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as 4.2°; the coldest period is at the end of January, 12.5°, A new form of gearing, which has been invented by and the warmest in the middle of July, 16.7o. The mean Mr. Jules Lecoche, and is being introduced by the Anglotemperature of the northern hemisphere, 15-3° C., is nearly Foreign Inventions Syndicate, Ltd., of 10 Camomile Street, 13° higher than that of the southern. The work includes E.C., is illustrated in Engineering for July 2.

The gearseven isothermal charts between 30° and 90° S. latitude ing essentially consists of two wheels having spiral or for the year, for mid-January, and each alternate month. helical teeth which run out of contact, a mechanical clearThe Halbmonatliches Literaturverzeichnis of the Fort

ance of about 1/32-inch separating the tops of the teeth schritte der Physik, issuer'. under the auspices of the

on the two wheels. One of the wheels is provided with German Physical Society, still continues to furnish more

field magnets in such a way that a magnetic flux is promptly than any other periodical a list of the papers

generated between its teeth and the corresponding teeth dealing with topics of interest to physicists which appear

on the other wheel. The mechanical drive is obtained in the various journals and proceedings of societies. As entirely by means of the magnetic Aux, the form of the instances of the promptness with which titles of papers

teeth being such that, when the wheels are running are published, we may mention that the number for

together, the tops of any two teeth in magnetic mesh lie June 15 contains the titles of several papers read at the

immediately one over the other, and follow each the same meetings of the Royal Society and of the Physical Sociery path. As two teeth leave each other, the magnetic Aux of London in April and May.

will be transferred from the leaving teeth to the approach

ing teeth, thus ensuring continuity of drive. As there is The prestige of the “ principle of relativity" as a basis

no contact there can be no friction; and as the power confor our treatment of electrodynamics in moving media has

sumed in the field coils is only about 3 per cent. of the been increased by a preliminary communication made to power transmitted, a gearing cfficiency of about 97 per the German Physical Society by Dr. E. Hupka, an account cent. is attainable. Another advantage lies in the high of which is given in the Verhandlungen of the society for speed of transmission possible. Ball bearings are used June 15. Three or four months ago Dr. A. H. Bucherer

for the spindles, an example at present being shown in announced that the results of his experiments on the inertia London by the Albany Engineering Company, of Ossory of the negatively charged particles of the B rays from Road, S.E., having a gearing loss of 1.79 per cent. and radium were distinctly in favour of the principle as against an over-all efficiency of more than 90 per cent.

The its most formidable rival the “ sphere theory." Now Dr.

advantages of this gear should open a widc field for its Hupka, working with the electrons produced when light | applications. falls on negatively charged bodies, has shown that when these electrons are accelerated by the action of an electric

We have received a copy of the report of the Indian

Association for the Cultivation of Science for the year 1907. field, and then deflected by passing through a magnetic field, the deflections observed are again in favour of the

The association arranges courses of lectures upon scientific principle, which may be stated as follows :-The electro

subjects, maintains a laboratory and library, and conducts dynamic phenomena exhibited within two systems moving

an ancual examination of candidates for prizes and medals. with respect to each other in a straight line will follow

Interesting speeches were given at the annual meeting held

last November, and altogether the association appears to the same laws, provided that in each system the unit of time be so chosen that the velocity of light is expressed

be doing useful work in spreading a knowledge of ani

interest in science. by the same number. SUPPLEMENTARY INVESTIGATIONS OF INFRA-RED SPECTRA,"

The July number of the Fortnightly Review contains an by Prof. Wm. W. Coblentz (parts v., vi., vii.), has been

article by Dr. Marie C. Stopes entitled “ An Expedition received from the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

to the Southern Coal Mines." Dr. Stopes was sent by the This publication contains supplementary data

the Royal Society for special palæobotanical work to Japan, doubtful points which arose in the author's preceding work,

where she spent a year and a half in close touch with the and also some additional observations on the emission Japanese. In addition to devoting a large part of her spectra of metal filaments and insulators, thus rounding stay to research work in the Imperial University, Dr. up the subject as completely as possible at the moment.

Stopes travelled widely on tours of inspection and investi. Although, as Prof. Coblentz 'goes on to say, the

gation. She entered a great many of the coal mines in

programme of investigation is completed, the subject is not

Japan, and penetrated to the heart of the country searchexhausted—not even thoroughly initiated. The value and ing for interesting specimens. Her article is in the form importance of the author's work in the infra-red region

oí a diary, not written for scientific workers, but intended

to supply a series of pictures of life in many parts of of the spectrum are too well known to need any further diploma of merit at this time; moreover, it is impossible

Japari. to deal in detail with the account of the many new observations described in the present monograph. There are three

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. separate lines of work, namely, infra-red reflection spectra, Radial Motion IN SUN-SPOT VAPOURS.-Referring to transmission spectra, and emission spectra. To these is some comments and queries, by Mr. Buss, in the Mav added a valuable chapter on the instruments and methods number, Mr. Evershed gives further details of the radial used in the work. Two points of special interest may be

motion discovered in sun-spot vapours, in No. 411 of the

Observatory. noted, one of which is the relation between the maxima

He has found that when the slit of the

spectroscope does not bisect the spot symmetrically, but in the reflection spectra of the carbonates and the atomic crosses the penumbra on the side of the spot nearer to the weight of the metal, where the maxima steadily shift centre of the sun's disc, the lines are always convex towards towards the red with increase in molecular weight. The

the violet ; whereas if the slit crosses the opposite side of second point of interest is the infra-red spectra of the

the penumbra they are convex towards the red. That the colloidal metals in relation to the coloured glasses. There

line displacements are due solely to motion is shown by is no doubt that, quite apart from its general importance,

the change in position angle of the maximum shift as the

spot traverses the disc. The maximum displacement is Prof. Coblentz's work, owing to the range of spectrum always such as to indicate that the maximum motion is dealt with, will have considerable bearing upon the relation

along the radius, but the observations are not yet sushbetween absorption and chemical constitution.

i ciently delicate to disprove the existence of a superimposed,

9

on

the

relatively slow spiral motion ; on the other hand, there is THE KING ON INCREASED PROVISION no direct evidence that such an outward spiral motion FOR ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC INSTRUC. exists.

TION AND RESEARCH. Recent work shows that the radial motion is confined to the lower chromosphere-the reversing layer.” In the IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. higher chromosphere the absorption lines H,, probably Ha, are usually twisted in the opposite direction | The King laid the first stone of the new buildings of the

Imperial College of Science and Technology on Thursto the other lines, thus indicating an inward movement of day, July 8. The plans exhibited were those of the Royal the vapours. This apparently agrees with Prof. Hale's ob

School of Mines and an extension of the City and Guilds servation of a dark focculus moving towards the centre of London Institute, which will occupy the block of ground of the spot. There is still an apparent discrepancy between at the corner of Exhibition and Prince Consort Roads, this radial movement and the vortex motions invoked by South Kensington, and extend as far west as the Royal Prof. Hale to explain the Zeeman effect in sun-spot lines, College of Music. The Imperial College of Science and and, according to Mr. Evershed's results, the vortex, if it Technology consists at present of the Royal School of exists, either above or below a sun-spot, does not affect the Mines, the Royal College of Science, and the City and absorbing gases of the reversing layer" in the penumbræ Guilds of London Institute, and is administered by a Board of spots.

of governors appointed by Royal charter, and under the BINARY Star Orbits.-In No. 4, vol. xxix., of the Astro presidency of Lord Crewe. physical Journal, Father Stein discusses the photometric

It is interesting to note that the first building to be observations of the binary star RZ Cassiopeia on

erected by the governors of the Imperial College is the assumption that it is an Algol variable. Assuming that the

much-needed one for the Royal School of Mines, and that orbit is circular, and that the mcan densities of the two

the funds for the purpose have been provided chiefly by components are equal, he finds that the mass of the system

the late Mr. Alfred Beit and Sir Julius Wernher, of the is 1002 the sun's mass, the mass of the bright body, the mining house of Messrs. Wernher, Beit and Co. primary, being 0616 sun's mass; the radius of the bright

The life of the Royal School of Mines has been one of body is 143, and that of the satellite 1:17 the sun's radius,

many vicissitudes. Even from the time of its foundation the mean density of each body being o 222 that of the sun's

in 1851, difficulty has been experienced in providing density. The centres of the two bodies are separated by adequate accommodation. The move from Jermyn Street 0-022 astronomical unit.

10 South Kensington, which began in 1872, and, as was No. 13. vol. i., of the publications of the Allegheny stated by Lord Crewe in his address to his Majesty, was Observatory, contains a discussion of the orbits of the

not completed until 1880, furnished better accommodation spectroscopic components of 2 Lacertæ, by Mr. R. H.

for subjects such as chemistry, physics and mechanics ; Baker. In spectrograms of this star taken on fine-grained

geology was probably in but little worse position than in plates, the lines of the components are, at certain epochs, Jermyn Street, and metallurgy had better laboratories than separated, and it is interesting to note that the blend

before, but mining, which was the last to move, has had curve differs considerably from various parts of the primary

but poor quarters. The demand for scientific education, curve, thus suggesting that for all spectroscopic binaries

however, has grown so rapidly that even the laboratories having a large range of velocities it is desirable that

for chemistry and physics soon became too small, and the spectrograms should be taken on the finest-grained plates

fine buildings in Imperial Institute Road, in which the obtainable at the epochs of maximum velocity. The

Royal College of Science has its chemical and physical measurement of such plates might, supposing the lines to

laboratories, have for the past two years received the be separated, considerably modify the results obtained from

students. The buildings now to be erected will comprise coarser-grained plates on which the component spectra are

well equipped laboratories, museums, lecture- and class. inseparable. Mr. Baker finds the period of this star to be

rooms, and drawing offices for the mining, metallurgical, 2.6164 days.

and geological sections, and, in a one-storied building,

250 feet by 120 feet, under a separate roof, ore-dressing MICROMETRIC MEASURES of Double Stars.-In No. 4336 testing works and an experimental metallurgical laboratory of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Mr. Phillip Fox publishes are to be erected, the equipment being provided by the the measures of a number of miscellaneous double stars Bessemer Memorial Committee. made with the 12-inch and 40-inch refractors of the Yerkes The extension of the City and Guilds of London Institute Observatory. The 40-inch is not used regularly for this will include a laboratory for the study of hydraulics, work, but is employed when conditions are not suitable for equipped by Mr. G. Hawksley, but the extension is chiefly securing parallax plates. Mr. Fox's observing-list is mainly necessary on account of the number of students having made up of Holden double-stars, about half of which have already outgrown the space available, and the introduction now been observed, but these measures are reserved until

of advanced courses on special subjects requiring more the complete list is ready. The present publication includes

Here, again, top-lighted courts will allow the extenthe measures, made during 1907-8, of about 130 multiple sion of the mechanical laboratories of the institute. The systems.

Goldsmiths'. Company has provided a large sum towards

this work. THE IDENTITY OF Comets 1908a AND 1908b (ENCKE).-In No. 4332 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Dr. Ebell

In the course of his reply to the address delivered by discusses the question of the identity of comet 1908a with and staff of the Imperial College, the King said :

Lord Crewe on behalf of the governors, professors, students, Encke's comet. It will be remembered that when 1908a was first discovered by Prof. Wolf, it was announced as

" The concentration of various associated colleges into being Encke's comet, but the latter was

one institution, which was effected by our Order in Council

not discovered until May, 1908, when it was found by Mr. Woodgate at

of July, 1907, has always seemed to me to be an admirable

scheme for the furtherance of scientific instruction, which the Cape Observatory. Dr. Ebell finds that both the motion

my dear father had so much at heart; and the names and the brightness of comet 1908a are against the theory of identity with Encke's, for the latter was, theoretically; governing body were sufficient in themselves to give the

which appeared in the first list of the members of the much fainter, about 3'5 magnitudes, than the observed object. There still remains the question as to whether 1908a

college a very high status in the educational world.

“The purposes of the college, as stated in the charter, was a fragment of Encke's, split off by some accidental encounter or explosion, and this question is being investi

to give the highest specialised instruction and gated at Pulkowa.

provide the fullest equipment for advanced teaching and

research in various branches of science, especially in its COMET 1909a.-Photographs of comet 1909a (Borrelly. | application to industry. In recent years the supreme imDaniel) were obtained at the Greenwich Observatory, with portance of higher scientific cducation has, I am happy to the 30-inch reflector, on June 22 and 30, and the resulting say. heen fully recognised in England; and as time goes positions are published in No. 4337 of the Astronomische on I feel more and more convinced that the prosperity, even Nachrichten. The same journal also contains a

the very safety and existence, of our country depend on elements computed by Prof. R. T. Crawford, and elements the quality of the scientific and technical training of those and ephemeris calculated by Prof. Kobold.

who are to guide and control our industries. The rapid

room.

are

to

set of

65

years or so.

growth of knowledge makes it necessary for the teacher obtain in their native city instruction in science and techof any branch of applied science to be a specialist of a high nology, in art and mathematics, which in former days they order, and the most accomplished specialist cannot impart were compelled to seek in places far distant from their the full advantage of his knowledge without that complete homes, at an expense which in some instances they could provision of apparatus for research and instruction which ill afford. The universities also foster a wholesome this college will supply:

rivalry, and encourage the growth of the highest form of “ The college has already given admirable results, and public spirit. A man educated at this University will be a we may well look for a steady increase in the number of better citizen of Birmingham, and a better subject of the students and in the efficiency of the instruction provided. Empire.'

** The thanks of the country are due to those public- At the close of the opening ceremony, their Majesties spirited donors through whose generosity a large portion of inspected a part of the departments of civil and electrical the funds have been provided for this great work, and I engineering. join in your appreciation of their munificence. I think it is especially fitting that the great discoveries of the late Sir Henry Bessemer, to which the remarkable development of the engineering industries in the last half-century is

THE SCIENCE COLLECTIONS AT SOUTH largely due, should be commemorated by the equipment of

KENSINGTON. the new laboratories of this institution.”

THE question of the worthy housing of the science col

lections at South Kensington has been brought before UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM.

the Government on several occasions during the last thirty On July 7 the King and Queen, accompanied by

The object of a deputation which waited upon the Princess Victoria, performed the opening ceremony Mr. Runciman at the Board of Education on Tuesday was of the new buildings of the Birmingham University. Inas. again to endeavour to obtain an assurance that the Governmuch as the founding of the University on the initiative of ment will provide the money for the building of a museum Mr. Chamberlain has been effected almost entirely by means in which the science collections can be exhibited as satisof money subscribed by the inhabitants of the Birmingham factorily as are those of art. The deputation included dis. district, the occasion was appropriately made to partake tinguished representatives of the leading scientific societies largely of the nature of a civic function.

and institutions, and the memorial which was presented The characteristic note of the proceedings may perhaps was signed by the president and officers of the Royal best be given by sonie quotations from the King's speeches. Society, all its living past-presidents, and 128 of its Fellows In replying to the address from the Corporation, after distinguished in physical science; the Chancellors of the warmly commending the public spirit of the citizens, His Universities of Cambridge, London, Glasgow, and St. Majesty said :-“ Great schemes such as that for providing. Andrews; the Vice-Chancellors of the British universities ; your city with pure water have been undertaken in the the presidents of scientific societies and institutions; propast, and have been brought to a successful issue ; but fessors of chemistry, physics, mathematics, astronomy, and none is worthier of support or more far-reaching in its scope engineering all the British universities, university colthan the establishment and extension of the great University leges, and principal technical schools and polytechnics; the in which you have taken so important a part.' Later, in directors of the chief polytechnics in London and in the reply to an address from the Chamber of Commerce express-provinces; and a very large and distinguished body of pering the recognition by the commercial and mercantile classes sons eminent in and interested in British science and of the value of the advancement of higher education, his desirous of its promotion. Majesty said :-“ I am glad to learn that the commercial There can be no doubt, therefore, as to the opinion of community have been faithful and generous supporters of representatives of physical science upon the urgent need of the University. I feel assured that your expectations of satisfactory provision for the housing of the science collecadvantages to be derived from the Faculty of Coinmerce tions. As Sir William Anson said in introducing the depuin training the future captains of industry will be realised.” tation, “the museum, which represents the application of

After a luncheon at the Council House, their Majesties science to material, should be placed in the same position drove, through roads lined with enthusiastic spectators, to as art and natural history by the Government o! the the new buildings at Bournbrook, a distance of about three country.' miles. The opening ceremony took place in the great hall The collections should be in a suitable building, with of the University, which was occupied largely by members room for rearrangement and expansion. A site is available of the University and representatives of other educational at South Kensington if the Government will come forward bodies.

with the offer of funds for the actual building ; but in spite The University address was read by Sir Oliver Lodge, of the memorial and the deputation, Mr. Runciman did and the following characteristic passage may be quoted :- not give an assurance that the money will be forthcoming. Guided by our Chancellor, whose inability to be present He was sympathetic, and promised to place the matter on this memorable occasion we deeply regret, we have

before the Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the made no attempt to give an appearance of finality to our Exchequer, and with this result we must be satisfied for present undertaking: Rather do we regard it as capable

a while. A useful purpose has certainly been served by of indefinite expansion. Whilst the field of scientific re- bringing the subject into public view. We can now only search is ever widening, and its discoveries demand yearly hope that the Government will rise to the opportunity and a fresh application to the facts of life, the claims of the offer to the physical sciences, which are closely connected humaner studies become none the less imperative ; and in with the industries of this country, the same advantages both these branches of human activity, which can only for its collections as are already possessed by natural flourish side by side, we realise the need of continual history and by art. development. But we believe that the work which we have From a full report of the deputation in Wednesday's begun. upon which this day your Majesties set the seal of Times we make the subjoined extracts. your Royal approbation, can confidently be entrusted to the The memorial presented by Sir Henry Roscoe was generosity and to the devoted service of the generations that follows :

“ We, the undersigned, being deeply interested in the His Majesty, in replying, after paving a tribute to the practice and progress of British science, desire to bring Chancellor, proceeded :-“ For the wonderful progress of before you the importance of the proper housing of the higher education in the country we have largely to thank Science Collections at South Kensington. The permanent the great universities established in our principal cities. buildings now erected provide accommodation for art collecNo nobler object for munificence can be found than the tions only ; to complete the scheme a suitable building for provision for the necessary equipment for such education ; an the science collections is a necessity. The formation of a equipment which, in view of the diverse and elaborate science muscum representative of all branches of physical requirements of the modern schools of instruction, must be science, both pure and applied, has long engaged the attencostly ; but without which these schemes, however carefully tion both of the Government and of British scientific men. designed, will prove fruitless. Such institutions as this So long ago as 1874 the Duke of Devonshire's Commission are of paramount importance in enabling students to on Science strongly recommended the establishment of such

as sort.

are to come.

a museum, and in their fourth report the Commissioners by the Government with a definite building scheme would state :-: While it is a matter of congratulation that the doubtless give it due consideration. The need is great, British Museum contains one of the finest and largest and the niuss of British science workers will hail your collections in existence illustrative of biological science, it favourable decision with gratitude." is to be regretted that there is at present no national collec

in his remarks, Sir nenry Roscoe said that what is tion of the instruments used in the investigation of needed is a building adequate to the proper exhibition of mechanical, chemical, or physical laws, although such the present collection, and one worthy of British science. collections are of great importance to persons interested in The grant for science purposes 18ool. ; that for art the experimental sciences. We consider that the recent 11,2001. The fact that with so small a grant the national progress in these sciences and the daily increasing demand science collections have reached so important and in many for knowledge concerning them make it desirable that the

respects so unique a position has been partly due to the national collections should be extended in this direction, fact that the cost of acquisitions for the current growth so as to meet a great scientific requirement which cannot of such a science museum is far less than that of the correbe provided for in any other way.' Since these words sponding growth of an art museum. Land sufficient for were written a National Science Museum has been estab

the required purpose is in the hands of the Government, lished, and the collections in it have been steadily enriched and the Royal Commissioners of 1831, so long ago as 1878, by many important acquisitions. These collections are at offered to contribute 100,000l, towards a building for the present housed in the old buildings at South Kensington Science Museum. Sir Archibald Geikie said that the council known as the Southern Galleries and the Western Galleries. of the Royal Society desired him to express its keen sense They now include models and copies of historical and of the importance of the collections and the need for better modern philosophical apparatus of the greatest value to all housing for re-arrangement and expansion. Sir David Gill interested in the progress of British science, and a large said that, confining his remarks principally to the astronumber of machines, instruments, and models of great nomical collection, he was much impressed with its extreme interest as illustrating the origin and development of our value, as it included apparatus of all periods, from the most pregnant British inventions, together with such special earliest days down to the present time. Mr. Alexander collections as the unique series of models illustrating the Siemens, expressing the view of the Institution of Civil history of shipbuilding.

Engineers, said that in the interest of students of engineer“In 1876 the Royal Commissioners of the Exhibition of

ing it is of the utmost importance that the collections 1851 offered to the Government of the day a sum of should be housed with plenty of space, and should be as !C0,000l., together with a site on the Commissioners'

complete as possible. Sir Hugh Bell, as president of the ground, for the proper housing of this collection, under Iron and Steel Institute, said his national pride was hurt the condition that the Government should undertake its when he went through the tuilding at South Kensington maintenance. In 1878 the Commissioners repeated their and saw the collections housed in a place erected about offer, and in 1879 this was declined by the Government. fifty years ago as refreshment-rooms or something of that In 1888 the land to the south of Imperial Institute Road, Paris, Munich, and Berlin are very much in advance reaching to that conveyed to the Government in 1864 for of London in that matter. Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, director the erection of the Natural History Museum, and containing of the National Physical Laboratory, said that the physical 45 acres, was sold to the Government for 70,000l. This collection at South Kensington is very inadequately housed land has now been in part permanently allocated to the main and quite fails to represent the growth of that science in section of the new buildings of the Imperial College of England. Mr. W. M. Mordey, president of the Institution Science and Technology and to the building in course of erec- of Electrical Engineers, said there is at present no adequate lion for the Meteorological Office and a post office. The re- representation of their work in this country. Sir William inainder of the site is at present occupied partly by tem- Ramsay said it is practically impossible to gain any notion porary buildings and partly by the old buildings—the of the progress of chemistry from a visit to the collection.

Southern Galleries "--which now afford accommodatirn Sir George Darwin said that in going over the museum for the machinery and naval architecture collections of the he was struck by two or three things-first, the great Science Museum. This portion of the site, adjoining as it interest of the collection ; secondly, the overcrowding of it; does on the north the Imperial College and on the south and, thirdly, the extreme deficiency of the buildings in the Natural History Museum, is well regarded as an ideal which it is housed. position for the long projected Science Museum, which Mr. Runciman, in the course of his reply, said :--The would complete the magnificent group of museum buildings memorial which has been presented to the Board of Educaalready erected at South Kensington.

lion and to me on the subject of this museum is one of ** The cost of acquisitions for the current growth of such a the most weighty memorials that I think has ever been science museum, it may be noted, is far less than that of a received by any Minister. We not only provide, or intend corresponding art museum. The value of art products in. to provide, an exhibition for the exposition and demonstracreases rapidly with age, whereas the scientific implements, tion of the principles of science, but we provide illustrations machinery, and apparatus, interesting from an historical of the applications of science and arts to industry, including point of view, have rarely any great commercial value. models and actual examples of outstanding inventions which The art collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum are are of historical importance, and, as Sir Henry Roscoe has now in possession of splendid buildings. If the buildings said, are absolutely irreplaceable. We have the greatest provided for the science collections were equally worthy of desire to maintain historical industrial processes, and we ihe interests which they should serve, the objects now in have special collections, such as those in which I myself the museum could be exhibited to much greater advantage. enormously interested-namely, naval architecture, Moreover, those lacunae which mark sections of recent models of machines, and astronomical instruments. The activity in discovery and invention would be more readily whole of these are of priceless value. But I quite recognise filled than they can be while the obviously temporary that they are in many respects incomplete; and I am also character of the accommodation suggests to those who hold impressed with the fact, as indeed everybody is who knows objects of interest in the history and advance of science that the building which that collection is housed, that the the authorities have but little appreciation for such things. housing has a great deal to do with the collection in the

Other countries, notably France and Germany, have buildings in their present state. I recognise that the recognised the importance of preparing suitable buildings collection, even at the present day, is dreadfully overfor their, National Science Museums. In Paris the Museum crowded. The best illustration of that lies in the fact that of the Ecole des Arts et Métiers has a world-wide renown; in the cases now erected in the museum we have found and a National German Science Museum is now being it necessary to provide for what may be called a basement built in Munich at the cost of 300,000l. England, the exhibition. When one passes through the exhibition one mother of so many great inventions that have proved to be sees a considerable number of persons kneeling down on pioneers in industrial arts, stands alone in having made no the floor in order to see what is in the basement of these adequate provision for exhibiting and arranging in proper

Anyone who is responsible for the museum order her unique collections. The undersigned venture to hardly avoid being ashamed of that condition of things. urge upon you that the time has now arrived for action. It is true that some parts of the galleries were put up as Land sufficient for the purpose is in the Government's temporary buildings. They were part of the exhibition, I hands, and the Royal Commissioners of '31 if approached think, of 1862, and it is remarkable that they have lasted

am

cases.

can vear

so long. The whole difficulty is the very prosaic difficulty, and dry-bulb thermograph have been lent by the MeteorI fear, of money and land. The South Kensington area, ological Office. They are the identical instruments which which now contains some of the most remarkable collections were formerly in use at Fort William Observatory, the and some of the most valuable buildings in the world, has base station of Ben Nevis. A Dines pressure-tube anemobeen very rapidly occupied. We cannot go south because meter, a Beckley autographic rain-gauge, a Campbellof the Natural History Museum, and we are blocked on the Stokes sunshine recorder, and barograph and thermograph north by the Imperial Institute, the Royal College of of Richard pattern complete the outfit of ordinary meteorScience, and some of the other buildings, and I cannot at ological instruments. Provision has, of course, been made the moment see in what direction it will be possible for us for the usual control readings and for eye observations of to expand. The magnificent work which has been done in weather phenomena. An Ångström compensation pyrheliothe direction of art on the other side of the road certainly meter has also been set up, and preparation has been made sets the pace, and I recognise with you that it is pressingly for recording the atmospheric electrical potential. necessary that we should have a new building for our At Kew the usual observing and testing work has been great science collection at the earliest possible date. The continued. Summaries of the magnetic and meteorological question of funds is affected to some extent by the hint work are given in the appendix. The results of measurethrown out by Sir Henry Roscoe of assistance from the ments of solar radiation with an Ångström pyrheliometer, 1851 Commissioners. I cannot imagine any better work and of the temperature of the soil at depths of 1 foot and to which the Commissioners could devote their funds than

4 feet, are given for the first time. The examination of in giving assistance in the construction of new buildings. the apparatus to be used at Eskdalemuir has formed an For the moment I will say no more than that I will trans

important part of the year's work, and we note also that mit to my co

gues and lay before the Cabinet, the Prime Mr. W. Dubinsky, of the Pavlovsk Observatory, spent Minister, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer the very some time at Kew for the purpose of making comparisons valuable statement which you made, and I will use my own between the Kew standard magneto:neters and barometer personal influence, for whatever it may be worth, to impress and the standards in use in Russia. These comparisons on them the necessities of the case.

were carried out in accordance with a general scheme for

the international comparison of standards approved by the ESKDALEMUIR OBSERVATORY."

last International Meteorological Conference. The report

concludes with the usual summaries of the magnetic results We have received the annual report of the observatory obtained at the observatories at Falmouth and Valencia.

department of the National Physical Laboratory for the year 1908, which is noteworthy as being the first report issued since the establishment of the new magnetic and

THE IMPERIAL CANCER RESEARCH FUND. meteorological observatory at Eskdalemuir. NATURE will be aware that the advent of electric tramways

Readers of | THE annual meeting of the general committee of the

Imperial Cancer Research Fund was held on July 9 to the neighbourhood of the observatory at Kew has greatly at Marlborough House, when the Prince of Wales, the interfered with magnetic work there. The new establish president of the organisation, took the chair. ment in Dumfriesshire is far removed from all industrial The following are extracts from the report, which was undertakings, and will thus be free from disturbing effects adopted at the meeting :due to artificial causes.

During the past further correspondence took So far as Eskdalemuir is concerned, the past year has place with the authorities of the International Society for been one of installation and experiment, and the report Cancer Research in Berlin, in which it has been suggested contains no results of observations. The superintendent, that the executive committee should re-consider the attiMr. G. W. Walker, went into residence on May 11, 1908, tude hitherto adopted and join the International Society ; and was followed shortly after by his staff, comprising and offering that the first International Congress should be observer, computer, mechanic, and mechanic's assistant. held in London. The executive committee is of opinion The first instruments to be set up were the Elliot unifilar that the decision arrived at is in the best interests of the magnetometer and the Dover. dip circle, which

scientific investigation of cancer, and accordingly it adhered given to the laboratory by Sir Arthur Rücher. They are to its position. At a subsequent date a petition was prethe instruments which were used by the donor and Prof. sented by the International Society for Cancer Research in Thorpe in their magnetic survey of the British Isles in Germany to the King, as patron of the Imperial Cancer, 1890. The first absolute measurements of horizontal force, Rescarch Fund, asking that the decision might be redeclination, and inclination were made on May 29, and viewed, but His Majesty, after considering the facts subwere continued for eight weeks, when some changes mitted to him through the Foreign Office, expressed the became necessary. Observations, made three times a week, view that the Imperial Cancer Research Fund has were resumed in October, and have since formed part of cooperated freely in the past, both with German and other the routine work of the observatory. The final determina- foreign workers, and will continue to do so in the future. tion of the azimuth of the fixed mark awaits the com

It may be well to recall in this connection the extent to pletion of the arrangements for the time signal.

which the Imperial Cancer Research Fund has encouraged The recording apparatus consists of a set of Eschenhagen

the investigations of independent workers both at home magnetographs and a set of Kew pattern magnetographs

and abroad. As is well known, the material for experimade for the observatory by Mr. P. Adie. The former mental research is difficult and costly to obtain, and is belong to the Admiralty, and are those used at the Dis- beyond the reach of many who, but for the help given covery's winter quarters in 1902-4. Owing to damp. the

from this fund, would be debarred from participation in magnetic house could not be used immediately, and the

this branch of the research. Recognising that such help instruments had be accommodated elsewhere. The must be of the first importance, it has been the aim of the Eschenhagen recorders were set up temporarily in the general superintendent, Dr. E. F. Bashford, with the seismograph room. The Adie instruinents were accommo

entire concurrence of the executive committee, to distribute dated in the general laboratory, but the warping of the

to all applicants who possess the necessary credentials the wooden supports has made satisfactory compensation for

material accumulated with much labour and expense. temperature changes impossible, and the point will have

A satisfactory feature of the past year has been the to be taken up again when the instruinents are removed

recognition of the work of the fund by foreign investigato their permanent positions.

tors, as is shown by the number of applicants for perFor seismological work a twin-boom Milne seismograph

mission to work under the general superintendent. It has is in use. Regular records have been obtained since

been found impossible to concede all the requests, but September 24. Provision has also been made for carry

gentlemen from Italy, Bukarest, New York, and Munich ing on the work of a meteorological observatory or station

have been accorded full liberty to pursue their researches of the first order. The photographic barograph and wet

in the laboratories supported from the fund, and every

facility has been given them. Special arrangements have 1 The National Physical Laboratory. Report of the Observa'ory Derart

also been granted to other workers to pursue certain ment Richmond, Surrey, and of the Observatory, Eskralemuir. Langholm, Dumfriesshire, for the Year 1908, with Appendices. Pp. 53. (Teddington,

specific investigations, and to certain foreign medical men 1909.)

to study the methods during a short visit to this country,

were

to

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