. Dodge, of Columbia, and Mr. G. G. Chisholm, of national Electrotechnical Commission, Ormond Hig- Edinburgh, are expected to open the discussion. There man; torsion tests on materials, C. E. Larrard; di- will also be a discussion on the relations of universities electric stress in three-phase cables, Prof. W. M. Thornton, and secondary schools, with cial reference the Papers on grain handling and transportation in Western accrediting and examining systems. On August 31 the Canada, on the navigation of the St. Lawrence, and on president of the section will open a discussion on educahigh-tension overhead lines are in preparation.
tion as a preparation for agricultural life, with special SECTION K (BOTANY). President, Lieut.-Colonel D. | reference to Canadian conditions. Should time permit, it Prain, F.R.S.—The following are some of the communica- is also intended to discuss the subject of consolidation tions to be brought before the section :-On Thallophyta : schools. The organising committee of the section is in On the production, liberation, and dispersion of the spores correspondence with educationists in Canada and America, of Hymenomycetes, Prof. Buller : numerical determinations and it is hoped to arrange that each subject shall be of the bacteria in the air of Winnipeg, Prof. Buller and opened by representatives of American, Canadian, and Mr. Lowe: the nuclear phenomena of Ascomycetes in British education.
At the end of last year we observed with regret the
report that Mr. James Parsons, principal mineral surveyor We announce with deep regret the death of Prof. Simon Newcomb, Foreign Member of the Royal Society, or July
of Ceylon, had disappeared in the jungle, and his death
that the morning of II, at seventy-four years of age.
December 29 last Mr. Parsons left his hotel at Nuwara The next international congress of mining and metallurgy Eliya for a walk in the open country, intending to return is to be held in June, 1910, at Dusseldorf. The last con- in time for lunch. About noon he was seen traversing a gress was in 1905, and the place of meeting Liége.
certain tea-estate, but from that date he was never
alive. We now learn that, after three months' search, Ar an audience on July 10, the King conferred upon
Death Mr. E. H. Shackleton the Insignia of a Commander of
his remains were found in the jungle on April 11. the Royal Victorian Order in recognition of his work in
was probably due to exposure. Mr. Parsons went to
Ceylon in 1902 as assistant to Dr. A. K. Coomaraswamy the Antarctic.
to undertake a mineralogical survey of Ceylon. On Dr. It is stated by the St. Petersburg correspondent of the Coomaraswamy's retirement he took his place in 1906. Globe that a Bill for the substitution of the new style for His last writings were two papers in Spolia Zeylanica the old style of date reckoning in Russia will be brought be- on fluor-spar in Ceylon and votive offerings of weapons. fore the Council of the Empire and the Duma in the autumn. There is at present a difference of thirteen days between the
The recently issued account of the income and expendiRussian calendar (old style) and the reformed Gregorian
ture of the British Museum for the year ended March 31 calendar introduced in 1582 and used in our country since last, and the return of the number of persons admitted 10
visit the Museum and the Natural History Museum, South 1752.
Kensington, in each year 1903 to 1908, both years incluANOTHER exhibition, arranged in connection with the
sive, provides much information of interest. The number Model Engineer, on similar lines to that which proved suc- of visits made by the public to the Natural History cessful in 1907, will be held at the Royal Horticultural Museum during 1908 was 517,043, as compared with Hall, Westminster, S.W., in October next. The exhibits
497,437 in 1907, showing an increase of 19,606. The will include engineering models, electrical and scientific attendance on Sunday afternoons showed a slight falling apparatus, lathes and light workshop appliances, model off, the figures being 65,986, as against 66,367 in the aëroplanes, and technical education equipment. An attrac- previous year. The average daily attendance for all open tive feature will be the exhibits in the competitions for days was 1420-4. The total number of gifts received model and scientific apparatus making, several classes for during the year by the several departments was 2259, as both amateur and professional workers having been
compared with 2105 in 1907. Among other donors may arranged, for which valuable prizes art being offered.
be mentioned Mr. F. D. Godman, valuable collections of Full particulars may be obtained from the organisers, insects from Central America and other localities, and a Messrs. Percival Marshall and Co., 26-29 Poppins Court, series of water-colour drawings of butterflies of the family Fleet Street, London, E.C.
Hesperiidæ; the Hon. Walter Rothschild, mounted speci
mens of a male and female Californian sea-elephant, from The first Gustave Canet lecture was delivered by Lieut. Trevor Dawson at the twenty-fifth anniversary meeting fornia; the trustees of the Percy Sladen Fund, a large
the island of Guadeloupe, and a male sea-lion from Cali. of the Junior Institution of Engineers on June 30. The
collection of reptiles, batrachians, and fishes from the Seylecturer is the recipient of the first gold medal, which is to be awarded every fourth year by Madame Canet in
chelles, Chagos Islands, and the Indian Ocean : Mr. C. D.
Sherborn, a valuable collection of specimens of the handmemory of her husband, the award being made through the council of the institution. In his lecture, Lieut. Dawson
writings of naturalists, consisting of some 8000 letters and
other documents; and Mrs. R. P. Murray, the extensive gave many instances of the increased power and accuracy
herbariuin made by the late Rev. R. P. Murray, compris. of guns. One photograph showed six 100-1b. shots striking
ing about 15,000 sheets. the water, having been fired as a volley from 6-inch guns on a British cruiser at a range of 7300 yards. The total According to the curator's report for 1908-9, the Otago space embraced by the six shots was only 88 yards. To- University Museum at Dunedin has been augmented by a wards the end of the lecture the question of airship attack wing—the Hocken wing-which will shortly be was dealt with, and the special ordnance to be used against opened to the public, and is mainly devoted to art and these vessels described.
literature. A living tuatara lizard has been kept alive for The British and Irish Millers' Convention was held at
some time on the museum premises. Chester on July 7, when a paper was read by Mr. A. E.
The report of the Rhodesia Museum at Bulawayo for Humphries, of Weybridge, on “ Ideal British Wheats.”
1908 shows continued progress on the part of that comMr. Humphries pointed out that the British farmer no longer grows what the miller wants ; instead of producing paratively juvenile institution, despite the fact that one
source of revenue has been cut off, while the Government a strong wheat, capable of making large, shapely loaves,
has declined to be responsible for an annual subsidy to he produces a weak wheat, the flour from which is usually
the funds. The largest increase to the collection has taken a drug in the market. The home-grown wheat committee place in the enton logical section. of the British Millers' Association has been investigating the question of improvement, and is very hopeful about The most important additions to the Giza Zoological the future; it is believed that wheats will be produced of Gardens, as we learn from Captain Flower's report for better quality, with better straw, less susceptibility to 1908, were the hippopotamus and the Nubian bustard. disease, and greater cropping power than those now avail- The curator finds it necessary to take special precautions able. The committee asks for a national cereal-breeding to protect the smaller mammals and birds from nocturnal station, and commends this to the Board of Agriculture | four-footed marauders, of which the worst is the jungleand the Chancellor of the Exchequer as one important cat, although jackals, dogs, and foxes also do much harm. means of agricultural development.
During the year a jungle-cat killed a pelican. The pro
tective measures rendered necessary by these raids have market, and includes a number of valuable statistics, such given rise to protests from European visitors ignorant of as prices of cattle, &c., as well as accounts of sale the true facts of the case.
In the same publication will be found a short Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift for June 27 in
article on milk production and milk products by Mr. John
Anderson.' cludes an illustrated article, by the Rev. E. Wasmann, on the origin of slavery and social parasitism among ants,
The United States Department of Agriculture Bureau in which it is urged that, before these can be properly of Entomology has issued a circular (No. 42) on the understood, it is essential that we should acquire a know- control of the San José scale. This pest has, in the past, ledge of a series of independent developmental histories proved a serious menace to the fruit-growing industry, of different species, genera, and subfamilies, which com- but experience both in California and in the eastern States menced in past geological times. Only with such histo- shows that it can be controlled. Seven methods have ries before us will it be possible to construct anything proved successful when properly carried out, viz. (1) the like a true working hypothesis of the origin of the pheno- lime-sulphur wash; (2) soap wash; (3) pure kerosene; mena in question.
(4) crude petroleum ; (5) mechanical mixtures of either of To Mr. G. Gilson, director of the Royal Museum of
these two oils with water ; (6) petroleum emulsion and Natural History of Belgium, we are indebted for a copy
soap; (7) miscible oils. Instructions are given for carry
ing out each of these methods. of an address read before a conference held in the apartments of the Royal Zoological and Malacological Society
BULLETIN No. 166 of the Maine Agricultural Experiment of Belgium on June 12, on the subject of the proposed Station contains a discussion, by Messrs. Raymond Pearl establishment of an educational museum in Brussels. The and Frank M. Sursace, of the inheritance of fecundity in address is chiefly concerned with the aims and objects of poultry. The daughters of “ 200-egg” hens (i.e. hens such a museum and the manner in which the scheme | laying 200 more eggs in twelve months) were kept should be carried out. A teaching museum, it is urged, under observation. li is, as yet, too soon to draw general should be kept entirely apart from museums of the conclusions, but no evidence was obtained to show that ordinary type, and run on totally different lines. a good winter layer necessarily produces another good regards the selection and installation of the objects to be
winter layer, as is said to be assumed by practical poultry. shown in the museum, it is pointed out that this task breeders. On the contrary, the exact opposite happened should be entrusted, in the first instance, to scientific here: the mothers, on the whole, were exceptionally good, experts, but that after this the collections should be handed and the daughters unusually poor, as winter layers. over to the actual teaching staff.
RECENT bulletins from the Colorado Agricultural College To the July number of the Century Magazine Mr. R. W. include three on strawberry growing, dewberry growing, Yerkes contributes an article on “ imitation in animals,' and the pruning of fruit trees, one on animal diseases, a considerable portion of which is devoted to an account
on bacterial diseases of plants. A disease of of the behaviour of three Manx kittens, which had never lucerne, first described by Paddock in 1906, and shown previously seen mice, when confronted with one of these to be bacterial, is dealt with at some length. The bacteria rodents. When the first introduction
made the seem to come from the soil and work up the stem, giving kittens were five months' old, and the mouse
rise to a watery, semi-transparent brownish appearance injured. Six weeks later the experiment was repeated,
of the tissue, which turns black with age." Blisters are when the kittens were hungry, but still no attempt was
present, containing a sticky, yellow liquid swarming with made to devour the mouse. Later on the parent cat was
bacteria. Other diseases dealt with are pear blight, soft introduced into the cage, when the mouse was killed by rot of sugar beet, black rot of cabbage, bacterial blights her, and, little by little, the kittens eventually learnt to
of the potato family, of beans, and of cucumbers; specific follow their mother's example. The experiments, in the organisms have in several of these cases been isolated. author's opinion, serve to show that these particular kittens had no instinctive propensity to kill and eat mice,
The endoparasites of Australian stock and native fauna and that they only learnt to do so by the force of example.
form the subject of two papers by Dr. Georgina Sweet, of Whether this holds good for kittens generally remains to
the Melbourne University. The work, which is still going be proved.
on, aims at making a systematic and thorough inquiry
into the nature of the internal parasites infesting Australian UNDER the title of Technitella thompsoni (after Prof. animals, both native and domesticated, and then into the D'Arcy Thompson) Messrs. E. Heron Allen and A. Earland life-history and conditions of increase and spread of these describe in the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club injurious forms. The work is both of scientific and praca new species of arenaceous foraminifera which constructs tical importance; species exist in Australia that have not its enveloping test entirely out of regularly arranged been recorded elsewhere, and it is desirable that their lifecalcareous plates of echinoderms. Of this foraminifer two histories should be worked out; methods of control are specimens only have been found from dredgings in the also necessary,' since Australia is largely dependent on its North Sea. It possesses no oral aperture, the perforations livestock, and suffers great losses of revenue as a result in the echinoderm plates furnishing a sufficient outlet for of parasitic diseases. In part i. the author gives a census the pseudopodia. Other species of the genus make their of forms recorded up to date, in which the work of Dr. tests out of sponge spicules, but it is believed that the N. A. Cobb in New South Wales and others has been present species stands preeminent in its selective power of drawn upon; part ii. contains the new and hitherto unbuilding material.
recorded species. The annual address to the Armstrong College Agri- We are in receipt of the Journal of Agriculture of South cultural Students' Association, by Mr. A. Tindall, has Australia, a publication which is devoted almost exclusively been printed in the Proceedings of that body, and will be to practical matters of local interest. The statistics for interesting to students of agricultural economics. It deals 1907 are discussed in one of the articles. The area under with the history and development of the Newcastle cattle crop was 2,265,017 acres, nearly one-fourth of the whole
area of the State, and 100,000 acres more than in the plant, and could not enable the plant to absorb carbon previous year. South Australia was
one time the
dioxide from the soil. Thus the primary conclusion of granary of Australia, but here, as elsewhere, there is a Prof. Moll's original investigations is confirmed. strong tendency for other branches of husbandry to be
The prosperity of Egypt depends largely the taken up, and for wheat to lose in relative importance. successful cultivation of the particular types of cotton The exports of wool were nearly 51 million pounds, again known
as “ Egyptian.” During the last twelve years, a considerable increase on the previous year. The acreage
however, the yield of cotton has steadily and appreciably under barley and oats is the highest on record, while the diminished, the loss amounting at current rates to about fruit industry has made very rapid progress. Perhaps the
5l. per feddan (1.109 acres). Many causes have been best indication of improvement in method is found in the
suggested as contributing to this result, and in “ Cotton increasing use of artificial manures. Not many years ago Investigations in 1908 (Cairo Scientific Journal, the use of artificial manures was practically unknown.
February, 1909) Mr. W. Lawrence Balls puts forward the In 1897 it is estimated that 3000 tons were used for cereal
view, for which there is some direct evidence, that a rise crops; the consumption then steadily increased, and has
in the water-table in Egypt has been an important factor. been uniformly greater every year; in 1906 no fewer than
Owing to improvements in irrigation, the supply of water 59,000 tons were used. In another article there is an
in Egypt is greater than sormerly, whilst the natural loss account of the Roseworthy Agricultural College, an institu- remains more or less constant. Artificial drainage is tion which not only provides instruction for those intend- lacking, and in his view Egypt is in danger of becoming ing to be farmers, but also conducts investigations in the
water-logged, in which condition the soil is rendered area it serves.
impervious to the roots of most plants. The remedy A FRIENDLY, and for the most part favourable, criticism
advocated is extension of the drainage system, an expensive of forest practice is provided by an American forester, proceeding, but justifiable if the reduced yield is due to Mr. B. Moore, in an article on the forests of northern
the rise in level of stagnant water. Another important India and Burma, published in the April and May numbers matter dwelt on in Mr. Balls's paper is the depreciation of the Indian Forester. He expresses a very decided of cottons grown in Egypt owing to the hybridising of opinion in favour of a regulated fire policy for forests of the Egyptian varieties by the less valuable “ American young teak and sal where the forests are situated in a Upland raccs, cultivated because of their heavy yield. To moist climate, as in Assam. He also agrees with those
combat this he proposes the breeding of a cotton bearing who consider that Indian foresters in training should gain
flowers in which the stigma is buried deeply amongst the their practical experience in India.
stamens, thus reducing to a minimumn the risk of natural
crossing. The report is accompanied by a photograph of A SERIES of papers by Dr. B. L. Robinson, Miss A.
a section of such a synthesised flower. Egypt is leading Eastwood, and Mr. H. H. Bartlett, describing chiefly new
the way in the practical application of Mendel's discoveries, or little-known Mexican and Central American plants, are
for 1909 has seen the establishment by the Khedivial collected in vol. xliv., No. 21, of the Proceedings of the Agricultural Society of a Mendelian experiment station. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The important is the synopsis of Mexican species of Castilleja,
In the June number of Folk-lore Mr. T. C. Hodson, with diagnoses and clavis compiled by Miss Eastwood ;
author of a valuable monograph on the Meithei tribe in seventeen new species contribute to a total of fiftr-four Manipur, describes the custom of head-hunting among the species for the genus. Dr. Robinson furnishes a revision
hill tribes of Assam. The custom is, in the first place, of the genus Rumfordia with six species, and diagnoses ancillary to and a part of the funeral rite, which is of various tropical American phanerogams. New identifi
affected by the social status of the deceased and the cations are presented by Mr. Bartlett in a synopsis of
manner of his death. The funeral of a Kuki chief is inAmerican species of Litsæa and other articles.
complete without the head of a victim.
The corpse is
placed within the trunk of a tree, where it remains until MR. G. Massee is responsible for two articles in the
it is sufficiently desiccated to allow of the preservation of Kew Bulletin (No. 5), the one being a list of exotic fungi,
the bones. The heads, again, are presented before piles the other a note on witches' broom of cacao. The latter is produced by a
of stones, the abode of the Lai, a powerful, mysterious Colletotrichum receiving the specific entity, not always or necessarily anthropomorphised. The name luxificum. Both vegetative and flowering branches
rite of deposition of the head of the victim is thus partly are attacked, with the consequent production of hyper. piacular, intended to propitiate the spirit of the deceased; trophied shoots and flowers and diseased pods. The fungi partly religious, inasmuch as it is devoted to the vaguely are all new species of Boletus~except one Strobilomyces
conceived tribal spirit. The custom has also its social collected by Mr. Ridley in Singapore. “Another article in the bulletin is devoted to notes, by Richard Spruce, on
side, as success in a raid is held to be a proof of manlithe vegetation of the Pastasa and Bombonasa rivers, pro
ness, marking the transition from adolescence to maturity.
It is also protective, because the spirit of the owner of viding a description supplementary to chapter xvii. of the
the head becomes guardian of the village ; and hence, as a second volume of “ Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon
necessary corollary, the head of a stranger is most highly and Andes."
valued, because, being ignorant of its surroundings, it is We have been favoured with a copy of the address less likely to escape from the village of which, perforce, it delivered by Prof. J. W. Moll before the members of the has become protector. Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam
An account of the life and philosophical doctrines of when presenting the dissertation of Dr. K. Zijlstra on the
Henri Poincaré is given in the Revue des Idées for June 15 transport of carbon dioxide in leaves. Prof. Moll pre. by M. Jules Sagret. sents an excellent summary of the investigations, which prove that, to a limited extent, the transport of carbon
PROF. GARBASSO, writing in the Atti della Società dioxide is possible through the intercellular spaces; but
italiana per il progresso della Scienza (Rome : G. Bertero, it is obvious that such transport, if it takes place under
1909), discusses the structure of the atom, and gives a brief natural conditions, is of no appreciable advantage to the account of the theories of Briot, Kirchhoff, Bunsen, Helm
holtz, Hertz, Lockyer, Kayser and Runge, Rydberg, tion of such a medium is afforded by a stratum of gelatin Puccianti, Stoney, and J. J. Thomson.
placed in contact with a solution of zinc chloride and subIn the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy, cxvii., jected to pressure ; the colours seen in such a medium under 8, 9, Dr. Philipp Forchheimer discusses certain mathe- polarised light are shown in a plate accompanying the matical solutions of the problem of underground flow of paper. water in a homogeneous stratum bounded by a plane We have received part iii. of " Klimatographie von impervious floor, the equation of continuity in this case
Oesterreich,” issued by the Meteorological Office of Vienna, being the ordinary two-dimensional form of Laplace's equa- in which the climatology of Styria is fully and ably distion, with the square of the depth as the dependent cussed by Dr. Robert Klein. The treatment of the subject variable.
follows closely along the lines laid down by Hann in his The theory of the polar planimeter is treated in a novel Handbuch der Klimatologie,” and is, indeed, similar to way by Dr. Gabriele Torelli in the Rendiconto of the Naples that adopted by that author in the earlier parts of the Academy, xiv., 8-12 (1908). The author finds that the work which deal with Austria proper. The book is a treatment of the subject given in text-books is far from model of what the treatment of the special climatology convincing, and he proposes an alternative treatment based of a restricted area should be. It gives for each region on the use of Jacobians. Those who have worked with the probabilities of the occurrence of phenomena such as planimeters in this country will fully agree with the author frosts of different degrees of intensity, heavy rainfall, and as to the need of a more satisfactory investigation of their others. At the same time, the underlying principles are principle, and if such a nced exists in the case of the polar not lost sight of. Styria presents many features of special planimeter it is still more necessary for the so-called interest, as the altitudes included in its boundaries vary “ hatchet planimeter,” which is usually worked by rule, from about 200 metres to 4000 metres above sea-level. with little attempt, if any, to explain its principle.
The cultivated region extends up to about 1500 metres. An important contribution to our theories of wave-pro
We have thus a great variety of meteorological conditions pagation in wireless telegraphy is given by Prof. A.
brought before us in the records from the stations of the Sommerfeld in the Annalen der Physik, xxviii., pp.
second order which are discussed in the volume. 665–736 (1909). The investigation, while taking account
In the April number of Meteorologische Zeitschrift Mr. both of surface waves and of waves distributed in space, E. Alt gives an interesting account of the double daily tends to support the view that we have to deal with waves oscillation of the barometer over the globe, especially with propagated along the surface of the earth in accounting for reference to the Arctic regions. He preludes his paper the transmission of Marconi signals. Prof. Sommerfeld,
by a résumé of the efforts hitherto made to elucidate this further, in his analytical results obtains analogues of
intricate problem by harmonic analysis, by Lamont, Angot, properties associated with electrodynamic waves in wires
Hann, and others, and gives useful explanations of the and certain optical phenomena (Brewster's law).
several terms of the series. The theory now generally In the Rassegna contemporanea for May, 1908, Mr. Gino accepted is that referred to by Lord Kelvin (Proc. Roy. Cuchetti discusses the project for anti-seismic houses, due Soc. Edin., 1882) and developed by Prof. Margules to Prof. Giuseppe Torres, of Venice. This project is based (Sitzungsber. Vienna Acad., 1890). Mr. Alt has discussed on the view that circular structures are the best calculated a large number of observations both on land and at sea, 10 withstand earthquake shocks, and in the designs shown and has exhibited the synchronous distribution of the in the illustrations each building consists of several circular double wave of air pressure by a series of charts. With turrets of different diameter communicating with each reference to the Arctic regions, observations taken mostly other, an arrangement having considerable artistic merits, from the Challenger report show that the maxima of the though wasteful of space. In the succeeding number of the oscillations occur, on an average, about uh. 20m. Rassegna Dr. Enrico Pantano discusses the problem of and p.m., and of the minima, on an average, about “ internal colonisation" as applied to Italy, and we note sh. 2om. a.m. and p.m. (G.M.T.). The amplitude is with considerable interest the important bearing on this small, amounting, on the average, to about 1/10 mm. problem of the campaign against malaria.
The investigations of several physicists, including Prof. A REPORT on the resistance of rivets is presented by Margules, point to the view that the synchronism of the M. Ch. Fremont to the Bulletin de la Société d'Encourage- | oscillation in the polar region is due to the existence of ment for April. It is pointed out that the resistance of a second half-daily oscillation of the atmosphere which riveted plates to statical forces or shocks should be borne occurs in the direction of the meridians. as much as possible by the adhesion of the plates and as We direct attention to a very laborious and important little as possible by shearing of the rivets themselves, and work by Dr. H. Fritsche entitled The Mean Temperature the author emphasises the necessity of standardising the of the Air at Sea-level exhibited as a Function of Longiheads of rivets and of regulating the maximum tempera- tude, Latitude, and Period of the Year” (Meteorologische ture during the process of heating, so as not to destroy Publication 1.). The author has, inter alia, calculated the elastic qualities of the rivet. The increased efficiency from the constants of the harmonic formula the resulting obtained by the application of continued pressure during the values of mean temperature for the whole surface of the riveting is also mentioned.
carth, for each 10° of longitude and 5° of latitude, for In a paper on the most general problem of uptics, pub- twenty-four equidistant epochs of the year, and for the lished in the Proceedings of the Turin Academy of Sciences, whole year, with maxima, minima, and phase times. But Prof. Antonio Garbasso and Guido Fubini point out that this general description in no wise gives an idea of the little has been done in solving problems of propagation immense work covered by some 184 closely printed tables ; of light waves in a medium which is neither homo- these are rather difficult to follow, being, with the exgeneous nor isotropic. The authors propose a theory for planations in German, printed in facsimile lithography. the special case of a medium in which the ellipsoids of The calculations are based mostly on Buchan's monthly elasticity are of revolution having their axes parallel, and and yearly isothermal charts (“* Atlas of Meteorology,” by the lengths of these ases are the same at all points in a Bartholomew and Herbertson). The mean yearly temperaplane perpendicular to the axis of revolution. An illustra- ture of the globe is given as 14.6° C., and the amplitude