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( see the golden helmet
-« Herminius! I have sought thee That shines far off like flame;
Through many a bloody day. Bo ever rides Mamilius,
One of us two, Herminius Prince of the Latian name."
Shall never more go home.
I will lay on for Tusculum, 22.
And lay thou on for Rome!" "Now, hearken, Caius Cossus;
28. Spring on thy horse's back;
All round them paused the battle, Ride as the wolves of Apennine
While met in mortal fray Were all upon thy track!
The Roman and the Tusculan, Haste to our southward battle,
The horses black and gray. And never draw thy rein
Herminius smote Mamilius Until thou find Herminius,
Through breastplate and through brear, And bid him come amain."
lowed out the purple blood
Over the purple vest. 23.
Mamilius smote Herminius 80 Aulus spake, and turned him
Through headpiece and through head, Again to that fierce strife;
And side by side those chiefs of pride And Caius Cossus mounted,
Together fell down dead. And rode for death and life.
Down fell they dead together Load clanged beneath his horse-hoofs
In a great lake of gore; The helmets of the dead,
And still stood all who saw them fall
While men might count a score.
29. Where fought the Roman host
Fast, fast, with heels wild spurning, . Against the banners of the marsh
The dark-gray charger fled; And banners of the coast.
He burst through ranks of fighting men, Like corn before the sickle
He sprang o'er heaps of dead. The stou: Lavinians fell,
His bridle far out-streaming, Beneath the edge of the true sword
His flanks all blood and foam, That kept the bridge so well.
He sought the southern mountains,
The mountains of his home. 24.
The pass was steep and rugged, * Herminius! Aulus greets thee;
The wolves they howled and whined; He bids thee come with speed
But he ran like a whirlwind up the pass, To help our central battle,
And he left the wolves behind. For sore is there our need:
Through many a startled hamlet There wars the youngest Tarquin,
Thundered his flying feet: And there the Crest of Flame,
He rushed through the gate of Tusculum, The Tusculan Mamilius,
He rushed up the long white street; Prince of the Latian name.
He rushed by tower and temple, Valerius hath fallen fighting
And paused not from his race In front of our array,
Till he stood before his master's door And Aulus of the seventy fields
In the stately market-place. Alone upholds the day."
And straightway round him gathered
A pale and trembling crowd, 25.
And when they knew him cries of rage Herminius beat his bosom,
Brake forth, and wailing loud: But never a word he spake :
And women rent their tresses He clapped his hands on Auster's mane ;
For their great prince's fall: He gave the reins a shake.
And old men girt on their old swords, Away, away went Auster
And went to man the wall. Like an arrow from the bow;
30. Black Auster was the fleetest steed
But, like a graven image, From Aufidus to Po.
Black Auster kept his place,
And ever wistfully he looked 26.
Into his master's face. Right glad were all the Romans
The raven-mane that daily, Who, in that hour of dread,
With pats and fond caresses, Against great odds bare up the war
The young Herminia washed and comboda Around Valerius dead,
And twined in even tresses, When from the south the cheering
And decked with coloured ribands Rose with a mighty swell,
From her own gay attire, • Herminius comes, Herminius,
Hung sadly o'er her father's corpse Who kept the bridge so well!"
In carnage and in mire.
Forth with a shout sprang Titas, 27.
And seized black Auster's rein, Hamilius spied Herminius,
Then Aulas sware a fearful orth, And dashed across the way.
And ran at him amain. VOL. IV.
* The furies of thy brother
And Ardea wavered on the left With me and mine abide,
And Cora on the right. If one of your accursed house
“Rome to the charge !" cried Aulus :Upon black Auster ride !"
“The foe begins to yield! As on an Alpine watch-tower
Charge for the hearth of Vesta! From heaven comes down the flame,
Charge for the Golden Shield! Full on the neck of Titus
Let no man stop to plunder, The blade of Aulus came:
But slay, and slay, and slay : And out the red blood spouted,
The gods who live forever In a wide arch and tall,
Are on our side to-day." As spouts a fountain in the court of some rich Capuan's hall.
36. The knees of all the Latines Were loosened with dismay
Then the fierce trumpet-flourish When dead, on dead Herminius,
From earth to heaven arose, The bravest Tarquin lay.
The kites know well the long stern svel 31.
That bids the Romans close.
Then the good sword of Aulus And Aulus the Dictator
Was lifted up to slay : Stroked Auster's raven mane,
Then, like a crag down Apennine, With heed he looked unto the girths,
Rushed Auster through the fray. With heed unto the rein.
But under those strange horsemen “Now bear me well, black Auster,
Still thicker lay the slain; Into yon thick array;
And after those strange horses And thou and I will have revenge
Black Auster toiled in vain. For thy good lord this day."
Behind them Rome's long battle 32.
Came rolling on the foe,
Ensigns dancing wild above, So spake he; and was buckling
Blades all in line below. Tighter black Auster's band,
So comes the Po in flood-time When he was aware of a princely pair
Upon the Celtic plain: That rode at his right hand.
So comes the squall, blacker than oight, So like they were, no mortal
Upon the Adrian main.
Now, by our Sire Quirinus,
It was a goodly sight Never on earthly anvil
To see the thirty standards Did such rare armour gleam;
Swept down the tide of flight.
So flies the spray of Adria And never did such gallant steeds
When the black squall doth blow; Drink of an earthly stream.
So corn-sheaves in the flood-time 33.
Spin down the whirling Po. And all who saw them trembled,
False Sextus to the mountains And pale grew every cheek;
Turned first his horse's head: And Aulus the Dictator
And fast fled Ferentinum, Scarce gathered voice to speak.
And fast Circeium fled. "Say by what name men call you !
The horsemen of Nomentum What city is your home?
Spurred hard out of the fray; And wherefore ride ye in such guise
The footmen of Velitræ Before the ranks of Rome ?"
Threw shield and spear away,
And underfoot was trampled, 34.
Amidst the mud and gore, * By many names men call us;
The banner of proud Tusculum, In many lands we dwell:
That never stooped before : Well Samothracia knows us :
And down went Flavius Faustus, Cyrene knows us well.
Who led his stately ranks Our house in gay Tarentum
From where the apple blossoms waro Is hung each morn with flowers :
On Anio's echoing banks, High o'er the masts of Syracuse
And Tullus of Arpinum, Our marble portal towers :
Chief of the Volscian aids, But by the proud Eurotas
And Metius with the long fair carls, Is our dear native home;
The love of Anxur's maids, And for the right we come to fight
And the white head of Vulso Before the ranks of Rome."
The great Arician seer 35.
And Nepos of Laurentuin,
The hunter of the deer
Felt the good Roman steel,
And wriggling in the dust he died, Were bold, and of good cheer:
Like a worm beneath the wheels And on the thirty armies
And fliers and pursuers Came wonder and affright,
Were mingled in a mags;
And far away the battle
And none who saw their bearing
Durst ask their name or race.
While laurel-boughs and flowers,
From housetops and from windows, Sempronius Atratinus
Felt on their crests in showers. Sate in the Eastern Gate.
When they drew nigh to Vesta, Beside him were three Fathers,
They vaulted down amain, Each in his chair of state;
And washed their horses in the well Fabius, whose nine stout grandsons
That springs by Vesta's fane. That day were in the field,
And straight again they mounted, And Manlius, eldest of the Twelve
And rode to Vesta's door; Who keep the Golden Shield;
Then, like a blast, away they passed, And Sergius, the High Pontiff,
And no man saw them more.
40. Was no such Pontiff found.
And all the people trembled, And all around the portal,
And pale grew every cheek; And high above the wall,
And Sergius the High Pontiff Stood a great throng of people,
Alone found voice to speak : But sad and silent all;
« The Gods who live forever Young lads, and stooping elders
Have fought for Rome to-day! That might not bear the mail,
These be the Great Twin Brethren Matrons with lips that quivered,
To whom the Dorians pray. And maids with faces pale.
Back comes the Chief in triumph, Since the first gleam of daylight,
Who, in thu hour of fight, Sempronius had not ceased
Hath seen the Great Twin Brethren To listen for the rushing
In harness on his right. Of horsc-hoofs from the east.
Safe comes the ship to haven, The mist of ere was rising,
Through billows and through gales The sun was hastening down,
If once the Great Twin Brethren
Wherefore they washed their horses So like they were, man never
In Vesta's holy well, Saw twins so like before;
Wherefore they rode to Vesta's door, Red with gore their armour was,
I know, but may not tell. Their steeds were red with gore.
Here, hard by Vesta's temple,
Build we a stately dome 38.
Unto the Great Twin Brethren “Hail to the great Asylum!
Who fought so well for Rome. Hail to the hill-tops seven!
And when the months returning Hail to the fire that burns for aye,
Bring back this day of fight, And the shield that fell from heaven!
The proud Ides of Quintilis, This day, by Lake Regillus,
Marked evermore with white,
Unto the Great Twin Brethren
Let all the people throng,
With chaplets and with offerings, To-morrow your Dictator
With music and with song;
And let the doors and windows Shall bring in triumph home
Be hung with garlands all, The spoils of thirty cities
And let the Knights be summoned To deck the shrines of Rome!"
To Mars without the wall: 39.
Thence let them ride in purple
With joyous trumpet-sound, Then burst from that great concourse Each mounted on his war-horse, A shout that shook the towers,
And each with olive crowned; And some ran north, and some ran south, And pass in solemn order Crying, “The day is ours !"
Before the sacred dome, But on rode these strange horsemen,
Where dwell the Great Twin Brethren With slow and lordly pace;
Who fought so well for Rome."
A COLLECTION consisting exclusively of war- f of the Patrician money-lenders. Children often songs would give an imperfect, or rather an became slaves in consequence of the misfor erroneous notion of the spirit of the old Latin tunes of their parents. The debtor was impriballads. "The Patricians, during about a cen- soned, not in a public jail under the care of tury and a half after the expulsion of the impartial public functionaries, but in a private kings, held all the high military commands. A workhouse belonging to the creditor. FrightPlebeian, even though, like Lucius Siccius, he ful stories were told respecting these dungeons. were distinguished by his valour and know. It was said that torture and brutal violation ledge of war, could serve only in subordinate were common; that tight stocks, heavy chains, posts. A minstrel, therefore, who wished to scanty measures of food, were used to punish celebrate the early triumphs of his country, wretches guilty of nothing but poverty; and could hardly take any but Patricians for his that brave soldiers, whose breasts were coheroes. The warriors who are mentioned in vered with honourable scars, were often markthe two preceding lays, Horatius, Lartius, Hered still more deeply on the back by the scourges minius, Aulus Posthumius, Æbutius Elva, Sem- of high-born usurers. pronius Atratinus, Valerius Poplicola, were all The Plebeians were, however, not wholly members of the dominant order; and a poet without constitutional rights. From an early who was singing their praises, whatever his period they had been admitted to some share own political opinions might be, would natu- of political power. They were enrolled in the rally abstain from insulting the class to which centuries, and were allowed a share, considerthey belonged, and from reflecting on the sys- able though not proportioned to their numerical tem which had placed such men at the head of strength, in the disposal of those high dignities the legirds of the commonwealth.
from which they were themselves excluded. But there was a class of compositions in Thus their position bore some resemblance to which the great families were by no means so that of the Irish Catholics during the interval courteously treated. No parts of early Roman between the year 1792 and the year 1829. The history are richer with poetical colouring than Plebeians had also the privilege of annually those which relate to the long contest between appointing officers, named Tribunes, who had the privileged houses and the commonalty. no active share in the government of the ComThe population of Rome was, from a very early monwealth, but who, by degrees, acquired a period, divided into hereditary castes, which, power which made them formidable even to the indeed, readily united to repel foreign enemies, ablest and most resolute Consuls and Dietabut which regarded each other, during many tors. The person of the Tribune was inviola years, with bitter animosity. Between those ble; and, though he could directly effect ligle, castes there was a barrier hardly less strong he could obstruct every thing. than that which, at Venice, parted the mem During more than a century after the institubers of the Great Council from their country- tion of the Tribuneship, the Commons strag. men. In some respects indeed, the line which gled manfully for the removal of grievances separated an Icilius or a Duilius from a Post- under which they laboured ; and, in spite of humius or a Fabius was even more deeply many checks and reverses, succeeded in marked than that which separated the rower wringing concession after concession from the of a gondola from a Contarini or a Morosini. stubborn aristocracy. At length, in the year At Venice the distinction was merely civil. At of the city 378, both parties mustered their Rome it was both civil and religious. Among whole strength for their last and most desperate the grievances under which the Plebeians suf- conflict. The popular and active Tribune, fered, three were felt as peculiarly severe. Caius Licinius, proposed the three memorable They were excluded from the highest magis- laws which are called by his name, and which tracies; they were excluded from all share in were intended to redress the three great evils the public lands; and they were ground down of which the Plebeians complained. He was to the dust by partial and barbarous legislation supported, with eminent ability and firmness, touching. pecuniary contracts. The ruling by his colleague, Lucius Sextius. The strugclass in Rome was a moneyed class; and it gle appears to have been the fiercest that ever made and administered the laws with a view in any community terminated without an apsolely to its own interest. Thuš the relation peal to arms. If such a contest had raged in between lender and borrower was mixed up any Greek city, the streets would have run with the relation between sovereign and sub. with blood. But, even in the paroxysms of ject. The great men held a large portion of the faction, the Roman retained his gravity, his community in dependence by means of ad- respect for law, and his tenderness for the lives vances at enormous usury. The law of debt, of his fellow-citizens. Year after year Licinius framed by creditors, and for the protection of and Sextius were re-elected Tribunes. Year cruditors, was the most horrible that has ever after year, if the narrative which has come been known among men. The liberty, and down to us is to be trusted, they continued to even the life of the insolvent were at the mercy exert, to the full extent, their power of stopping
the whole machine of government. No curule truth, naturally from the constitution of the magistrates could be chosen; no military mus- Roman government and from the spirit of the ter could be held. We know too little of the Roman people; and, though it submitted to state of Rome in those days to be able to con- metrical rules derived from
Greece, it retained jecture how, during that long anarchy, the to the last its essentially Roman character. Lųpeace was kept, and ordinary justice adminis-cilius was the earliest satirist whose works tered between man and man. The animosity were held in esteem under the Cæsars. But, of both parties rose to the greatest height. The many years before Lucilius was born, Nævius excitement, we may well suppose, would have had been flung into a dungeon, and guarded Deen peculiarly intense at the annual election there with circumstances of unusual rigour of Tribunes. On such occasions there can be till the Tribunes interfered in his behalf, on little doubt that the great families did all that account of the bitter lines in which he had atcould be done, by threats and caresses, to tacked the great Cæcilian family. The gebreak the union of the Plebeians. That union, nius and spirit of the Roman satirists survived however, proved indissoluble. At length the the liberties of their country, and were not exgood cause triumphed. The Licinian laws tinguished by the cruel despotism of the Julian were carried. Lucius Sextius was the first and Flavian emperors. The great poet who Plebeian Consul, Caius Licinius the third. told the story of Domitian's turbot was the
The results of this great change were singu- legitimate successor of those forgotten minlarly happy and glorious. Two centuries of strels whose songs animated the factions of prosperity, harmony, and victory followed the the infant Republic. reconciliation of the orders. Men who re Those minstrels, as Niebuhr has remarked, membered Rome engaged in waging petty appear to have generally taken the popular wars almost within sight of the Capitol lived side. We can hardly be mistaken in suppos: to see her the mistress of Italy. While the ing that, at the great crisis of the civil conflict, disabilities of the Plebeians continued, she was they employed themselves in versifying all the scarcely able to maintain her ground against most powerful and virulent speeches of the the Volscians and Hernicans. When those Tribunes, and in heaping abuse on the chiefs disabilities were removed, she rapidly became of the aristocracy. Every personal defect, more than a match for Carthage and Ma- every domestic scandal, every tradition discedon.
honourable to a noble house, would be sought During the great Licinian contest the Pie. out, brought into notice, and exaggerated. The beian poets were, doubtless, not silent. Even illustrious head of the aristocratical party, in modern times songs have been by no means Marcus Furius Camillus, might perhaps be, in without influence on public affairs; and we some measure, protected by his venerable age may therefore infer, that, in a society where and by the memory of his great services to the printing was unknown, and where books were state. But Appius Claudius Crassus enjoyed rare, a pathetic or humorous party-ballad no such immunity. He was descended from must have produced effects such as we can a long line of ancestors distinguished by their but faintly conceive. It is certain that satiri- haughty, demeanour, and by the inflexibility cal poems were common at Rome from a very with which they had withstood all the demands early period. The rustics who lived at a dis- of the Plebeian order. While the political con. . tance from the seat of government, and took duct and the deportment of the Claudian nolittle part in the strife of factions, gave vent to bles drew upon them the fiercest public hatred, their petty local animosities in coarse Fescen- they were wanting, if any credit is due to the nine verse. The lampoons of the city were early history of Rome, in a class of qualities doubtless of a higher order; and their sting which, in a military Commonwealth, is suffi. was early felt by the nobility. For in the cient to cover a multitude of cffences. Several Twelve Tables, long before the time of the of them appear to have been eloquent, versed Licinian laws, a severe punishment was de- in civil business, and learned after the fashion nounced against the citizen who should com- of their age; but in war they were not distin. pose or recite verses reflecting on another.* guished by skill or valour. Some of them, as Satire is, indeed, the only sort of composition if conscious where their weakness lay, had, in which the Latin poets, whose works have when filling the highest magistracies, taken come down to us, were not mere imitators of internal administration as their department of foreign models; and it is therefore the only public business, and left the military com sort of composition in which they had never mand to their colleagues. One of them hau been rivalled. It was not, like their tragedy, been intrusted with an army, and had failed their comedy, their epic and lyric poetry, a ignominiously. None of them had been hot-house plant which, in return for assiduous honoured with a triumph. None of them had and skilful culture, yielded only scanty and achieved any martial exploit, such as those by sickly fruits. It was hardy, and full of sap; which Luctus Quinctius Cincinnatus, Titus and in all the various juices which it yielded Quinctius Capitolinus, Aulus Cornelius Cossas, might be distinguished the flavour of the Au-and, above all, the great Camillus, had extorted sonian soil. “Satire," said Quintilian, with the reluctant esteem of the multitude. During - just pride, “is all our own." It sprang, in the Licinian conflict, Appius Claudius Crassus Cicero justly infers from this law that there had
signalized himself by the ability and severity been early
Latin poets whose wo-ks had been lost be with which he harangued against 'he two fore his time. "Quamquam id quidem etiam xii tabulae declarant; condi jam tum solitunt esse carmen, quod * Plautus, Miles Gloriosus. Anlus Gellius lil-3 ne liceret fleri ad alterius injuriam lege sanxerunt.". In the years of the 200, 301, and 330 Tusc. Iv. 2
Ilu the year of the city 282,