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then, and does still, with a large company, in the forest of Selkirk, like one who holds himself against your Majesty's peace.” Citing Hemingford as an authority, Lord Hailes steps in at this point, with his explanation of the “burning," expressing it as his belief that the story took its rise from the pillaging of the English quarters, about the time of the treaty. Silent altogether as to the burning of barns either at Ayr or Irvine, Hemingford's statement may yet be accepted as evidence of a kind, that the English invaders treated the native population with hardly a degree less severity than the Canaanites experienced at the hands of the remorseless Jew "When our people (the English) returned to Irvine, it was told them that many of the Scotch and Galloway men had plundered their baggage, after the manner of enemies, and killed more than fifty men, women, and children.

So they followed them, and slew about a thousand of them, and came back with the prey doubled.” Erroneous as the Marquis thinks it by about a year, a brief paraphrase of Blind Harry's account of the burning may be given as embodying the popular belief as early at least as the fifteenth century. On the suggestion, he writes, of Aymer de Valence, and in spite of the protests of Henry Percy, a Court of Assize was proclaimed to be held at Ayr on June 18, 1297, under the auspices of a judge named Arnwlf. To this Court the leading persons of Ayrshire were summoned, with the secret intention of putting them to death; and it was to meet in four great barns which at the time stood in Ayr, and which had been built for the King when his lodging was there—(not till 1298). One of the beams was furnished with abundance of running nooses; the entrance was strongly guarded by armed men, and none were allowed to enter but as they were summoned. Sir Reginald Crawford was called first to do homage. Passing in he was immediately lifted off his feet, a noose slipped over his head, and hoisted up to the beam, where he died. In like manner died Sir Brice Blair, Sir Neill Montgomery, with various Crawfords, Kennedys, Campbells, Berkeleys, Boyds, and Stuarts. The minstrel reports the barns as being burnt the same night, Wallace and his party looking on from a safe point, known ever after as Burn-weill-hill. In explanation of various dis

crepancies in Blind Harry, and between him and Barbour, the Marquis ventures with considerable caution to submit an hypothesis, that between the burning of Lanark and the attack on the bishop's palace at Glasgow, Blind Harry found that Wallace had made an attack on an English judge at an “Aire,” which he took to be the town of that name (instead of a Justice Aire), especially as he also knew that Wallace was famous, among other things, for having burnt the English quarters in that town. So he mixes up three things—the executions in the barns, the attack on the judge, and the burning-working the whole into a fancy narrative, with probably a good spice of plagiarism out of Barbour. The lecturer describes himself as conscious that, applied to the myth which finds its wildest development in the “Wallace," his treatment may be styled a destructive criticism. He would, however, rather claim for the lecture a constructive tendency. His aim has been to place, or rather perhaps suggest, a way of placing upon a sound historical basis an event in national and local history, the obscurity of which has made it the victim alternately of credulity and scepticisim. The authorities quoted throughout are, as far as possible, contemporary Some of them, it is mentioned, have not yet been published, and of those that have been, many are translated by the Marquis for the first time. A map, illustrative of the marching and countermarching of King Edward in Scotland, accompanies an inquiry full of interest in itself, and not without importance as bearing on the development of popular beliefs.


VALUABLE for what is suggested more than for what is completed, Mr. Harper's “Rambles in Galloway" were thought seriously defective as a guide to the pedestrian. Even better writing and fuller historical knowledge would not have atoned for the want of any table of distances or any map of the district

traversed. It is no doubt open for travellers to ramble at their own will, gossiping when they please and as they please about the traditional associations or physical aspects of the hills and dales traversed; but it is different when, as in the present case, the writer is desirous of making his district more widely known, and of impressing on travellers the important, but by no means exaggerated truth that he might fare worse by going further from home in search of scenes of soft lowland beauty, or the stern and wild in mountain landscape. In such circumstances the Rambler takes the place of a Guide where a map is essential. The volume itself presents a most attractive appearance, so far as printing and illustrations are concerned. The matter, if not so fresh or full occasionally as one would like, is on the whole presented in a quiet, business like fashion-altogether free from the vice of exaggeration so apt to beset local chroniclers. Its merits, indeed, in this respect tend rather to cross the reader's temper by presenting what is attractive and useful, but compelling him at the same time to search elsewhere for distances and routes. The “Rambles” are arranged under thirtythree distinct chapters, treating of so many different journeys or localities, but little help is furnished to the reader whether the country traversed from point to point was six miles or sixty. Castle-Douglas to Auchencairn, eight miles, forms one chapter or route; Castle-Douglas over Cairnsmore to Newton-Stewart, about thirty miles, forms another. A brief index, of proper names at least, would also have been useful. The want of minuteness in the itinerary is the more to be regretted, as Mr. Harper's own pages show that Galloway, or the two southwestern counties of Kirkcudbright and Wigtown, even since opened up by railways, still possesses special attractions for the pedestrian, whether his taste runs in the way of historical or traditionary lore. It is not easy in dealing with works of this kind to cease wondering at the prolific genius and rare powers of Scott. Not a county or bit of coast-line in Scotland but has been touched by the Enchanter's rod. From Kirkwall to Caerlaverock, from Colonsay to the Bass, not an old castle, church, or mansion but has had a new interest added to it by his writings. Galloway presents no exception to this rule, nor could it well

occur with a correspondent of the novelist in the district so exact and enthusiastic as Train.

Endless scenes and incidents in the romances are associated with Galloway. That “Young Lochinvar, who came out of the West," belonged to the gay Gordons of Kenmure line. Helen Walker, who practised in real life the virtues with which fiction has invested the imaginary character of Jeanie Deans, lies buried in Irongray churchyard, with a memorial-stone set up by the novelist to mark her humble grave. On a tragical incident in the history of the Stair family Scott founded “The Bride of Lammermoor.” Robert Paterson, prototype of “Old Mortality," was a Galloway wanderer, and set up his first stone at Caldons, Wigtownshire. The creeks of Warroch often sheltered Dirk Hatteraick; and at Ravenshall the Smugglers' Cave is still pointed out. Still earlier associations of importance are rife in the district. At Tongland lived the Italian friar whose ridiculous attempt at flying drew down the satire of Dunbar; and there, too, within the old castle of Comstone, Montgomery is supposed to have written his famous “Cherrie and Slae." Grounds now included within the Maitland property are thought to be referred to in the verse

How every blossom, branch, and bark,
To pen the pleasures of that park,

Against the sun did shyne.
I pass to poets to compile
In high, heroic, stately stile,

Whase muse surmatches myne.
But as I looked myne alane

I saw a river rin
Out owre a steepy rock of stane,

Syne lighted in a lin,
With tumbling and rumbling

Among the rocks around,
Devalling and falling

Into a pit profound.

To the Kenmure family mentioned above an interesting reference is made in the form of a letter to John Gordon, seventh Viscount, son of William, attainted, written by the Young Pretender during his short stay at Holyrood, Oct., 1745:

“The continued loyalty of your family, with your father's unhappy suffering in 1715, and the repeated assurances I have received from all hands of zeal and attachment to my family, leaves me no room to doubt you will take the first opportunity to appear in the cause of your King and country. Being determined to make no longer stay in these parts than to give time to some friends who are now on their way from the Highlands to join me, I judge it proper you may repair to the army with what men you can get together, without delay, when you may be assured of meeting with particular marks of my favour and friendship.” It was the old story:

At length the news ran through the land

The Prince had come again;
That night the Fiery Cross was sped

O'er mountain and through glen;
And our old baron rose in might,

Like a lion in his den,
And rode away across the hills

To Charlie and his men.
In 1824 the Kenmure dignities were restored in the person of Viscount
William's grandson, to the great joy of the family bard, who exultingly

The Gordon hath his father's name, renowned in love and war;
Hail him, Kenmure's noble Viscount, and Lord of Lochinvar,

The title became extinct in 1847 on the death of Adam, eighth Viscount. Church matters, especially such as relate to the Covenanting period, but suggested, naturally enough, by graves in lone moorland places, or, as at Wigtown, indicating a great judicial crime, appear frequently in Mr. Harper's volume. For the earliest settlement of all, St. Ninian's at Whithorn, he cautiously follows the excellent memoir prepared by Bishop Forbes. Dedicated to St. Martin of Tours, from whom craftsmen were obtained to shape its walls after the Roman fashion, the White House on the promontory became the burying-place of St. Ninian himself, and was for ages famous as a sanctuary not only in North Britain, but throughout the whole Anglo-Saxon Kingdom, and among the races of

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