Page images

extinct at her death, the Duchess resigned them into the hands of the Crown, and obtained, 1687, a regrant to herself, and after her death to James, Earl of Dalkeith, her eldest son, and his heirs-male and taillie. The second son became Earl of Deloraine. The Duchess survived till 6th February, 1732, when she was a little over eighty years of age. The Earl of Dalkeith having predeceased his mother, 1705, the succession on her death opened up to his eldest son, Francis, born 1695. In 1743 he obtained by Act of Parliament a restoration of the Earldom of Doncaster, and Barony of Scott of Tynedale, two of the English honours of his grandfather, the Duke of Monmouth. He married, first, 5th April, 1720, Lady Jane Douglas, eldest daughter of James, second Duke of Queensberry, by whom he had a son, Francis, Earl of Dalkeith, who predeceased his father, and, secondly, Miss Powell, but by that lady had no issue.

On the approach of the Pretender to Edinburgh in 1745, Duke Francis sent his tenantry to assist in defending the City. He died 22nd April, 1751. His son, the Earl of Dalkeith, had married Caroline, eldest daughter and co-heiress of the famous John, Duke of Argyll and Greenwich, by whom he had four sons and two daughters. His eldest son, Henry, succeeded his grandfather. One of the daughters, Frances, married to Archibald, Lord Douglas, was a posthumous child.

Henry, third Duke of Buccleuch, was born 13th September, 1746. In March, 1764, his Grace and his brother, the Hon. Campbell Scott, set out on their travels, accompanied by the learned Dr. Adam Smith. The brother was assassinated on the streets of Paris on the 18th October, 1766, in his nineteenth year. His remains were brought home by the Duke, and deposited in the family vault at Dalkeith. On the commencement of the war with France in 1778, Duke Francis raised a regiment of Fencibles chiefly among his own tenantry, and, by his attention to the wants of the service, secured the affection and esteem of all under his command. He married, in 1767, Elizabeth, daughter of the last Duke of Montague, by whom he had three sons and four daughters, viz., George, who died in infancy; Charles William Henry, Earl of Dalkeith;

Henry James Montague, who succeeded as Lord Montague in 1790, on the death of his grandfather, the Duke of Montague, but died in 1845, without male issue, when the title became extinct; Mary, married to James George, Earl of Courtown; Elizabeth, to the Earl of Home; Caroline, to the Marquis of Queensberry; and Harriet, to the sixth Marquis of Lothian. On the decease of William, fourth Duke of Queensberry, "Old Q," without issue, 23rd December, 1810, Duke Henry succeeded to the Dukedom and to considerable estates in Dumfriesshire. It was to the influence of this Duke of Buccleuch that Sir Walter Scott was indebted for his appointment in December, 1799, to the office of Sheriff-depute of Selkirkshire, and afterwards in 1806 to that of one of the principal clerks of the Court of Session. His Grace died 11th January, 1811.

His eldest son, Charles William Henry, fourth Duke of Buccleuch, and sixth of Queensberry, was born 24th May, 1772, and in 1807 was summoned to the House of Peers as Baron Tynedale. He married, 23rd March, 1795, Harriet Katherine Townshend, youngest daughter of Thomas, first Viscount Sydney. Her Grace died in 1814. There is a touching correspondence on this event between the Duke and Sir Walter Scott in Lockhart's life of the poet. The Duke was a constant friend and correspondent of Sir Walter, and at an early period of money difficulties gave his name as security for a loan of £4,000. He also bestowed on the Ettrick Shepherd the life-rent of the farm of Altrive, on the favourite braes of Yarrow. By his Duchess he had two sons, Walter Francis, Earl of Dalkeith, who succeeded him as fifth Duke of Buccleuch, and died April, 1884, as before mentioned, in his forest retreat at Bowhill, aged seventy-eight; Lord John Douglas Scott, an officer in the army, and six daughters. Earl Charles died at Lisbon, 20th April, 1819. The present Peer, William Henry Walter, better known as Earl of Dalkeith, is the sixth Duke.


“Altus Prosator, Vetustus Dierum, et Ingenitus”—so opens that magnificent hymn which the unbroken tradition of thirteen centuries connects with the name of Columba, but of engrossing interest otherwise, in so far as it indicates modes of thought prevailing in the early Church at a time when creeds, as we now have them, were barely formulated. Athanasian only in so far as it expresses opinions known to have been valiantly defended by Athanasius, certain prominent doctrines embodied in the famous creed were expressed in language almost identical to the brethren of Iona by the Apostle of our Western Highlands. “Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti una est Divinitas æqualis gloria, co-æterna Majestas," declares the creed; so in like manner Columba—“Cui est Unigenitus Christus et Sanctus Spiritus co-æternus in gloriâ Deitatis perpetua.” Subject or not subject to Rome, here is belief, expressed at least as early as the Council of Nice (A.D. 325), set out in language almost identical with what the Church put into form some centuries later-probably not far removed from Columba's own day. Welcome on its own account at any time, the student of our early poetry will find a new interest added to the hymn through the care and scholarship of its latest editor. Naturally inclined to such studies, and frequently engaged in them, it occurred to the present Marquis of Bute that there were many persons who would hail with pleasure a new handy edition of the “Altus” of St. Columba, as well from veneration for the memory of the author as from appreciation of the intrinsic merits of the work, and of its interest as a specimen of ancient Celtic Latin poetry. The text has been taken from the edition, unhappily uncompleted, of the “Liber Hymnorum,” prepared for the Irish Archæological and Celtic Society by the late Dr. Todd, author of the well-known “Memoir and Mission of St. Patrick.” To the words of the poem the noble Marquis has added a most useful kind of double commentary. First, a paraphrastic translation into

English prose; and, secondly, a series of notes designed chiefly, though not exclusively, to assist the reader by placing before him the passages of Scripture cited or alluded to in the text, so far at least as could be done for the work of a writer who was using a Latin version other than the present. The hymn itself is not so widely known as to make a brief account of it altogether unnecessary. After the first chapter or section, in which, as may be seen from the extracts above, God is praised as He is in Himself, the thought of the author of the “ Altus” passes through three phases, in each of which he praises the Most High for a special class of His works. The first is dedicated to the angelic world, the second to the material cosmogony as understood by the writer, and the third to the things which shall or may be hereafter. Each section comprises seven chapters of twelve short lines each, with the exception of the prelude, which runs out two lines extra. Here occurs the phrase noted before, “Ingenitus," “Unbegotten,” yet natural or strictly in the course of nature. The editor properly explains that no such expression is found in Scripture; but in the Athanasian creed there is “Pater a mullo est factus, nec creatus, nec genitus”“The Father is made of none, neither created, nor begotten;" and the word also occurs in such Church Offices as the Trinity Sunday Antiphon at “ Magnificat,” in the Roman Breviary “Te Deum Patrem Ingenitum "_" Father unbegotten.” “Vetustus dierum” is evidently the “Antiquus dierum,” or “Ancient of Days” of Dan. vii. 9, 13, and 22. The section relating to the angelic hosts partly repeats views set out at greater length in that division of Adamnan's life of the Saint known as “The Apparition of Angels,” from which the reader gathers that in Ireland, especially in and around his favourite Derry, as well as in Iona, legions of these ministering spirits were seen and conversed with. Montalembert makes repeated reference in his life of the Saint to the encouragement and aid derived through the angelic attendants—“Sed haberat cælestia in quibus privilegia ostenderet magnopere possibili fatimine"-"Heavenly creatures wherein to show graces as great as any utterance can express.” The chapter on “Heaven," which is given at length as a fair specimen of this early Celtic poem, would seem, as

the Marquis writes, to imply that Columba regarded as identical that Paradise in which God placed Adam with that Paradise which is the home of the saints, still existing in some part of the world

Plantatum a procemio
Paradisum a Domino
Legimus in primordio
Genesis nobilissimo;
Cujus exsonte flumina
Quatuor sunt manantia;

Cujus et situm florido
Lignum vitæ est medio,
Cujus non cadunt folia
Gentibus salutifera;
Cujus inenarrabiles
Deliciæ ac fertiles.

The first eight lines are, of course, founded upon Genesis ii. 6-14; the next on Rev. xxii. 2, where mention is made of the tree of life and the leaves “for the healing of the nations;” and the last two probably on Ezek. xxviii. 13"In deliciis Paradisi Dei fuisti”_" Thou hast been amidst the pleasures of the garden of God;" or, as our authorised version has it, “Eden, the garden of God.” With the chapter commencing “Quis ad condictum Domini Montem conscendit Sinai?” the poet passes to the third and last part of his work. Having described the work of God in the creation and preservation of angels and men, of the intellectual and material components of this planet and her sphere (which to him was nearly, if not quite, the same thing as the Kosmos), he projects thought forward to the time when this planet will be changed. Then, continues liis editor, a pause is made for a moment to consider that there has been but one whose drawing near to God, when revealing Himself in terror, can ever have enabled him to know, however imperfectly, what the terror of the end will be. To follow this chapter with wisdom, it is therefore necessary to read in connection Exodus xix., particularly from ver. 16—“Et ecce cæperunt audiri tonitrua ac micare fulgura, et nubes densissima operire montem, clangorque buccinæ vehementius perstrepebat "_"And behold the thunders began to be heard,” &c. In this portion of the poem the Marquis naturally detects a certain inclination to dwell upon the terrible, recalling so far that element in Columba's character which sometimes cast shadows on the brightness of his life, and

« PreviousContinue »