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abominations indulged in, trained their children to say Papa and Mamma instead of Father and Mother, which custom the author deprecated as one of the causes of God's wrath to Scotland, evidenced in his day by the prevalence of burning fevers and agues previously unknown. With Kilwinning Mr. Dobie appears to have taken special pains, one view being given of the ancient doorway, and another, presented by the Earl of Eglinton, of the somewhat dull, modern church, but introducing effectively the remaining gable of the Abbey south transept. The letterpress presents as fair a history of this important foundation as it is possible to prepare in the absence of the Abbey Cartularly, lost apparently since Pont's time. Records connected with the Lodge of Mother Kilwinning are not known to exist of earlier date than 1642. A French poem somewhat vaguely refers to James Lord Stewart as receiving into his Lodge at Kilwinning the Earls of Gloucester and Ulster. The Abbey was then ruled by Abbot William, who sat in the Parliament held at Brigham in 1289. Ecclesiastical records connected with the Presbytery of Irvine do not exist of older date than 1646, and those of the Regality Court of Kilwinning, now in the General Register House, Edinburgh, commence a few years later.

LEADHILLS AND WANLOCK.

TIME redresses grievances in its own way, all the fuller in appearance sometimes because redress comes in an unexpected form. Between forty and fifty years since, when the Disruption controversy was embittering the social life of Scotland, few noblemen were held up to greater obloquy than the late Duke of Buccleuch. He not only insisted that the Established Church was the real Church of the people, but refused to recognise the Seceders even to the extent of permitting them to build places of worship on his land. For Thornhill a door of relief was opened by the magnanimity of old Janet Fraser of Virginhall. To Free

Church miners in the dreary uplands of Wanlock no tenderness was shown. The land quaintly described in old writings as “God's Treasure House in Scotland” was to them a house of bondage. The gold of that Havilah might be good, yet it was to them mere earthly treasures which thieves might break through and steal, and of small account compared with the spiritual riches dispensed under the most untoward circumstances generally by their own pastor, Mr. Hastings, but occasionally by divines so distinguished as Chalmers, Candlish, and Guthrie. Time has now changed all this. Under the above title an account of this auriferous region, written by the successor of Mr. Hastings, was respectfully dedicated to the same Duke of Buccleuch, as “ The generous patron of Art, Literature, and Agriculture, whose benevolence as a landlord is universally esteemed (even by the men of '43), and who, with the Duke of Argyll, gave a noble example to the proprietors of Scotland in the gist of the patronage of his numerous parishes to the people, without compensation.” City charges like Maitland Street need not, therefore, be looked upon as the only indications going of changes in thought and feeling. The greater part of Mr. Porteous' interesting little volume appeared from time to time in the columns of the “ Dumfries Courier;" but, it being deemed advisable to gather the detached papers into a more permanent and accessible form, the opportunity was taken of extending what was mainly an account of the parish of Sanquhar so as to include Crawford, Crawfordjohn, Leadhills, and Wanlockhead, with some notice of the geology and mineralogy of the district, extended information as to the gold, silver, and lead workings, details as to properties, owners, and workmen, and some useful facts connected with the Church history of the district from the Reformation to the present time. The first chapter describes “The House"its geological formation, pasturage, streams, and temperature. The second commences with "The Treasures," and the men who have wrought in gold, silver, and lead, from Bevis Bulmer, in the sixteenth century, to the exceptionally high-class mining population for which Leadhills is famous in our own day. Of "The Treasure House” itself, or earthen vessel, not much can be said, so far.

as outside beauty is concerned. After travelling through the district, Dr. John Brown describes Leadhills as a dreary, unexpected little town, but, like all natives of such forlorn, out-of-the-world places, the people cannot understand how any one can be happy anywhere else; and when any of them leaves the wild unlovely place they accompany him with wondering pity to the outskirts of their paradise, and never cease to implore and expect his return for good. They are known to be thoughtful and solid, make good use of an extensive library, gathered mostly by themselves, and are unwearied in their attendance on ordinances. This deep religious feeling has no doubt received a colouring from the memory of many Covenanting struggles floating about the district. Here in an especial manner was the preaching ground of Cargill and Renwick, of Alexander Peden and Richard Cameron. Only a few years since, “Black Joan frae Crichton peel, a carline stoor and grim,” celebrated the bi-centenary of the famous Sanquhar Declaration, in terms of which first Cameron and then Renwick denounced and disowned Charles II. as a tyrant and persecutor. Memories of a more pleasant nature are called up by the remembrance that within a year after Renwick had closed the long line of those who in Scotland sealed their testimony with blood, Allan Ramsay, the poet, was born at Leadhills. His father was manager of the mines, and there did the author of "The Gentle Shepherd” continue to live till 1701, when he removed to Edinburgh to commence, at the age of fifteen, an apprenticeship to a wig-maker. Another literary memory is associated with Wanlockhead. A few years after Ramsay's death, and while residing with his sister, Mrs. Telfer, in what is now known as the Duke's shooting lodge, Smollett wrote his inimitable “Humphrey Clinker,” a novel, we regret to say, of which Mr. Portcous thinks but lightly. Tabetha and Lismahago, Matthew Bramble and Jerry Melford, might have excited the humour of even a Free Church divine in the bleak solitudes of Wanlock. Among other names of some distinction associated with the district are James Taylor, John Hutcheson, and William Symington, all concerned in the early experiments of steam navigation undertaken by Patrick Miller of

Dalswinton. More remarkable, in some respects than even scientific reputation, was the fame acquired by the grandfather of the Taylor above-mentioned as the very oldest person who must ever have lived in those parts. Born in 1637, the year of Jenny Geddes' exploit in St. Giles', and when Charles I. was yet King, a tombstone in Leadhills Churchyard records that John Taylor, miner, died there “at the remarkable age of 137 years." To “lie like a tombstone” is proverbial; and to prevent disappointment on the part of those curious in such inquiries, it may be as well to mention that there does not appear to be much other than tombstone evidence for the remarkable longevity of John Taylor. The succession of owners and lessees is described with much exactness by Mr. Porteous. In 1562 a Royal grant was made to John Achisone and John Alsowand, burgesses of Edinburgh, “to wark and wyn in the lead mynes of Glengonar and Wenlock," and to transport the ore to Flanders; that the silver may be there extracted, paying to the Queen “fortie-five unce of uter fyne silver for every thousand stane wicht of lead." Thomas Foulis, goldsmith in Edinburgh, succeeded; and his niece, Ann, marrying her advocate, James Hope, after a successful defence of her claims, the Leadhills workings passed to the Hopetoun family, who have held them ever since. Last year, the company working the mine raised about 1,200 tons, or 24,000 bars of 1 cwt. each, selling for the most part at £22 per ton. The lordship is one-ninth to the Earl of Hopetoun, with fixed rent of £52, 1os., the company having all minerals, gold, silver, and lead at its command. The Wanlock mines are wrought by a manager in the interest of the Duke of Buccleuch. Miners work five days a week, and earn on an average all the year round fully £ 4 per month. Mr. Porteous' book is illustrated by a geological map of the district known as the “Treasure House,” and a few engravings by typographic process from the author's drawings. A ghastly view is also presented of what he calls the “Tree of the Christian Church in conflict with Papal fire," and a perplexing diagram of the divisions and unions in the Church of Scotland since the Reformation. This last puzzle is described as elucidated in the author's earlier work on the invincible position

of Presbytery, concerning which he holds strong Covenanting principles, and quotes approvingly:

The braid blue bannet still may cleed the pows in green Glencairn,
The laverock wake the mavis yet in howes o' auld Carsphairn;
But waes me for the Covenant psalm that echoed aince amang
The wastlin' hames o' Scotland, mair sweet than mavis sang.

For noo nae mair amang the glens, nae mair amang the hills,
The simple strains o’ Covenant times the moorland shepherd trills;
Ye'll wander far afore ye hear the e'ening psalm ava;
The bonnie flowers o' Scotland's faith are nearly wede awa.

THE FULLARTONS OF FULLARTON, &C.

TRADITION of a kind fixes Fullartons in Ayrshire as early as the beginning of the twelfth century, the first possessor of the barony so named, near Irvine, being probably a follower of Walter, son of Alan, ancestor of the High Stewards who obtained from the Crown grants of broad lands in the counties of Ayr and Renfrew when the family left their Shropshire home to settle at the Court of David in the North. The name has been set down, although not without challenge, as derived from one of two employments--a “Fuller,” or cleaner of woollen cloth, and a “Fowler,” an important hereditary officer in the Royal household largely concerned in supplying the king's table. Nisbet, in his “Heraldry," seems to have preferred the last-mentioned derivation, and appeals for corroboration to a certain charter in the Haddington collection; later writers rely with equal confidence on an ancient washing-green or “bleachfield” on the south-west bank of the Irvine over against the Royal burgh. The industrial origin of the name is further accounted for by the circumstance that “Fowl” in Saxon is “fugel," "fugel-bono," a fowl-killer. Adam, son of Alam, received a charter of

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