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States and that power. It is not anticipated, that any event whatever will have that effect."
The negotiation for peace with England was finally opened at Ghent, where the British commissioners, lord Gambier, Messrs. Henry Gouldburn, and William Adams, arrived in August, 1814; the American commissioners, Messrs. John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, and James A. Bayard, appointed April 17, 1813, and Henry Clay and Jonathan Russell, added to the commission January 18, 1814, being already assembled in that city. This negotiation terminated in a peace, concluded the 24th of December, 1814.* The treaty made no altera
*This treaty of peace and amity principally relates to boundaries. We shall extract a portion of it, omitting the details that relate to the expenses of commissioners, &c. :—
"ART. 1. There shall be a firm and universal peace between his Britannic majesty and the United States, and between their respective countries, territories, cities, towns, and people of every degree, without exception of places or persons. All hostilities, both by sea and land, shall cease as soon as this treaty shall have been ratified by both parties, as hereinafter mentioned. All territory, places and possessions whatsoever, taken by either party from the other, during the war, or which may be taken after the signing of this treaty, excepting only the islands hereinafter mentioned, shall be restored without delay, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any of the artillery or other public property originally captured in the said forts or places, and which shall remain therein upon the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, or any slaves or other private property. And all archives, records, deeds and papers, either of a public nature, or belonging to private persons, which, in the course of the war, may have fallen into the hands of the officers of either party, shall be, as far as may be practicable, forthwith restored and delivered to the proper authorities and persons to whom they respectively belong. Islands in the bay of Passamaquoddy to remain in the hands of the party occupying.
“ART. 2. Immediately after the ratifications of this treaty by both parties, as hereinafter mentioned, orders shall be sent to the armies, squadrons, officers, subjects, and citizens of the two powers, to cease from all hostilities: and, to prevent all causes of complaint which might arise on account of the prizes which may be taken at sea after the said ratifications of this treaty, it is reciprocally agreed, that all vessels and
tion in the situation of the countries, for the terms, proposed by the commissioners of the respective nations, were mutu
effects which may be taken after the space of twelve days from the said ratifications, upon all parts of the coast of North America, from the latitude of twenty-three degrees north, to the latitude of fifty degrees north, and as far eastward in the Atlantic ocean as the thirtysixth degree of west longitude from the meridian of Greenwich, shall be restored on each side: that the time shall be thirty days in all other parts of the Atlantic ocean, north of the equinoctial line or equator, and the same time for the British and Irish channels, for the gulf of Mexico, and all parts of the West Indies: forty days for the North Seas, for the Baltic, and for all parts of the Mediterranean: sixty days for the Atlantic ocean south of the equator, as far as the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope: ninety days for every other part of the world south of the equator: and one hundred and twenty days for all other parts of the world, without exception.
"ART. 3. All prisoners of war taken on either side, as well by land as by sea, shall be restored as soon as practicable after the ratification of this treaty, as hereinafter mentioned, on their paying the debts which they may have contracted during their captivity. The two contracting parties respectively engage to discharge, in specie, the advances which may have been made by the other for the sustenance and maintenance of such prisoners.
"ART. 4. Whereas it was stipulated by the second article in the treaty of peace, of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, between his Britannic majesty and the United States of America, that the boundary of the United States should comprehend all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries, between Nova Scotia, on the one part, and East Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy, and the Atlantic ocean, excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within the limits of Nova Scotia; and whereas the several islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy, which is part of the Bay of Fundy, and the island of Grand Menan, in the said Bay of Fundy, are claimed by the United States, as being comprehended within their aforesaid boundaries, which said islands are claimed as belonging to his Britannic majesty, as having been at the time of, and previous to, the aforesaid treaty of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, within the limits of the province of Nova Scotia in order, therefore, finally to decide upon these claims, it is agreed that they
ally rejected. The disputed points of maritime law, and the subject of commerce were reserved for future discussion. A
shall be referred to two commissioners, to be appointed in the following manner, viz: one commissioner shall be appointed by his Britannic majesty, and one by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof. In case of the commissioners' differing, reference to the arbitration of a friendly sovereign or state, whose decision is to be final.
"ART. 5. Whereas neither that point of the highlands lying due north from the source of the river St. Croix, and designated, in the former treaty of peace between the two powers, as the north-west angle of Nova Scotia, nor the north-westernmost head of Connecticut river, has yet been ascertained; and whereas that part of the boundary line between the dominions of the two powers which extends from the source of the river St. Croix directly north to the above mentioned north-west angle of Nova Scotia, thence along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut river; thence, down along the middle of that river, to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; thence, by a line due west on said latitude, until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraguy, has not yet been surveyed; it is agreed, that for these several purposes, two commissioners shall be appointed, sworn, and authorized, to act exactly in the manner directed with respect to those mentioned in the next preceding article, unless otherwise specified in the present article.
"ART. 6. Whereas, by the former treaty of peace, that portion of the boundary of the United States, from the point where the forty-fifth degree of north latitude strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraguy to the lake Superior, was declared to be "along the middle of said river into lake Ontario, through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and lake Erie, thence along the middle of said communication into lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and lake Huron, thence along the middle of said water communication into the lake Huron, thence through the middle of said lake to the water communication between that lake and lake Superior." And whereas doubts have arisen what was the middle of the said river, lakes, and water communications, and whether certain islands lying in the same were within the dominions of his Britannic majesty or of the United States: in order, therefore, finally to decide these doubts, they
general peace having been concluded in Europe, no objection existed to this course. * An account of the negotiation
shall be referred to two commissioners, to be appointed, sworn, and authorized to act, exactly in the manner directed with respect to those mentioned in the next preceding article, unless otherwise specified in this present article.
"ART. 7. It is further agreed, that the said two last mentioned commissioners, after they shall have executed the duties assigned to them in the preceding article, shall be, and they are hereby, authorized, upon their oaths, impartially to fix and determine, according to the true intent of the said treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, that part of the boundary between the dominions of the two powers, which extends from the water communication between lake Huron and lake Superior, to the most north-western point of the lake of the woods, to decide to which of the two parties the several islands lying in the lakes, water communications and rivers, forming the said boundary, do respectively belong, in conformity with the true intent of the said treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three; and to cause such parts of the said boundary as require it, to be surveyed and marked.
"ART. 9. Reciprocal pacification of the Indian tribes.
"ART. 10. Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreconcileable with the principles of humanity and justice, and whereas both his majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed, that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavours to accomplish so desirable an object."
The commissioners were duly appointed, under these respective articles; but, as their reports on all the points of boundaries have not yet been accepted by the respective governments, we are obliged to abstain from making any remarks on those topics. In order to complete the course of treaties and conventions with Great Britain, to the treaty of Ghent, we shall mention in this place, that in January, 1802, Mr. King concluded, with lord Hawkesbury, at London, a convention, by which the United States agreed to pay 600,000l. to his Britannic majesty, for the benefit of British creditors under the sixth article of the treaty of '94, on condition of being released from all the obligations of that article. A commission was appointed, under the seventh article of the same instrument, on the subject of American claims for capture, who awarded a large sum, which was regularly paid by Great Britain. * The subject of the boundary of the United States on the Pacific, is likely to be one of uncommon interest. Spain, Russia, Great Britain
of Ghent having been published in 1822, we take this opportunity to refer to it for a history of the proceedings of that
and America have claims on the extreme western part of this continent. By the convention of April, 1824, with Russia, the boundary of that country to the south does not extend below 54 deg. 40 min.; at least, it may be considered as having been fixed at that parallel. And by the last treaty with Spain, that country has transferred to the United States all her claims to the northward of the 42d deg. The territory between those two parallels is, therefore, the one in discussion between America and Great Britain. The principal object of each party appears to be to get possession of the country through which the Columbia or Oregon runs. There has been some correspondence between Mr. Rush and the English government on this subject. Being on this topic, we beg to extract a few paragraphs from the work, to which we have just referred, on the boundary of the Mississippi :
"Before the war of 1812, three abortive attempts had been made to adjust this boundary. The first was by the treaty of 1794, when it was already conjectured, but not ascertained, that the line due west from the lake would not intersect the Mississippi. By the fourth article of the treaty of 1794, it was agreed, that a joint survey should be made, to ascertain the fact; and that if, on the result of that survey, it should appear, that the west line would not intersect the river, the parties would proceed, "by amicable negotiation, to regulate the boundary line in that quarter, according to justice and mutual convenience, and in conformity to the intent of the treaty of 1783." This survey was never made. The second attempt to adjust the line, was by the convention signed on the 12th of May 1803, by Mr. King and lord Hawkesbury, the fifth article of which, after reciting the same uncertainty, whether a line drawn due west from the lake of the woods would intersect the Mississippi, provided that, instead of the said line, the boundary of the United States in that quarter, should, and was declared to be, the shortest line which could be drawn between the northwest point of the lake of the woods, and the nearest source of the river Mississippi. This convention not having been ratified, the third at
*The duplicate letters. The fisheries and the Mississippi, documents relating to transactions at the negotiation of Ghent, collected and published by John Quincy Adams, one of the commissioners at that negotiation. Washington, 1822.