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on the other hand, was there in common part of his life, with the wealthiest of the conbetween him and the Icing's friends, that he querors of Bengal and Tanjore. At Burton should lend himself to their purposes--he who Pynsent, he ordered a great extent of ground had never owed any thing to flattery or intrigue, to be planted with cedars. Cedars enough for ne whose eloquence and independent spirit had the purpose were not to be found in Somerset overawed two generations of slaves and job-shire. They were therefore collected in Lon bers, he who had twice been forced by the don, and sent down by land carriage. Relays enthusiasm of an admiring nation on a relue- of labourers were hired; and the work went tant prince?

on all night by torchlight. No man could be Unhappily the court had gained Pitt, not, it more abstemious than Pitt; yet the profusion is true, by those ignoble means which were of his kitchen was a wonder even to epicures, employed when such men as Rigby and Wed. Several dinners were always dressing; for his derburn were to be won, but by allurements appetite was capricious and fanciful; and at suited to a nature noble even in its aberra- whatever moment he felt inclined to eat, he tions. The king set himself to seduce the one expected a meal to be instantly on the table. man who could turn the Whigs out without Other circumstances might be mentioned, such letting Grenville in. Praise, caresses, pro- as separately are of little moment, but such as, mises, were lavished on the idol of the nation. when taken together, and when viewed in conHe, and he alone, could put an end to faction, nection with the strange events which followed, could bid defiance to all the powerful connec-justify us in believing that his mind was already tions in the land united, Whigs and Tories, in a morbid state. Rockinghams, Bedfords, and Grenvilles. These Soon after the close of the session of Parliablandishments produce a great effect. Forment, Lord Rockingham received his dismissal though Pitt's spirit was high and manly, though He retired, accompanied by a firm body of his eloquence was often exerted with formida- friends, whose consistency and uprightness ble effect against the court, and though his enmity itself was forced to admit. None of them theory of government had been learned in the had asked or obtained any pension or any sineschool of Locke and Sidney, he had always cure, either in possession or in reversion. Such regarded the person of the sovereign with pro- disinterestedness was then rare among politi. found veneration. As soon as he was brought cians. Their chief, though not a man of bril face to face with royalty, his imagination and liant talents, bad won for himself an honoura sensibility became too strong for his principles. ble fame, which he kept pure to the last. He His Whigism thawed and disappeared ; and he had, in spite of difficulties which seemed albecame, for the time, a Tory of the old Ormond most insurmountable, removed great abuses pattern. Nor was he by any means unwilling and averted a civil war. Sixteen years later, to assist in the work of dissolving all political in a dark and terrible day, he was again called connections. His own weight in the state was upon to save the state, brought to the very wholly independent of such connections. He brink of ruin by the same perfidy and obstiwas therefore inclined to look on them with nacy which had embarrassed, and at length dislike, and made far too little distinction overthrown, his first administration. between gangs of knaves associated for the Pitt was planting in Somersetshire when he mere purpose of robbing the public, and con- was summoned to court by a letter written federacies of honourable men for the promo- with the royal hand. He instantly hastened tion of great public objects. Nor had he the to London. The irritability of his mind and sagacity to perceive that the strenuous efforts body were increased by the rapidity with which which he made to annihilate all parties tended he travelled; and when he reached his jouronly to establish the ascendency of one party. Incy's end he was suffering from fever. Il as and that the basest and most hateful of all. he was, he saw the king at Richmond, and

It may be doubted whether he would have undertook to form an administration. been thus misled, if his mind had been in full Pitt was scarcely in the state in which a health and vigour. But the truth is, that he man should be who has to conduct delicate and had for some time been in an unnatural state arduous negotiations. In his letters to his wife, of excitement. No suspicion of this sort had he complained that the conferences in which yet got abroad. His eloquence had never it was necessary for him to bear a part heatou shone with more splendour than during the his blood and accelerated his pulse. From recent debates. But people afterwards called other sources of information we learn, that his to mind many things which ought to have language, even to those whose co-operation he roused their apprehensions. His habits were wished to engage, was strangely peremptory gradually becoming more and more eccentric. and despotic. Some of his notes written at neahorror of all loud sounds, such as is said to this time have been preserved, and are in a id out ve been one of the many oddities of Wallen-style which Louis the Fourteenth would have s contin, grew upon him. Though the most affec- been too well bred to employ in addressing bave nate of fathers, he could not at this time any French gentleman. noise.ar to hear the voices of his own children, In the attempt to dissolve all parties, Pitt ision (d laid out great sums at Hayes in buying up met with some difficulties. Some Whigs, whom

houses contiguous to his own, merely that he the court would gladly have detached from night have no neighbours to disturb him with Lord Rockingham, rejected all offers. The

their noise. He then sold Hayes, and took Bedfords were perfectly willing to break with Prossession of a villa at Hampstead, where he Grenville; but Pitt would not come up to their

again began to purchase houses to right and terms. Temple, whom Pitt a first meant to 19 ieft. In expense, indeed, he vied, during this place at the head of the treasury, proved in 8 . id out gre 3 contiguous havuo neigus noise. The cus

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tractable. A coldness indeed had, during some them all in perfect subordination to himself months, been fast growing between the brothers- and in perfect harmony with each other. We in-law, so long and so closely allied in poli- shall soon see how the experiment succeeded. lics. Pitt was angry with Temple for oppos. On the very day on which the view prime ing the repeal of the Stamp Act. Temple was minister kissed hands, three-lonrths of that angry with litt for refusing to accede to that popularity which he had long enjoyed without family league which was now the favourite a rival, and to which he owed the greater part plan at Siowe. At length the Earl proposed of his authority, departed from him.. A violent an equal partition of power and patronage, loutcry was raised, not against that part of his and offered, on this condition, to give up his conduct which really deserved severe condembrother George. Pitt thought the demand ex- | nation, but against a step in which we can see orbitant, and positively refused compliance, nothing to censure. His acceptance of a peerA bitter quarrel followed. Each of the kins- age produced a general burst of indignation, men was true to his character. Temple's soul Yet surely no peerage had ever been beller festered with spite, and Pitt's swelled into earned; nor was there ever a statesman who contempt Temple represented Pitt as the more needed the repose of the Upper House. mnost odious of hypocrites and Traitors. Pitt Pitt was now growing old. He was much held a different, and perhaps a more provoking older in constitution than in years. It was tone. Temple was a good sort of man enough. I with imminent risk to his life that he had, on whose single title to distinction was, that he some important occasions, attended his duty had a large garden, with a large piece of water, in Parliament. During the session of 1764. and a great many pavilions and summer- he had not been able to take part in a single houses. To his fortunate connection with a debate. It was impossible that he should a great orator and statesman he was indebted through the nightly labour of conducting the for an importance in the state which his own business of the government in the House of talents could never have gained for him. That Commons. His wish to be transferred, under importance had turned his head. He had such circumstances, to a less busy and a less begun to fancy that he could form administra- turbulent assembly, was natural and reasontions, and govern empires. It was piteous to able. The nation, however, overlooked all see a well-ineaning man under such a delusion. these considerations. Those who had most

In spite of all these difficulties, a ministry loved and honoured the great Commoner was made such as the king wished to see, a were loudest in invective against the new ministry in which all his majesty's friends made Lord. London had hitherto been true to were comfortably accommodated, and which, him through every vicissitude. When the with the exception of his majesty's friends, citizens learned that he had been sent for from contained no four persons who had ever in Somersetshire, that he had been closeted with their lives been in the habit of acting together. the king at Richmond, and that he was to be Men who had never concurred in a single vote first minister, they had been in transports of found themselves seated at the same board. joy. Preparations were made for a grand enThe office of paymaster was divided between tertainment, and for a general illumination. two persons who had never exchanged a word. The lamps had actually been placed round the Most of the chief posts were filled either by Monument, when the Gazette announced that personal adherents of Pitt, or by members of the object of all their enthusiasm was an eari. the late ministry, who had been induced to Instantly the feast was countermanded. The remain in place after the dismissal of Lord lamps were taken down. The newspapers. Rockingham. To the former class belonged raised the roar of obloquy. Pamphlets, made Pratt, now Lord Camden, who accepted the up of calumny and scurrility, filled the shops great scal, and Lord Shelburne, who was made of all the booksellers, and of those pamplilets: one of the secretaries of state. To the latter the most galling were written under the dirce. class belonged the Duke of Grafton, who be- tion of the malignant Temple. It was nov came First Lord of the Treasury, and Conway the fashion to compare the two Williams, who kept his old position both in the govern-William Pulieney and William Pitt. Both, it ment and in the House of Commons. Charles was said, had, by eloquence and simulated paTownshend, who had belonged to every party.triotism, acquired a great ascendency in the and cared for none, was Chancellor of the Dx House of Commons and in the country. Both chequer. Pitt himself was declared prime had been intrusted with the otice of reformis minister, but refused to take any laborious the government. Both had, when at the height office. He was created Earl of Chatham, and of power and popularity, been seduced by the the privy seal was delivered to him.

splendour of the coronet. Both had been It is scarcely necessary to say, that the failmade earls, and both had in a moment become

ure, the complete and disgracefol failure, of objects of aversion and scorn to the bafpears ated Es this arrangement, is not to be ascribed to any which a few hours before had regarded tgn rela eliverecu u want of talents in the persons whom we have with affection and veneration.

Till hoy essary to say,named. None of them were deficient in abili. The clamour against Pitt appears to

b e nd d Tartics: and four of them, Pitt himself, Shelburne, had a serious effect on the foreign relations dent

top Camden, and Townshend, were men of high the country. His name had till now actesut mq qa&is intellectual eminence. The fault was not in like a spell at Versailles and Saint Helefoner

SLA O 25. the materials, but in the principle on which English travellers on the Continent hnd 1 DO 1:4C16C 10 P: materials were put together. Pitt had marked, that nothing more was necessus LGTS

og ESIJOL O tedy these conflicting elements, in the to silence a whole room-inll of haasbesla GT 10 t]G TE a confulence has he should be able to keep Frenchmen, than to drop a hint of the pi KEI 3 CEO ERA DIZEIT Wet

appears ed to take as olet of beed to take

foreign rela Fated Earl of O lo l'is beimted Earl of O

had till not lelivered to hid of b91avilolelivered to hi

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bility that Mr. Pitt would return to power. In an instant there was deep silence: all shoulders rose, and all faces were lengthened. Now, unhappily, every foreign court, in learning that he was recalled to office, learned also that he no longer possessed the hearts of his coun- on. Ceasing to be loved at home, he censed to be feared abroad. The name of Pitt had been a charmed name. Our envoys tried in vain to conjure with the name of Chatham. The difficulties which beset Chatham were daily increased by the despotic manner in which he treated all around him. Lord Rockingham had, at the time of the change of ministry, acted with great moderation, had expressed a hope that the new government would act on the principles of the late government, and had even interfered to prevent many of his friends from quitting office. Thus Saunders and Keppel, two naval commanders of great eminence, had been induced to remain at the Admiralty, where their services were much needed. The Duke of Portland was still lord-chamberlain, and Lord Besborough postmaster. But within a quarter of a year, Lord Chatham had so effectually disgusted these men, that they all retired in deep disgust. In truth, his tone, submissive in the closet, was at this time insupportably tyrannical in the cabinet. His colleagues were merely his clerks for naval, financial, and diplomatic business. Conway, meek as he was, was on one occasion provoked into declaring that such language as Lord Chatham's had never been heard west of Constantinople, and was with difficulty prevented by Horace Walpole from resigning, and rejoining the standard of Lord Rockingham. The breach which had been made in the government by the defection of so many of the Rockinghams, Chatham hoped to supply by the help of the Bedfords. But with the Bedfords he could not deal as he had dealt with other parties. It was to no purpose that he bade high for one or two members of the faction, in the hope of detaching them from the rest. They were to be had but they were to be had only in the lot. There was indeed for a moment some wavering and some disputing among them. But at length the counsels of the shrewd and resolute Rigby prevailed. They determined to stand firmly together, and plainly intimated to Chatham that he must take them all, or that he should get none of them. The event proved that they were wiser in their generation than any other connection in the state. In a few months they were able to diclate their own terms. The most important public measure of Lord Chatham's administration was his celebrated interference with the corn-trade. The harvest had been bad; the price of food was high and he thought it necessary to take on himself the responsibility of laying an embargo on the exportation of grain. When Parliament met, this proceeding was attacked by the opposition as unconstitutional, and defended by the ministers as indispensably necessary. At last, an act was passed to indemnify all who had been concerned in the embargo. The first words uttered by Chatham, in the

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subject before Parliament. He would not, however, confer on the subject with any of his colleagues. It was in vain that Conway, who was charged with the conduct of business in The House of Commons, and Charles Townshend, who was responsible for the direction of the finances, begged for some glimpse of light as to what was in contemplation. Chatham's answers were sullen and mysterious. decline any discussion with them; he did not want their assistance; he had fixed on a person to take charge of his measure in the House of Commons. who was not connected with the government, and who neither had, nor deserved to have, the ear of the House—a noisy, purse proud, illiterate

A subsequent

He must

This person was a member

demagogue, whose Cockney English and scraps

of mis-pronounced Latin were the jest of the

newspapers, Alderman Beckford. It may well be supposed that these strange proceedings produced a ferment through the whole political world. The city was in commotion. The East India Company invoked the faith of char ters. Burke thundered against the ministers The ministers looked at each other, and knew not what to say. In the midst of the consusion, Lord Chatham proclaimed himself gouty, and retired to Bath. It was announced, after some time, that he was better, and that he would shortly return, that he would soon put every thing in order. A day was fixed for his arrival in London. But when he reached he Castle inn at Marlborough, he stopped,

shut himself up in his room, and remained

there some weeks. Everybody who travelled that road was amazed by the number of his attendants. Footmen and grooms, dressed in his family livery, filled the whole inn, though one of the largest in England, and swarmed in the streets of the little town. The truth was, that the invalid had insisted that, during his stay, all the waiters and stable-boys of the Castle should wear his livery. His colleagues were in despair. The Duke

of Grafton proposed to go down to Marlbo

rough in order to consult the oracle. But he was informed that Lord Chathan must decline all conversation on business. In the mean time, all the parties which were out of office, Bedfords, Grenvilles, and Rockinghams, joined o oppose the distracted government on the vote for the land-tax. They were rentoro

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by almost all the county members, and had a minister, had been, as we have said, in an un-
considerable majority. This was the first sound state; and physical and moral causes
time that a ministry had been beaten on an im- now concurred to malce the derangement of his
portant division in the House of Commons faculties complete. The gont, which had been
since the fall of Sir Robert Walpole. The the torment of his whole life, bad been sup
administration, thus furiously assailed from pressed by strong remedies. For the first time
without, was torn by internal dissensions. It since he was a boy at Oxford, he passed seves
had been formed on no principle whatever. ral months without a twinge. But bis hand
From the very first, nothing but Chatham's and foot had been relieved at the expense of
authority had prevented the hostile contingents his nerves. He became melancholy, fanciful.
which made up his ranks from going to blows irritable. The embarrassing state of public
with each other. That authority was now affairs, the grave responsibility which lay on
withdrawn, and every thing was in commotion. him, the consciousness of his errors, the dis-
Conway, a brave soldier, but in civil affairs putes of his colleagues, the savage clamotrs
the most timid and irresolute of men, afraid raised by his detractors, bewildered his en
of disobliging the king, afraid of being abused feebled mind. One thing alone, he said, could
in the newspapers, afraid of being thought save him. He must repurchase Hayes. The
d'actious if he went out, afraid of being thought unwilling consent of the new occupant was,
interested if he stayed in, afraid of every thing, extorted by Lady Chatham's entreaties atid
and afraid of being known to be afraid of any tears and her lord was somewhat easier.
thing, was beaten backwards and forwardsBut if business were mentioned to him, he
like a shuttlecock between Horace Walpole, once the proudest and boldest of mankind,
who wished to make him prime minister, and behaved like an hysterical girl, trembled from
Lord John Cavendish, who wished to draw him head to foot, and burst into a flood of tears.
into opposition. Charles Townshend, a man His colleagues for a time continued to any
of splendid talents, of lax principles, and of tertain the expectation that his health would
boundless vanity and presumption, would sub- soon be restored, and that he would emerge
mit to no control. The full extent of his parts. from his retirement. But month followed
of his ambition, and of his arrogance, had not month, and still he remained hidden in myste
ye' been made manifest; for he had always rious seclusion, and sunk, as far as they conld
quailed before the genius and the lofty charac-learn, in the deepest dejection of spirits. They
ter of Pitt. But now that Pitt had quitted the at length ceased to hope or to fear any thing
House of Commons, and seemed to have ab- from him; and, thongh he was still nominally
dicated the part of chief minister, Townshend prime minister, took, without scruple, steps
broke loose from all restraint.

which they knew to be diametrically opposed
While things were in this state, Chatham at to all his opinions and feelings, allied them
lenguk returned to London. He might as well selves with those whom he had proscribed,
have remained at Marlborough. He would see disgraced those whom he most esteemed, and
nobody. He would give no opinion on any public laid taxes on the colonies, in the face of the
maller. The Duke of Grafton begged piteously strong declarations which he had recently
for an interview, for an hour, for half an hour, made.
for five minutes. The answer was, that it was When he had passed about a year and
impossible. The king himself repeatedly con- three-quarters in gloomy privacy, the king
descended to expostulate and implore. "Your received a few lines in Lady Chatham's hand.
duty," he wrote, "your own honour, require They contained a request, dictated by her
you to make an effort." The answers to these lord, that he might be permitted to resign the
appeals were commonly written in Lady Chal-privy seal. After some civil show of reluc-
ham's hand, from her lord's dictation; for he tance, the resignation was accepted. Indeed
had not energy even to use a pen. He flings Chatham was, by this time, alinost as much
himself at the king's feet. He is penetrated forgotten as if he had already been lying in
by the royal goodness, so signally shown to Westminster Abbey.
the most unhappy of men. He implores al At length the clouds which had gathered
Sittle more indulgence. He cannot as yet over his mind broke and passed away. His
transact business. He cannot see his collgout returned, and freed him from a more
leagues. Least of all can he bear the excite-cruel malady. His nerves were newly braced.
ment of an interview with majesty.

His spirits became buoyant. He wolte as from Some were half inclined to suspect that he a sickly dream. It was a strange recovery. was, to use a military phrase, malingering. Men had been in the habit of talking of him He had made, they said, a great blunder, and as of one dead, and, when he first showed had found it out. His immense popularity, himself at the king's levee, started as if the his high reputation for statesmanship, were had seen a ghost. It was more than filmistr gone for ever. Intoxicated by pride, he had years and a half since he had appeared en, an undertaken a task beyond his abilities. He public.

wut there now saw nothing before him but distresses He, too, had cause for wonder. The Woaccess and humiliations; and he had therefore simu- which he now entered was not the wofistea lated illness, in order to escape from vexations which he had quitted. The administratiarper which he had not fortitude to meet. This sus- which he had formed had never been, at any 9 picion, though it derived some colour from one moment, entirely changed. But there bader What weakness which was the most striking been so many losses and so many accession blemish of his character. was certainly un- that he could scarcely recognise his own

funded. His mind, before he became first world. Charles Townshend was dead. Hera em as certainly VI ly

ny access lie became DE 90 became om

DA CGGE
BOT PCIE
E DCI 91

some had been dismissed. Conway had

sunk into utter insignificance. The Duke of Groton had fallen into the hands of the Bedords. The Bedfords had deserted Grenville, had made their peace with the king and the sing's friends, and had been admitted to office. Lord North was Chancellor of the Exchequer, and was rising fast in importance. Corsica had been given up to France without a strugEle. The disputes with the American cololies had been revived. A general election ind taken place. Wilkes had returned from exile, and outlaw as he was had been chosen onight of the shire for Middlesex. The mullitude was on his side. The court was obstinately bent on ruining him, and was prepared to shake the very foundations of the constituion for the sake of a paltry revenge. The House of Commons, assuming to itself an auhority which of right belongs only to the whole legislature, had declared Wilkes incable of sitting in Parliament. Nor had it been thought sufficient to keep him out. Another must be brought in. Since the freeholders of Middlesex had obstinately refused to choose a member acceptable to the court, the House had chosen a member for them. This was not the only instance, perhaps not he most disgraceful instance, of the inveterate malignity of the court. Exasperated by the steady opposition of the Rockingham party, the king's friends had tried to rob a distinguished Whig nobleman of his private estate, and had persisted in their mean wickedness till their own servile majority had revolted From mere disgust and shame. Discontent had spread throughout the nation, and was kept up by stimulants such as had rarely been applied to the public mind. Junius had aken the field, had trampled Sir William Draper in the dust, had wellnigh broken the heart of Blackstone, and had so mangled the reputation of the Duke of Grafton that his grace had become sick of office, and was beginning to look wistfully towards the shades of Euston. Every principle of foreign, domestic, and colonial policy which was dear to the heart of Chatham, had, during the eclipse of his genius, been violated by the government which he had formed. The remaining years of his life were spent in vainly struggling against that fatal policy which, at the moment when he might have given it a death-blow, he had been induced to take under his protection. His exertions redeemed his own fame, but they effected little for his country. He found two parties arrayed against the government, the party of his own brothers-inLaw, the Grenvilles, and the party of Lord Rockingham. On the question of the Middlesex election these parties were agreed. But on many other important questions they dissered widely; and they were, in truth, not less hostile to each other than to the court. The Grenvilles had, during several years, annoyed The Rockinghams with a succession of actic monious pamphlets. It was long before the Rockinghams could be induced to retaliate. But an ill-natured tract, written under Grenville's direction, and entitled a State of the Vol. * -93

Nation, was too much for their patience. Burke undertook to defend and avenge his friends, and executed the task with admirable skill and vigour. On every point he was vicorious, and nowhere more completely victorious than when he joined issue on those dry and minute questions of statistical and finan

cial detail in which the main strength of Gren

ville lay. The official drudge, even on his own chosen ground, was utterly unable to maintain the fight against the great orator and philosopher. When Chatham reappeared, Grenville was still writhing with the recent shame and smart of this well-merited chasisement. Cordial co-operation between the two sections of the opposition was impossible. Nor could Chatham easily connect himself with either. His feelings, in spite of many affronts given and received, drew him towards the Grenvilles. For he had strong domestic affections; and his nature, which, though haughty, was by no means obdurate, had been softened by affliction. But from his kinsmen he was separated by a wide difference of opi nion on the question of colonial taxation. A reconciliation, however, took place. He visited Stowe: he shook hands with George Grenville:

and the Whigfreeholders of Buckinghamshire,

at their public dinners, drank many bumpers to the union of the three brothers. In opinions, Chatham was much nearer to the Rockinghams than to his own relatives. But between him and the Rockinghams there was a gulf not easily to be passed. He had deeply injured them, and, in injuring them. had deeply injured his country. When the balance was trembling between them and the court, he had thrown the whole weight of his genius, of his renown, of his popularity, into the scale of misgovernment. It must be added. that many eminent members of the party still retained a bitter recollection of the asperity and disdain with which they had been treated by him at the time when he assumed the direction of affairs. It is clear from Burke's panphlets and speeches, and still more clear from his private letters, and from the language which he held in conversation, that he long

regarded Chatham with a feeling not far to

moved from dislike. Chatham was undoubt. edly conscious of his error, and desirous to atone for it. But his overtures of friendship. though made with earnestness, and even wi unwonted humility, were at first received by Lord Rockingham with cold and austere reserve. Gradually the intercourse of the two statesmen became courteous and even amicable. But the past was never wholly forgotten. Chatham did not, however, stand alone Round him gathered a party, small in number but strong in great and various talents. Lord Camden, Lord shelburne, Colonel Barré, and Dunning, afterwards Lord Ashburton, were the principal members of this connection. There is no reason to believe that, from this time till within a few weeks of Chatham's death, his intellect suffered any decay. His eloquence was almost to the last heard with delight. But it was not exactly the eloquence

of the House of Lords. That lofty and pas

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