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solution, then breaking up the mass of cellulose produced, then suspending the broken mass in water, then collecting the portion which settles first and finally hydrolyzing this portion.

PROCESS OF BROMINATING INDIGO. Albrecht Schmidt, of Höchst-on-the-Main, Germany, assignor to Farbwerke, vorm. Meister, Lucius & Brüning. Patent No. 807,782, dated December 19, 1905.

Contrary to previous experience, the inventor has found that indigo may be brominated in the presence of water if the action of bromin on indigo occurs in the presence of inorganic acidsespecially, for instance, with sulphuric, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, or fluoric acids. The quantity and strength of these acids, however, has to be controlled to avoid as much as possible any formation of bromo-isatin. By employing certain concentrations varying according to the choice of the inorganic acids the bromination will occur smoothly—that is, without or with hardly any formation of bromo-isatin. If a lower degree of concentration is used, the yield of bromo-indigo decreases, whereas the bromoisatin increases. In the case of hydrobromic acid instead of adding it at the beginning it may also be allowed to form during the process of substitution by brominating indigo in water. Of course it is necessary here to use only little water—for instance, instead of an indigo paste of twenty-per-cent. strength indigo moistened only with twenty to fifty per cent. of water-for otherwise the hydrogen bromid formed during the process of substitution would not suffice to produce at the beginning the more concentrated hydrobromic acid favorable for bromination. The same holds good if dilute inorganic acids are used, which when employed in great quantities do not produce a favorable result of bromination; but when used, as in the case with little water, preferably in the presence of solid or liquid indifferent diluents, a very good product of bromination may yet be arrived at.

According to the quantity of bromin employed more or less highly brominated products may be obtained.

MACHINES.

APPARATUS FOR DRYING YARN. Abraham Hun Berry, of Waltham, and Ervine C. Woodward, of Medford, Massachusetts. Patent No. 779,759, dated January 10, 1905.

This apparatus practically consists of two parallel chambers placed side by side closed to the outer air and having a third chamber connected with both. The latter has a ventilating fan placed in an opening into one of the parallel chambers and a suitable heater in the opening into the other chamber. By means of this fan and heater a constant circulation of warm air is kept up in the parallel chambers or boxes which contain the yarn. This temperature can be regulated at will so that all danger of overheating is avoided.

DYEING-MACHINE. James A. Willard, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, assignor to Vacuum Dyeing Machine Company, of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Patent No. 780,398, dated January 17, 1905.

This machine consists of a dye-vat of any suitable form having mounted in the center a cylinder suitable for use as an overflow for the dye or wash liquor so the liquor can be withdrawn from the vat and applied again to the material. The circulation is kept up by means of a rotary pump whose suction pipe is connected with the cylinder and the outlet with suitable pipes in the bottom of the dye-vat.

The claims cover the details of construction.

APPARATUS FOR DYEING. James A. Willard, of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Patent No. 780,399, dated January 17, 1905. The invention aims to provide in a dyeing-machine new and novel means, in the form of a centrifugal pump, for obtaining a more satisfactory circulation of the dyeing or washing medium through the material operated upon during the dyeing or washing operation.

The invention further consists of the novel construction of the dye liquor and material-receiving tank or vat and which is a sectional one, so that the height thereof can be diminished or increased, as occasion requires, and it will furthermore permit of the more easy handling when setting up or shipping the vat or tank, owing to its sectional construction.

The claims cover the details of construction.

COMPRESSION-TOP FOR DYE-VATS. James A. Willard, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, assignor to Vacuum Dyeing machine Company. Patent No. 780,400, dated January 17, 1905.

This invention relates to new and useful improvements in compression top or closure plates for dyeing apparatus, and has for its object the construction of a plate of this character which when placed in position in a dyeing apparatus will not bend or buckle from pressure during the dyeing or washing operation.

A further object of the invention is to provide a plate which can be easily and quickly removed from the machine.

The claims cover the details of construction.

VAT FOR DYEING, &c. James A. Willard, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, assignor to Vacuum Dyeing Machine Company. Patent No. 780,402, dated January 17, 1905.

This invention relates to vats particularly adapted for dyeing and bleaching, and aims to construct a vat for such purpose which shall be simple in its construction, strong, durable, and efficient in its use, and comparatively inexpensive to manufacture.

A vat constructed in accordance with this invention for bleaching or dyeing purposes involves a receptacle, a perforated removable bottom plate which forms a supplemental bottom for the receptacle and upon which the material to be treated is placed, a compression top or cover plate for the receptacle, means for retaining the cover-plate in position, and a casing connected with the receptacle, near the top thereof, to form an overflow-chamber for the dyeing or bleaching medium.

APPARATUS FOR DRYING WOVEN GOODS. Moritz Rudolf Jahr, of Gera, Germany. Patent No. 781,145, dated January 31, 1905.

Hitherto methods and apparatus for drying woven goods and the like generalıy had the disadvantage that the woven goods from the beginning to the end were subjected to the influence of dry heat uniformly high, whereby the “ touch ” and smoothness of the material is very much impaired, while at the same time this dry hot air has an injurious effect on dyed material and sometimes also gives it a faded appearance. These disadvantages are avoided according to the present invention, which consists of a method and apparatus for the drying of woven goods and the like wherein the woven goods are led through passages lying one above the other and through which the dry air passes in such a manner that the goods at their entrance into the drying-machine are at once subjected to the action of dry air of very high temperature, which is reduced till in the last stage it is lowered to the ordinary temperature. This is effected by the hot air entering the channel at the bottom of the drying-machine passing through movable flaps in certain volumes into the channels, where its temperature is regulated by means of fresh air and brought to the desired degree. The volume of fresh air which enters and regulates the heat is also adjusted by means of flaps or slides.

APPARATUS FOR DYEING. Léon Détré, of Rheims, France. Patent No. 782,008, dated February 7, 1905. This invention provides in an apparatus for dyeing under pressure, means for the introduction of the dyes or mordants into the apparatus while the apparatus is at work and while the pressure remains in the various vessels composing the paratus.

The most recent design of apparatus for dyeing under pressure comprises two vessels, containing the dyestuff, and another other vessel or other vessels, containing the articles or material to be dyed. Compressed air or any other suitable fluid pressure is admitted alternately to each of the two vessels containing the dye, so as to force the dye from one vessel into the vessel containing the articles or materials to be dyed, and from the said vessels into the second vessel. Then by means of a cock the pressure is disconnected from the first vessel and admitted to the second vessel, thereby forcing the dye from the vessel into the vessel with the material and back into the first vessel. The cock for reversing the direction of the pressure is a four-way cock, which is worked automatically, so as to cause the air or other pressure to act alternately in each of the two vessels, the other vessel communicating with the atmosphere.

The device constituting this invention consists in the addition to the apparatus just described of a closed vessel into which the dyestuff to replenish the vessels is introduced by means of a funnel provided with a cock. Two pipes connect this vessel with the top of the vessels for the dye-bath, the said pipe . passing through hermetically-tight joints provided in the cover of the vessel and extending nearly to the bottom thereof. These pipes are provided with cocks, permitting of opening or closing it at will.

DYEING-MACHINE. Julius Leisel, of Charlotte, North Carolina. Patent No. 782,147, dated February 7, 1905.

The object of the invention is to provide a new and improved dyeing-machine arranged to keep the material submerged, to prevent the material from coming in contact with the air during the dyeing operation, to carry on the dyeing operation economically both in time and labor, to expedite unloading of the machine after

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