« PreviousContinue »
ALEXANDER THE GREAT,
upon revenge. He hastened immediately to their country, when the Athenians and other states readily returned to him; but the Thebans standing out, he directed his arms against them, slew a great number of them, and destroyed their city; sparing only the house of the descendants of Pindar, out of respect to the memory of that great poet. This happened in the second year of the third Olympiad. The affairs of Greece being settled, he passed the Hellespont in the third year of his reign, at the head of 30,000 foot, and 4,500 horse; and, with these troops he overthrew the Persian empire. His first battle was at the Granicus, a river in Phrygia, in which the Persians were routed. His second was at Issus, a city in Cilicia, where he was also eminently victorious; for the camp of Darius, with his mother, wife, and children, fell into his hands; and his conduct to the family of that monarch may certainly be reckoned among the noblest actions of his life, While he continued in this country, a violent fever seized him, supposed to have been occasioned by bathing when very hot, in the cold waters of the river Cydnus. On account of his extreme violence, none of his physicians would attend him. At length an Arcanian engaged to administer a potion which should effect a cure; but while he was preparing it, Alexander rereceived a letter from his most intimate friend Parmenio, informing him that this Arcanian was a traitor, employed by Darius to poison him, at the price of 1000 talents, and his sister in marriage, Notwithstanding this, when the.
physician came to him with the draught, he took it, and with his eyes fixed upon him, drank it off. The medicine at first acted so powerfully as to deprive him of his senses, and every one about him supposed his death inevitable, but such was the strength of his constitution that he recovered. Being restored to his army, from Cilicia he marched forwards for Phænicia, which all surrendered to him except Tyre, and it cost him a siege of seven years to reduce that city; the obstinacy of the Tyrians induced him to commit much inexcusable slaughter. He next took Gaza, and proceeded to Jerusalem, where he was received by the high-priest, who gratified his ambition by shewing him the prophecy of Daniel, in which he was predicted as the conqueror of the East. After making great presents to the Jews, he sacrificed in their temple, and then went into Egypt; on his return he built the city of Alexandria. He now set up the claim of divinity, and pretended to be the son of Jupiter-Ammon. He obtained a decisive victory over Darius, at Arbela, which put an end to the Persian war. That monarch had offered his daughter, and part of his dominions to Alexander, and Parmenio advised him to accept the terms, saying, "I would if I were Alexander," "And so would I," replied the conqueror, "If I were Parmenio." While Darius was gathering forces to continue the war, he was treacherously slain by Bessus, governor of the Bactrians, which drew tears from Alexander, who afterwards put the murderer to death. From Arbela, the victor pursued his
quests eastwards, subduing every place till he came to the Indies; where king Porus resisted him with great spirit, but was at length compel led to yield. Alexander was so pleased with the gallantry of this prince, that he restored him to his kingdom. Having ranged over the greatest parts of the East, and made even the Indies provinces of his empire, he returned to Babylon where he died in the 33d year of his age; some say by poison, others by intoxication. His ambition was boundless; and when a philosopher informed him that there were many worlds besides this, he wept because he could not conquer them all. His continence appears to have been the effect of constitutional infirmity, and not a virtue. He was immoderately addicted to drinking, and under the influence of inebriation committed many attrocious crimes; among which may be reckoned that of killing Clytus, who had saved his life; and that of burning Persepolis, the most beautiful city in the East, at the instigation of Thais the courtezan. After his death, his generals divided his conquests among themselves. ALLEYN (EDWARD), a celebrated comedian in the reigns of Elizabeth, and James I. and founder of Dulwich college, in Surrey, which he named "The College of God's Gift." He was born in 1566, and commencing actor at an early age, he acquired great reputation in his profession, and at length became master of a large company, proprietor of a theatre in Moorfields, and keeper of the royal Bear-garden. Aubrey informs us, that a real devil appeared to him, while he was
personating the character of Satan upon the stage, at which he was so terrified that he grew serious, and soon after totally quitted his profession, resolving to devote the remainder of his life to religious exercises. Among other pious acts, he laid the foundation of his college in 1614, and completed it in 1617, at the expence of 10,000l. He also endowed it with 800l. per annum, for the maintenance of one master, one warden (who must be unmarried, and of the name of Alleyn, or Allen) and four fellows, of whom three are to be clergymen, and the other an organist. Six poor men, and the same number of poor women are also included in this establishment; with twelve poor boys who are to be educated in the college till the age of fourteen or sixteen, when they are to be apprenticed to some trade. The founder was the first master. He died in 1626, and was buried in the chapel of the college. ANACREON, a Greek lyric poet, born at Teos, a seaport in Ionia, and flourished about the 62d Olympiad. He was entertained at the court of Polycrates, at Samos, who held him in great esteem. He had infinite wit, eccentricity, and pleasantry, as appears by all his compositions ; especially on his favourite subjects of love and wine. At the invitation of Hipparchus, son of Pissistratus, he visited Athens; and on the death of that prince, he returned to Teos, and remained there till the revolt of Histæus, when he removed to Abdera, where he died. The manner of his death is said to have been very extraordinary, for he was choaked
by a grapestone, which he swallowed as he was regaling on some new wine. His poems are chiefly amatory and bacchanalian, but only few of them remain. An elegant translation of them was published by Francis Fawkes, A. M. Of whom some account is given in this dictionary, in its proper place.
ANDREWS (LANCELOT), an English divine, was born in London, in 1565, and educated at the Cooper's free-school, at Radcliffe; from whence he was removed to Merchant Taylor's school, and sent on an exhibition to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, where having taken his degrees in arts and received ordination, he successively obtained the living of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and a prebend and residentariship of St. Paul's He was afterwards chosen master of Pembroke-Hall, and appointed chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. James I. employed him to defend the sovereignty of kings against Bellamine, for which he rewarded him with the bishopric of Chichester in 1603, at the same time making him his almoner. In 1603 he was translated to Ely, and nine years after removed to Winchester. The following anecdote of him, while he was bishop of Winchester, will shew him to advantage. Waller, the poet, being one day at court, while king James was at dinner, overheard the following very extraordinary conversation, when his majesty was attended by the bishop of Winchester, and Neale, bishop of Durham. These two prelates standing behind the king's chair, his majesty said, "My lords, cannot I take my subjects'