Chlamydia pneumoniae: Infection and Disease

Front Cover
Herman Friedman, Yoshimasa Yamamoto, Mauro Bendinelli
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 25, 2004 - Medical - 286 pages

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a bacteria that is most commonly known for causing colds and pneumonia. However, researchers have recently found a link between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, a clogging of the arteries that causes heart attack and stroke. In addition, ongoing research is showing that certain strains may play a role in asthma, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and arthritis.

This volume, part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis series, is a complete portrait of C. pneumoniae and what is currently known about it.

 

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Contents

Chlamydia pneumoniae Prospects and Predictions for an Emerging Pathogen
1
Basic Biology
2
Respiratory Infections
4
Cardiovascular Disease
5
5 Comments on Various Chronic Diseases
6
6 Concluding Remarks
7
Morphology of Chlamydia pneumoniae
11
3 Morphology of EB
15
4 C pneumoniae Strain Heterogeneity in Cardiovascular Disease
144
42 Host Tropism and Polymorphic Outer Membrane Proteins
147
5 Concluding Remarks
148
References
149
Animal Models of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Atherosclerosis
153
11 Animal Models Used in Atherosclerotic Research
154
12 C pneumoniae Lung Infection Model
156
2 Murine Models of C pneumoniaeRelated Atherosclerosis
157

4 Structure of the Outer Membrane
16
5 Surfaces Projections and Related Structures
20
6 Persistent Infection and Aberrant Forms
23
7 Summary
25
References
26
Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydia pneumoniae
29
2 Ultrastructure of Chlamydia EB AND RB
30
4 Physical Localization of the Components
31
5 Chlamydia Genomes
32
6 The C pneumoniae Proteome
33
7 THE Pmp Gene family
35
8 Pmp Structure
36
10 Secreted Proteins
37
11 Vesicle Trafficking
39
13 Perspectives
40
Antibiotic Susceptibility and Treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections
45
21 Is There Antimicrobial Resistance in C pneumoniae?
47
22 Treatment of Persistent C pneumoniae Infection In Vitro
49
4 Relevance for Cardiac Clinical Treatment Intervention Studies
52
References
53
Pneumonia Caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae
57
2 Epidemiology
58
3 CAP in Pediatric Patients
59
4 CAP in Adults
60
5 Infection in Immunocompromised Subjects
62
References
63
Chlamydia Detection in Blood
65
2 PCRMethodological Aspects
66
22 DNA Extraction
67
24 PCR Protocols
68
25 Detection of PCR Products
70
31 C pneumoniae DNA Extraction
71
33 Detection of C pneumoniae in Blood
74
34 Location of C pneumoniae in Blood
75
4 Chlamydia Antigen Detection BY Immunostaining
76
5 Conclusions
77
Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Diseases
81
2 Innate Immune Mechanisms
82
3 The Role of Macrophages IN C pneumoniae Immunity
83
4 Acquired Immunity
84
42 CellMediated Immunity in Humans
86
43 Immune Escape
88
6 Conclusion
90
Vaccines Against Chlamydia pneumoniae Can They Be Made?
99
2 Do We Need an AntiC pneumoniae Vaccine?
100
31 Adaptive Immune Responses
101
32 Escape Mechanisms
103
4 Antigens
104
5 Adjuvants
107
52 Adjuvants and Delivery Systems
108
References
109
Chlamydia pneumoniae and AtherosclerosisAn Overview of the Association
113
12 Microbiology and Epidemiology of C pneumoniae
115
2 Evidence Linking C pneumoniae AND Atherosclerosis
116
22 Pathological Specimen Findings
117
23 Animal Experimental Models
119
24 Molecular and Immunological Mechanisms
121
25 Antibiotic Treatment Studies
123
3 C pneumoniae Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Kochs Postulates
130
4 Concluding Comments
131
References
132
The Biology of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Cardiovascular Disease Pathogenesis
135
2 Chlamydial Life Cycle and Persistence
137
3 C pneumoniae in the Pathogenesis Cardiovascular Disease
139
32 Chlamydiae Macrophage Interactions
142
3 Rabbit Models of C pneumoniae Infection and Atherosclerosis
159
4 Effect of Antibiotics on C pneumoniae AnimalInduced Atherosclerosis
163
5 Summary and Future Directions
166
51 Future Directions
167
References
168
Antiinfective Trials for the Treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Coronary Artery Disease
173
2 Animal Studies of Chlamydia pneumoniae Atherosclerosis and Antiinfective Therapy
174
3 Observational Studies of the Effect of Antimicrobials on the Course of Coronary Artery Disease
175
4 Randomized Secondary Prevention Trials for Clinical Peripheral Vascular Disease
176
5 Randomized Secondary Prevention Trials for Clinical Coronary Artery Disease
178
6 Ongoing Clinical Antiinfective Trials
183
7 Potential Concerns
184
References
185
Chlamydia pneumoniae and Myocarditis
187
2 Myocarditis
188
3 Endocarditis Cases
190
4 Dilated Cardiomyopathy
192
6 Possible Mechanisms
193
7 Summary
194
Chlamydia pneumoniae as a Candidate Pathogen in Multiple Sclerosis
199
Unresolved Issues
200
4 Infection as an Alternate Hypothesis for MS
201
5 Candidate Pathogens
203
51 Human Herpes Virus6 HHV6
204
53 Chlamydia pneumoniae
205
7 Conclusions
207
References
208
Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimers Disease
211
2 Classification and Characteristics of Alzheimers Disease
212
4 Association of C pneumoniae and Alzheimers Disease
213
5 Entry of C pneumoniae into the Nervous System
214
6 C pneumoniae and Neuroinflammation
216
7 Consequences of C pneumoniae Infection In Vitro
218
8 Animal Model for Sporadic Alzheimers Disease
219
9 Summary
221
10 Future Directions
222
References
223
Chlamydia pneumoniae and Inflammatory Arthritis
227
2 Reactive Arthritis
228
3 Chlamydia trachomatis Persistence and reactive Arthritis
229
4 Chlamydia pneumonia and Arthritis
231
5 Oilamydia pneumaniae and Cytokines
233
6 Summary
235
References
236
Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae as an Inducer of Asthma
239
12 Definition of Asthma
240
13 Importance of Asthma
241
2 Chlamydia pneumoniae as a Promoter of Asthma Severity
242
22 Results of Antibiotic Treatment Directed against Chlamydial Infection in Asthma
243
3 Chlamydia pneumoniae as an Asthma Initiator
248
33 Infection Should Be Added to the List of Possible Causes for Worldwide Increases in Asthma
249
5 Chlamydia pneumoniae and Lung Remodeling
251
52 Cpn Produces Cytokines Linked to Asthma and Lung Remodeling
252
Chlamydia pneumoniae and Lung Remodeling
253
References
254
Respiratory Tract Infections Caused by C pneumoniae in Pediatric Patients
263
22 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
264
23 Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
265
3 Diagnosis
267
4 Treatment
269
5 Conclusion
270
References
271
Subject Index
275
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