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BaCO3 + Ba(NO3)2 + 2C = 2BaO + 2NO2 + 3CO.
The addition of barium nitrate has for its object that the decomposition of the carbonate already takes place when nitrous vapors are just beginning to develop from the nitrate. The porosity of the product obtained in this manner is almost the same as that of the products obtained from pure nitrate.
PROCESS OF MAKING SODIUM ACETATE.
Iens P. Lihme, of Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to the Grasselli Chemical Company. Patent No. 779,290, dated January 3, 1905. This process is as follows: The commercial calcium acetate is dissolved in a large tank suitably heated to further complete solution and chemical reaction. Sodium sulfate is then added to this solution in quantities slightly in excess of that required to complete the reaction with the calcium salt, being thoroughly stirred meanwhile. This is added in solid form. The said solution is further heated to insure the completion of the reaction, after which barium carbonate is added to the solution, which may or may not be separated from the precipitated calcium sulphate in order to throw down the percentage of that salt remaining dissolved in the acetate solution, it being found that the resulting calcium carbonate and barium sulphate are practically insoluble in said solution. The heating is continued during this last reaction, which results in the precipitate seizing upon further portions of organic matter and carrying the same down, to the end that the acetate solution is practically freed therefrom. These two reactions described leave a highly-purified solution of sodium acetate, with a fractional percentage of sodium carbonate, which is negligible. Sodium sulphate, however, is entirely eliminated from the mother-liquor, and this is a point of much importance in the manufacture of sodium acetate. The decanted solution is run into concentrating-tanks, where it is again heated and slowly evaporated until ready to crystallize, whereupon it is conducted to crystallizing-tanks. Jets of air are constantly supplied to the
solution during this step of the process, extending over some fortyeight hours, if necessary, which serves to cool the solution and oxidize practically all of the organic impurities that may remain after the foregoing steps.
PROCESS OF MAKING HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
William T. Gibbs, of Buckingham, Canada, assignor to the Electric Reduction Company, Limited, of Buckingham, Canada. Patent No. 779,998, dated January 10, 1905.
This invention relates to an improved method of combining hydrogen and chlorin gas, especially for the production of hydrochloric acid, by which danger of explosion is avoided and all the chlorin is combined, so that the objectionable escape of free chlorin is prevented.
The inventor has discovered that it is possible to obtain complete combination of chlorin gas with hydrogen without any danger of explosion by heating one or both of the gases to a temperature above that at which combination of the two gases commences and then passing one gas through a jet or pipe in a continuous stream into an atmosphere of the other gas. Under these conditions quiet combustion commences at the instant the gases come into contact, and no mixture of the gases in an uncombined state is possible, so that no explosion can take place.
It is not essential that both gases be previously heated, and either gas may be delivered into an atmosphere of the other gas; but preferably the chlorin gas is passed into an atmosphere of hydrogen in quantity slightly greater than is needed to combine with all the chlorin introduced.
PROCESS OF OXIDIZING METHYL GROUPS IN AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Max Bazlen and Hans Labhardt, of Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine, Germany, assignors to Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik. Patent No. 780,404, dated January 17, 1905.
The inventors have discovered that the acid solution of manganese persulphate has the property of oxidizing the side chains— that is, the methyl or substituted methyl group-in aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, so as to convert them into the aldehyde group. This new reagent acts in a different way from and is far better suited for use for this purpose than is a mixture of manganese peroxid and sulphuric acid. The reaction proceeds energetically under conditions under which manganese peroxid and sulphuric acid have practically no action. The new process is of very general application. Toluene gives a good yield of benzaldehyde, and the homologues of toluene and its substitution products, as also benzyl alcohol and its esters, behave similarly. The process is of particular value for the production of orthonitrobenzaldehyde from orthonitrotoluene, for the yield of this body that can be obtained by the new process is twice as great as that hitherto obtained by the best-known process from orthonitrobenzaldehyde, manganese peroxid, and concentrated sulphuric acid.
If the oxidation be conducted more energetically—for instance, by the use of a higher temperature and a sufficient quantity of oxidizing agent-the corresponding carboxylic acids can be obtained in some cases in admixture with aldehydes.
The new process has the further advantage that the resulting sulphuric-acid solution of manganous sulphate can readily be converted by electrolytic oxidation into manganese persulphate which can again be used, whereas it has not generally paid to regenerate the manganese peroxid hitherto used when oxidizing with this reagent and sulphuric acid.
PROCESS OF PURIFYING INDIGO.
Rudolf Hutzler, of Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine, Germany, assignor to Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik. Patent No. 780,886, dated January 24, 1905.
Indigo, both natural and known, certain impurities.
synthetic, frequently contains, as is The inventor claims that these im
purities can be removed by treating the indigo to be purified with a phenol (which may be etherfied) in such quantity that only the aforesaid impurities are removed, while the indigo remains undissolved. As phenols there can be employed carbolic acid, cresol, naphthol, or the like, or the ethers of these compounds.
PROCESS OF MAKING THE DOUBLE SULPHATE OF ALUMINUM AND SODIUM.
George E. Hipp, of Buffalo, New York. Patent No. 781,341, dated January 31, 1905.
This invention relates to a process of manufacturing double sulphate of aluminum and sodium by compounding nitre-cake, (sodium bisulphate,) sulphide of an alkali metal, bauxite clay, or other aluminous product, sulphate-of-aluminum liquid, free acid, and calcining and otherwise treating the ingredients, as will be fully described hereinafter.
The objects of this invention are to render the manufacturing of double sulphate of aluminum and sodium more economical, much cheaper, and more expeditious than has heretofore been possible, to extract all arsenic and lead, which are considered injurious, and provide a substitute which is much cheaper than cream of tartar and has all the necessary qualities of the same, and also to provide a double sulphate of aluminum and sodium, of which a given quantity will neutralize a corresponding quantity of bicarbonate of soda.
PROCESS OF MAKING CYANIDS.
Joseph Teherniac, of Freiburg, Germany. Patent No. 781,472, dated January 31, 1905.
In the specification to U. S. Patent No. 747,271 is described the manufacture of cyanids by oxidizing a sulphocyanid and absorbing the hydrogen cyanid by a heated alkali carbonate or hydroxid.
The present invention relates to an improvement in the use of alkali hydroxid as an absorbent for the hydrogen cyanid.
The inventor finds that to obtain a high-grade colorless cyanid the alkali hydroxid must be heated to a temperature below its melting-point, but above that at which the water generated by the reaction is completely vaporized. The hydroxid should be finely divided, and although the temperature must at first be below that at which the hydroxid melts it may be raised gradually as the latter becomes converted into cyanid. For instance, when caustic soda is used the temperature may be 200° C. to begin with. Some fifty to sixty per cent. of the caustic soda will become cyanid at this temperature. To complete the conversion, the temperature may be raised to 300° C., which may be done without danger, as the melting-point of the mass rises considerably as the formation of cyanid proceeds. Instead of raising the temperature the mass may be broken up or ground and the temperature maintained at 200° C. until the soda is saturated. By working in this manner and using two or three absorption apparatus in series the soda is completely saturated and the hydrogen cyanid fully absorbed.
The cyanid produced is of high grade and quite white.
PROCESS OF EMULSIFYING RESIN SOAP IN WATER.
Max Erfurt, of Straupitz, near Hirschberg, Germany. Patent No. 781,506, dated January 31, 1905.
The manufacture of sizing out of resin soap-i.e., an emulsion of resin soap with hot water-is the more difficult the more free resin is contained in the resin soap. In the ordinary processes of manufacture separation of raw resin takes place, causes considerable loss of product, and may render the resulting sizing unfit for use.
The present invention has for its object a process by means of which resin soap with an admixture of as high as one hundred per cent. free resin can readily be emulsified in hot water. The result is a resin soap of a very high percentage of free resin and of correspondingly good gluing properties, also a great saving in alum.