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COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY.
CHARLES W. ELIOT, President of the University.
HENRY W. TORREY, Professor of Ancient and Modern History.
EZRA ABBOT, Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation.
WOLCOTT GIBBS, Professor of the Application of Science to the Useful Arts.
FRANCIS J. CHILD, Professor of English.
CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, Professor of the History of Art.
JUSTIN WINSOR, Librarian of the University.
GEORGE L. GOODALE, Professor of Botany.

COLLEGE LIBRARY.

JUSTIN WINSOR, Librarian.
SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, Assistant Librarian in Charge of the Catalogue.
GEORGE F. ARNOLD, Curator of the Shelves.
THOMAS J. KIERNAN, Supt. of Circulation.

DEPARTMENTAL LIBRARIES.

The care of the several libraries devolves upon some member of the faculties of the respective departments when regular librarians have not been appointed.

HENRY L. EUSTIS, Professor, and Dean of the Lawrence Scientific School.
FRANCIS H. STORER, Professor, and Dean of the Bussey Institution.
EDWARD C. PICKERING, Professor, and Director of the Astronomical Observatory.
SERENO WATSON, Curator of the Herbarium, Botanic Garden.
JOHN H. ARNOLD, Librarian of the Law School.
CHARLES B. ELDER, Librarian of the Divinity School.
JAME E. CLEAVES, Librarian of the Medical School.
FRANCES M. SLACK, Librarian of the Zoölogical Museum.

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REFERENCES FOR A FORENSIC.

WERE THE GRACCHI TRUE PATRIOTS, OR WERE

THEY MERE DEMAGOGUES?

DR. PEABODY's for Jan. 6, 1880.

Merivale, Fall of the Roman republic, and his one volume General history of Rome, ch. 28–29, the latter giving the condensed results of his more extended works. Merivale also wrote the article in the En. cyclopædia britannica. Eliot's History of liberty, II. 113, characterizing Tiberius as the leader of reform and Caius of revolution. Schmitz's History of Rome. Ph. Smith's Ancient history, III. 31, uses compactly the labors of Mommsen, Long, and others. Napoleon III., in his Histoire de Jules César, ch. 6, Eng. lish translation, treats the subject with favoring views. H. C. Reiff, Geschichte der römischen bürgerkriege, 1825. W. Drumann, Geschichte Roms in seinem übergange von der republik zur monarchie, 1834-44, vol. vi., gives his authorities. Carl Peter, Geschichte Roms, 2d ed., 1866, II. Michelet, Histoire romaine : répu. blique, and the English translation by Hazlitt. Duruy, Histoire des Romains, II., ch. 19 and 20. Ampère, L'histoire romaine à Rome, iv., ch. 15, summing up the characters of the Gracchi, p. 323. Vertot, Histoire des révolutions romaines. The condensed account in Smith's Greek and Roman biography, II., 290, is generally favorable in tone.

The condition of the people and of the laws, as illustrating the movements of the Gracchi, is set forth as follows:

Geo. Rawlinson, Manual of ancient history, 5th period, book 5, compendious, and giving intended laws succinctly. Long, Decline of the Roman republic, ch. 2, on the agrarian laws; ch. 20, on the two parties, Optimates and Populares; ch. 10, on the condition of the state. L. H. Morgan, Ancient society, on Roman political government. T. E. May, Democracy in Europe, I., ch. 5, gives a running commentary, as illustrating the course of the government by the people. Macé, Des lois agraires chez les Romains. K. Bücher, Die aufstände der unfreien arbeiter, 1874. W. Drumann, Die arbeiter und communisten, 1860.

Expression of the popular feeling, as regards the characters of the Gracchi, can be derived from the plays of which they have been made the subjects, lists or accounts of which can be found in Larousse's Grand dictionnaire, viii., 1418, and in the Boston public library Fiction list, p. 118.

The chief original authorities are Plutarch's Lives and Appian's De bellis civilibus, both written two hun. hundred years after the events. There are scattered passages in Cicero, which are gathered in Orelli's Onomasticon, II. 531.

Long traces the later opinion, that the Gracchi were pestilent demagogues to Cicero. Sallust incidentally charges them with immoderation, though sympathizing with their party. Livy's books for this period are lost; but what is known as his Epitome has been filled out in Freinsheim's Supplement to Livy from all available sources.

T'he question of the trustworthiness of these original authorities is examined in Dr. Robert Schmidt's Kritik der quellen zur geschichte der gracchischen unruhen, 1874; F. D. Gerlach, Die geschichtschreiber der Römer, 1855; H. Peter, Die quellen Plutarchs, 1865, pp. 93-100 ; Niebuhr, Lectures on Roman his. tory (Schmitz's translation), lecture ix.; Arnold, Lectures on Roman history, New York edition, p. 59,

The Gracchi have been the subject of various monographs. T. Lau, Die Gracchen und ihre seit, 1854. with an examination of authorities; K. W. Nitzsch, Die Gracchen und ihre vorgänger, 1847 ; D. H. Hegewisch, Geschichte der grucchischen unruhen, 1801; F. D. Gerlach, Tiberins und Caius Gracchus, 1843; Ahrens, Die drei volkstribunen, 1836, covers Tiberius only; A. H. L. Heeren, Geschichte der bürgerlichen unruhen der Gracchen, 1824, in his Vermischte hist. schriften, III. ; Saint-Réal, Conjuration des Gracques.

The only available monograph in English is Beesly's Gracchi in the Epochs of ancient history series, which is a compact narrative, sympathetic in tone, particularly towards liberius, weighing the conflicting views of Mommsen and Long.

The later reaction from the old condemnatory view began with Niebuhr's distinction between public and private property in the laws proposed. Niebuhr, Lectures, schmitz's translation, lecture 89. The later view of Mommsen, Römische geschichte, book iv., ch. 2 and 3, Dickson's English translation, is ac. counted cynical by admirers of the Gracchi; and a historian like Mommsen, who theorizes without restraint, is weighed properly with Long, Decline of the Roman republic, 1864, who places his facts carefully, and writes with an almost utter absence of in. ference. Long calls the Gracchi turbulent and ambitious, but well-intentioned. An appreciative but critical view of Mommsen's general treatment of koman history is given in E. A. Freeman's Historical essays, II.

Arnold's Later Roman commonwealth, ch. 2 and 3, is made up of articles that were first printed in the Encyclopædia metropolitana, and the tendency of his views is democratic.

Other general histories are as follows:

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– The University Library has recently received 329 volumes and 106 pamphlets, mostly relating to the classics, philology, and natural history, as a bequest from Dr. Charles Pickering, of Boston (H. U., 1823). About one fourth of these were assigned to the departmental libraries. The remainder of Dr. Pickering's library (117 vol. and 40 pamphlets) was given to Smith College, Northampton, and to the Medical Library, Boston. Scudder's Catalogue of scientific serials (Li

' brary of Harvard L'niversity, special publications, I.) makes an octavo volume of 380 pp. It was issued in August last, and has been well received. The subscriptions to it, however, have not yet covered the cost of publication. Copies may be had at the library, bound in red cloth, for $4.00; in sheets, printed on one side only, $5.00

LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT ACCESSIONS,

is

JANUARY IST, 1880.

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Occasionally titles are given of other than recent accessions, for the purpose of rectifying the old

cataloguing or of drawing attention, with explanatory notes, to important books.

O nou &

Accessions to the several departmental libraries are indicated by heavy-faced letters after the titles,
as follows:
AO. Astronomical Observatory.

LS. Law School.
BG. Botanic Garden.

MS. Medical School.
BI. Bussey Institution.

MZ. Museum of Zoology.
DS. Divinity School.

SS. Lawrence Scientific School.

no. I.

M., pseudon. Catalogue des livres rares et précieux de M. ***

Paris. 1785. 80. IV. 726 Priced in MS. Under the *** is written "De theirs,' or “De theiss.".

Abbott, Benjamin Vaughan. Dictionary of terms and phrases used in American or English jurisprudence. 2 vol. Boston. 1879. 1.80 LS.

Abbott, Edwin Abbott. Latin prose through English idiom. Rules and exercises on Latin prose composition. With additions by E. R. Humphreys. Boston. 1876. 24o.

II. 1061 Also edition of 1877

Adams, Charles Francis, jr. Notes on railroad accidents. New York. 1879. 120, VII. 858

Adams, Henry. The life of Albert Gallatin. Philadelphia, etc. 1879. 1. 80.

7347.10 Adelaide, South Australia -- Philosophical society. Transactions and proceedings and report for 187778. Adelaide. 1878. 80.

MZ. African (South) folk-lore society. Folk-lore journal, edited by the working committee of the society. Vol. i. pt. 1-4. Jan. - July, 1879. Cape Town, etc. 1879. 80.

27254.40 [Ageno, Francesco). I casi della guerra per l'indipendenza d'America. [Edited by] Giuseppe Colucci. 2 vol. in 3. Genova. 1879. sm. 80. 6355.25

Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius, of Nettesheim. De Occvl. I ta Philoso- | phia Libri ( Tres. ! (Cologne. Colophon :-) An no M.D.XXXIII. | Mense Iulio. / sm. fo. Port. and diagrs.

III. 477 From the libraries of Count Vladyslav Bielinski and Zygmunt Czarnecki with the book-plate of the latter.

There are a few MS. marginal notes.

Of this very rare work three different editions were published in the year 1533 ; according to Clément this is the first. - See Brunet, i. 114; Clément's Bibl. curieuse hist. et crit., i.91-93 ; Panzer, vi. 426, xi. 404, 405.

Alix, (Pierre Henri) Edmond. Essai sur l'appareil locomoteur des oiseaux. Paris. 1874. 89. MZ.

Allen, Alfred H. An introduction to the practice of commercial organic analysis. Vol. i. London. 1879. 80.

V. 392 Allen, Zachariah. Solar light and heat: the source and the supply. Gravitation : with explanations of planetary and molecular forces. New York, etc. 1879. 80.

V. 414 Sequel to the author's " Philosophy of the mechanics of natare," etc. published in 1851.

American art review (The). [Edited by S. R. Koehler, W. C. Prime and C. C. Perkins.] Vol. i.

Nov. 1879. m. Boston, etc. 1879. 4o. To be continued.

Anderson, John. Anatomical and zoological researches : comprising an account of the two expeditions to western Yunnan in 1868 and 1875; and a monograph of the two cetacean genera, platinista and orcella. London. 1878. 4°, and atlas of 84 plates.

MZ. Andrews, George. Reports of cases in the king's bench, in the eleventh and twelfth years of George the Second. 2d ed. By G. W. Vernon. London. 1792. 80.

LS. Annual record of science and industry for 187178. New York. 1872–79. 12o.

23.282 The publication is discontinued.

Anson, Sir William Reynell, 3d bart. Principles of the English law of contract. Oxford. 1879. sm. 80. (Clarendon press series.)

LS. Antoine, Franz. Die coniferen nach Lambert, Loudon und anderen. Wien. 1840. fo. Col. plates. BG. Imperfect :- pp. 89-104 and plates 34-43 are wanting.

Aradas, Alessandro, and Benoit, L. Conchiliologia vivente marina della Sicilia e delle isole che la circondano. Catania. 1870. 4o.

MZ. Archbold, John Frederick The law and practice in bankruptcy. Toth ed. By J. Flather. London, etc. 1844. 120.

LS. Pleading and evidence in criminal cases. By John Jervis. 19th ed.

By William Bruce. London. 1878. 120.

LS. Archiv für die holländischen beiträge zur naturund- heilkunde. Herausgegeben von F.C. Donders und W. Berlin. Bd. i.-iii. Utrecht. 1858-64. 80.

MZ. Archiv for mathematik og naturvidenskab. Udgivet af Sophus Lie, Worm Müller og G. A. Sars. 1e-3e bind. Kristiania. 1876–78. 80. VI. 605

Archiv für psychiatrie und nervenkrankheiten. Redigirt von C. Westphal. ix. bd. Berlin. 1879 ['78-79). 80. To be continued.

Arndt, Ernst Moritz. Life and adventures. Compiled from the German. Preface by J. R. Seeley. London. 1879. sm. 80.

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