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Charles II., and was made a Privy Councillor. By his wife, Isabel, daughter of William, second Earl of Morton, and widow of Robert, first Earl of Roxburghe, he had a son, James, who succeeded as third Marquis of Montrose, and married Christian, daughter of John, Duke of Rothes. Their son, James, fourth Marquis, filled the office of Lord-President of the Council previous to the Union, and on the accession of George I. was appointed one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State. He was installed as Knight of the Garter in 1706, and on 24th April, 1707, created Duke of Montrose. By his wife, Christian, daughter of the Earl of Northesk, he had David created a Peer of Great Britian, with the title Earl Graham of Belford, Northumberland, but who died unmarried during the lifetime of his father; William, who succeeded as second Duke, and George, a Captain in the Royal Navy, who died unmarried, 1747. Duke William married Lucy, daughter of second Duke of Rutland, and had issue, James, who succeeded, and Lucy, married to Archibald, Lord Douglas. James, third Duke, married first JemimaElizabeth, daughter of Earl Ashburnham, by whom he had an only son who died in infancy, and second Caroline-Maria, daughter of fourth Duke of Manchester, by whom he had issue :-James, who succeeded; Montague William, M.P., Captain in the Coldstream Guards; Georgiana-Charlotte Caroline Lucy, married Edward Earl Powis, with issue; and Emily, married to E. T. Foley, Hereford. James, third Duke of Montrose, was a K.G., Lord-Justice General of Scotland, and Chancellor of the University of Glasgow. He died 30th December, 1836, and was succeeded by his elder son, James, the late Duke. Born 16th July, 1790, he married, 15th October, 1836, Caroline Agnes, youngest daughter of John, second Lord Decies, and had issue, James, Marquis of Graham, born 7th Feb., 1845, died 31st January, 1846; James, also Marquis of Graham, Lieutenant First Life Guards, born 22nd June, 1847, died unmarried, 3rd April, 1872; Douglas Beresford Malise Ronald, present Duke, born 7th November, 1852; Agnes Caroline, married, 1859, Lieut.-Col. Murray Polmaise; Beatrice-Violet, married, 1863, Algernon W. F. Greville, son of Lord Greville, with issue; and Alma-Carlotta, married, 1872, to Earl of Breadalbane. The late Duke succeeded his father as
Chancellor of Glasgow University, and was made a K.T.
He acted as a Commissioner of the Board of Control from February, 1828, to December, 1830; Lord Steward of Her Majesty's Household, from February to December, 1852; Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, from Feb., 1858, to June, 1859; and Postmaster-General in Earl Derby's second Ministry, 1858, and again 1866–68. Some incidents, arising out of his famous contest with the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, concerning the Dukedom of Montrose, may be more appropriately mentioned in another page.
The late Duke was known to be a considerate yet improving landlord, courteous and easy of access with all whom his varied relations brought him into contact, and his death, 30th December, 1874, was regretted all the more that a little over two years previously he had the affliction to see his son and heir, then a young man of high promise, laid before him in the burying place of his house. The present Duke married Violet Hermoine, daughter of Sir Frederick Ulric Graham, of Netherby, by Lady Jane Hermoine St. Maur, eldest daughter of Edward Adolphus, Duke of Somerset, K.G. The father of the present Baronet of Netherby, the second in descent, was Sir James Graham, the eminent statesman and Cabinet minister, and his mother Fanny, daughter of Colonel Callander, Craigforth.
The lands of the Montrose family lie principally within the counties of Stirling and the adjacent borders of the neighbouring counties, Dumbarton and Lanark. The lands of Buchanan parish surrounding the family mansion were purchased from the trustees of the last Buchanan of that Ilk in 1682, and the lands of the Dukedom and Regality of Lennox from Charles Duke of Lennox and Richmond in 1702. Among other Lochlomond islands now included within these lands are Inchmurren and Inchcalleoch. The former, now used as the Montrose deer park, is full of historical associations connected with the Lennox family, here being the old stronghold of the house to which the Duchess Isabella repaired to spend the close of her days in acts of piety and munificence, after the cruel wrath of James I. had sent her father with her husband and two sons to the scaffold at Stirling. In this lonely retreat the Duchess lived long enough to hear the
dreadful fate of a king who had cut her off from all living kindred. It was to her piety and munificence Dumbarton was indebted for its old Collegiate Church, of which only a solitary arch now remains, and among the last of her kind deeds was the gift of certain lands in Kilmaronock parish to the Preaching Friars of Glasgow to secure prayers for the welfare of her soul and the souls of her kindred. This island was repeatedly visited by James VI. for hunting purposes. “These are to give you notice (it was written on one occasion) that His Majesty has concluded to dine at Inchmurren, where his dinner shall be sent, and there are tents to be provided for that effect, and you must expect a good number of sharp stomachs.” Inchcalleoch, or “Old Woman's Isle,” was the site of the parish church, and in an adjoining graveyard lie the remains of several members of the clan Gregor:
“ And answering Lomond's breezes deep,
Soothe many a chiestain's endless sleep."
As is shown by a report of the Historical Commission, the Lennox papers at Buchanan House are numerous and curious, one among others of extreme interest being a grant by King Robert Bruce to Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, of a right of girth or sanctuary for three miles round the Church of Luss, in honour of the blessed Saint Kessog. Other lands of the Montrose family are situated within the parish of Strathblane, where they had as a residence the old Castle of Mugdock, from which many Lennox and Graham charters are dated. On the forfeiture of the great Marquis, in 1644, Mugdock barony fell in the way of compensation to Archibald, Earl of Argyll, but it was restored to the Graham family in 1656. Mugdock appears to have been their first residence in the west, after disposing of the original Kincardine property.
From an inventory of "stuffe," preserved at Buchanan House, the removal would appear to have taken place in 1666. Arras hangings are described as being brought from Kincardine, and other furnishings from Angus and Strathern. At Catter, now the factor's seat, are the remains of a
moothill or seat of judgment. Donald, sixth Earl of Lennox, in granting a charter to Maurice of the lands of Buchanan, allowed him the privilege of holding courts of life and limb within his territory, only on the condition, however, that everyone sentenced to death should be executed on the Earl's own gallows at Catter. In the return of owners of lands and heritages (Scotland) the area of such of the Montrose estates as are referred to above is set down :- Buchanan House, Drymen, 2,588 acres; Stirlingshire, -68,878 acres. It lias been found that figures in this return are liable to correction.
In immediate connection with the descent of Montrose honours, it may be judged appropriate to mention a few details regarding a famous contest for the honour of a title borne by some of the most illustrious statesmen and soldiers who have figured in the stormy scenes of Scottish history. Raiher less than thirty years since, and after a contest in which various members of the “lichtsome Lindsay" family were concerned, the House of Lords confirmed the Earldom of Crawford to James Lindsay, Earl of Balcarres, afterwards known as the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. Following up this success, and having at the same time a certain relation to well-known incidents in the history of the Crawford family, the Earl, in February 1850, presented a petition to Her Majesty claiming the Dukedom of Montrose conferred upon his predecessor David, fifth Earl of Crawford, by James III. in 1488. This petition was as usual referred to the House of Lords, and a “Case" containing the evidence with arguments founded upon it in support of the claim came in due course to be laid on the table. The Earl, known throughout the subsequent proceedings generally as the Claimant (the Duke being the Petitioner in opposition) affirmed in the first instance-(1) That the patent of the Dukedom of Montrose, 18th May, 1488, still subsisted, and was valid and effectual in law; (2) That the limitation to "heirs"-a term, he held, of confessed flexibility in Scottish law and practice, denoted and signified “heirs-male;" and (3) That he, the Claimant, was heirmale of the first grantee. The reader will observe that the title only was claimed. James, late Duke of Montrose, thereupon presented a counter petition, praying that
lie might be heard before the Committee of Privileges, through counsel or agents, that he might have liberty to submit a Case on his own behalf; and in order to permit himself and all other peers interested to make the necessary investigations, that all proceedings in the claim be stayed till the following session of Parliament. The claim, it was urged, if successful, though it did not challenge the honours and dignities enjoyed by the noble petitioner, would manifestly be a matter of inconvenience and injustice to him in different ways, and would at the same time alter the whole rights of precedency of that order of the peerage in Scotland to which the petitioner belonged. During the recess the claimant discovered what he called new evidence, proving the Dukedom of Montrose, which he claimed, to be entirely different in style, designation, and derivation from that held by the noble petitioner, and precluding him, it was urged, from being admitted as a party in the case. On this crucial point the claimant contended (1) That the Dukedom of Montrose conferred in 1483 was derived exclusively from the royal burgh of Montrose, created and incorporated by the patent into a Dukedorn with free regality in favour of David, Earl of Crawford, and his heirs, who thereupon added to their escutcheon a single red rose, the arms of the burgh, to denote derivation of the honours. But he contended (2), That the Graham Earldom, Marquisate, and Dukedom were derived, not from the royal burgh of Montrose, but from the private estate of the family called “Auld” or Old Montrose, some miles from the burgh, with which it had no connection whatever, and was held by quite a different tenure. James IV., it was yet urged, by charter 3rd March, 1514, created and incorporated the “terras de Ald Montross,” solely “in liberam baroniam et comitatum perpetuis futuris temporibus baroniam et comitatum de Montross nuncupandum.” This, urged the claimant, was the original written constitution of the title of Earl of Montrose, in the family of Graham, and it was exclusively founded upon at the ranking of the nobility in 1606, by John, Earl of Montrose, direct male descendant and representative of the grantee, in order to prove the antiquity of his earldom. Moreover, William, the original grantee, is expressly styled in two public deeds executed by the burgh of Montrose as “William, Earll of Ald Montross;" and