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to bave endeavoured a confatation of them ; | such proceedings of their governors which do then bis asperity in rebuking, his harsh and not suit their particular humours, what must vehement expressions would not have been ill become of the credit and reputation of any employed : but, instead of this, to turn his government, which is so necessary to previolence against his superiors, for not punish- serve it? ing what, it may be, they never heard of; and Your lordships have heard a great many to lay the danger from these doctrines at their objections against innuendoes, that they are doors, is not to be justified by any pretended dangerous things, and never encouraged; and provocation of this kind whatsoever.
that your lordships bave been pleased to shew There was another piece of evidence pro- your dislike of them. I shall not scruple to duced to your lordships, some proclamations own, that to lay a meaning to a man when bis against immorality and profaneness: if there words will not bear it, to make any invidious is any thing to be inferred from them in the construction wben it will admit of a favourable Doctor's favour, I must own I cannot conceive one, I can neither approve or desire. But be. it. Because the queen commands the ma- ! cause the extreme or ill use of any thing is not gistrates to put the laws in execution, there to be allowed, that therefore you must never fore every private divine may arraign his su- apply it at all, is such logic and law as I bave periors, for a supposed neglect of their duty, as not been used to. often as be thinks fit; I say, I do not under-My lords, in the case de Libellis famosis, stand this inference, but I can easily appre- cited by the Doctor's counsel, your lordships bend the consequences to all governments ibat will find, that if only plain, positive assertions will suffer such presumptions.
| are libels, there will be no fence against the The Doctor bimself was pleased to say, that ensy and malice of wicked spirits : and if the one of the dangers of the Church mentioned law has guarded every private man's reputaby him was forgot by the managers, that was tion, so as not to be blasted by oblique tarns from Papists and their emissaries : I will do and scandalous insinuations, it would be very bim the justice to remember, that he has be- hard if those in authority should be exposed stowed six lines on this danger, but 26 large to the virulence of every discontented" hupages on the danger from those in Church and mourist. Malice will never want a pretence, State. Then it was said, that the Doctor prays or means to convey scandal and reproach by for the queen, has taken the oaths to the queen, sly parallels and allusions, which may do and therefore he could have no intention to equal mischief with positive assertions : but I reflect on her majesty, or any part of ber ad- must observe to your lordships, that there are ministration, either in Church or State. And not only oblique insinuations, but positive as. the Doctor in his own Speech was pleased to sertions. acknowledge ber majesty to be a nursing Not only those passages which I have promother to the Church : but I could not ob- duced, which are express, but the whole scope serve one syllable to the reverend fathers of and tenor of his Sermon, relates to the peril of the Church, of his opinion of their care of it: the Church from persons in Church or State, I could hear him, admonish that venerable and not those evasive shifts of vice and infidebench of the guilt of departing from the lity, books and pamphlets. If the Doctor had Church, and abandoning the principles of the only rebuked immorality, blasphemy, proChurch, if they should punish him, a true faneness and irreligion, he might still have son of the Church, for preaching the same attended his flock, and they not have been doctrine with theirs; as if there was no manner brought to attend him ;* nor would he have of difference whatever.
been thought to arraign the resolution of the It seems, my lords, very strange, that after parliament. But for him to take upon him to a charge of this nature of reflection upon his censure and expose bis superiors, and to inecclesiastical superiors, that, after having stu sinuate into the minds of the people the danger died so much submission, he should not pre- of the Church from those persons who have the vail with bimself for so much as a compliment protection of it, is no likely method to suppress ou this occasion. Such behaviour seems to immorality and profaneness, and is directly need no explanation. I should be very un contrary to the words and intent of the resoluwilling to recollect any of the Doctor's cba. tion of your lordships and the Commons. ritable opinions of his own brethren, who, as To what end the Doctor has thought fit thus he is pleased to say, can sacrifice their solemn to disperse bis Sermons may be easily imagindeclarations and oaths to complaisance and ed; and your lordships cannot be unacquainted preferments. I would be so charitable as to with the history of a neighbour nation, what believe well, and tbiok favourably of all men; temporal ends were to be accomplished by a but when the contrary does so manifestly ap I loud ont-cry of danger to the Church, the pear, it would be injustice to the rest of man- Church, Religion and the Church. Whether kiod not to judge accordingly. It would be a that will not bear a parallel with the groundTemissness and negligence of duty, justly less clamours which have occasioned many of blamable, if we were to shut our eyes, and resolve not to see what so evidently threatens *“ His parisbioners, part of the mob that the peace and quiet of the kingdom. If men attended him to and from his Trial." Former must be allowed to vent their displeasure at Edition.
our present unhappy divisions, I submit to themselves weaken, undermine and betray, and your lordships,
| do encourage, and put it in the power of others, It remains, my lords, that I answer one of who are professed enemies, to overturn and the learned coursel, wbat the nature of this destroy the constitution and establishment." offence is : I sball only tell bim in the words of This I thought would be plainly made out, your lordships and the Commons Resolution, if I could sbew these two things: made public by her majesty's proclamation, 1. That the Doctor has asserted, in express
That whoever creates unreasonable distrusts, terms, of all False Brethren in general," ibat and groundless jealousies in the minds of the they do in themselves weaken, undermine and people; whoever distracts tbe kingdom by betray, and do encourage, and put it in the false and seditious rumours of the danger of power of others, who are professed enemies, to the Church, to cover desigos they dare not overturn and destroy the constitution and estaown ; whoever goes about to insinuate that the blishment. And, Church is not in a safe and flourishing condi 2. That he charges persons of characters tion under her majesty's happy administration, and stations with False Brotherhood. is an enemy to the queen, the Church, and the Apprehending the consequence clear, that if kingdom.” Which, in other words, is, against these two things were asserted by the Doctor, the law, against the temple, and against Cæsar the charge was just. has he offended.
I used likewise some farther proofs, which I Nay, my lords, has not this bold offender shall not need repeat. gone yet farther? Has he not told your lord- . Besides some little cavils as to the two pro. ships at your own bar, That potwithstanding positions, which I shall take notice of by the the Toleration the Dissenters are Schismatics, way; great complaint is made, often repeated, and liable to spiritual censure; that by conti and much exaggerated, tbat I have brought puing the indulgence to them, you countenance together these two propositions, that are twelve, schism; and that while schism is continued, or nine, or at least seven pages asunder. the Church must be in danger ? So that resolve My lords, I took notice of this trifling obwhat you please, and make what laws you will jection before ; and what I said to it, neither in their favour, he must still thunder out his the Doctor nor his counsel have attempted to vehement anathemas against them, as dan- | answer. gerous to the Church
But they all seeming to lay the greatest ; This, my lords, is a specimen of that inde- stress upon tbis part, and the counsel every one pendency of the Church that of late has been repeating it, I beg leave to state once more 80 much struggled for; and which, if not con-how that matter stands. futed in time by authority, may soon devour The Doctor in this Sermon proposes, (1.) the supremacy and the state. And since the To describe False Brotherhood; (2,5 To shew Doctor has and does still tbus presume to defy the mischief; and (3,) the malignity of it. and arraigo the Resolution of your lordships And this single consideration would make and the Commons, he is properly before this one expect, that these heads should relate to tribunal; and I may apply to him the saying | one another, at whatever distance he takes to a goat brousing on a vine, and which was them up. applied to one of another function upon such | Under the second head, page 15, he assorts, an occasion, who had defied the power of par of all False Brethren in general, that “tbey liaments :
do in themselves weaken, undermine and be Rode Caper vitem, tamen hinc cum stabis ad Aras,
tray, and do encourage, and put it in the 'In tua quod fundi Cornua possit, erit.
power of others, who are professed enemies, to
overturo and destroy the coustitution and esta- My lords, the Commons are so fully assured blishment, of your lordships' wisdom and justice, that they This is my first proposition in terms, and cannot question but your determination in this nothing is objected to it. proceeding will be to their satisfaction ; there | Only a little attempt is made to divert the fore I shall trouble you no farther, but submit question, by mentioning some particular sorts to your lordships' judgment.
of False Brethren, and saying he there speaks
of False Brethren in some of those senses of Serj. Parker. My lords, baring already, | the word. by command of the Commons, endeavoured to l I agree it: He that speaks of all, speaks of make good the fourth Article of this Cbarge; such as are included in those senses of the word it is now my duty to support what I offered be. which he mentions; but likewise speaks of all fore, both against the particular objections, and others too; speaks of such as he has mentioned the general rules, proposed or insingated by apy wbere else, as well as there, such as are the counsel, or the prisoner.
men of characters and stations, as well as such The first thing I attempted to prove by par. as are not ticular passages, was the second clause of this Article:
* Note, the pages of the Sermon are referred .« That Dr. Sacheverell suggests, that there to as in the second edition, which was that are men of characters and stations in Church | which was proved and read in evidence. For and State who are False Brethren, and do in mer Edition.
Under the third head,
extend both to those whose crime he describes, Ja sbewing the malignity of this sin (not in and to those whose malignity for that crime lie itself, that he had shewn before, but), with re exposes ? gard to the world: He instances first, in the And, which is most to be regarded, the dismischiefs arising from men of characters and tance of the place, or the connexion of the stations, in the words I formerly cited. This, scheme, and the nature of the propositions ? I thought, made out my second proposition to The Doctor himself seems rather to press be the Doctor's, " That men of characters and the objection thus, that this is inference, and stations are False Brethren."
joining independent propositions; which, though This is faintly denied; and it is said, he does spoke by him in general, the unanimity of his not here suggest men of characters and stations counsel in falling upon this part of what I said, to be False Brethren ; but wbat is here spoke shew, it was spoke principally with a view to relates to their private behaviour, and not to these two passages. Are then passages that the administration.
speak of all False Brethren, and that speak of Besides, that this is directly against the plain some particular False Brethren, independent? import of the words: to let your lordsbips see My lords, these are so far from being indethe candour of this Defence, let us suppose it pendent, and so ill have they chosen out what to true; and that it is the Doctor's opinion that find fault with, (that if your lordships will parthe persons be here speaks of, be they great or don the pedantry, considering I have a man of mean, are not False Brethren.
logic and disputation to deal with the two proThen the Doctor, to be consistent with this positions are the two propositions of a sylloDefence, must affirm, that he here sets forth | gism, concluding in the first figure. the malignity of False Brotherhood, by shew. | And the interence be complains of is the ing the malignity of another sin which is not conclusion necessarily arising from them, acFalse Brotherhood, in persons of characters cording to the rules of logic. and stations, who are not False Brethren. The whole syllogism runs thus : This is the wretched shift he is driven to,
All False Brethren do in themselves weak taking it the best for him. That these characters and stations relate both
en, undermine, and betray, and do encourage to Church and State, all his discourse in the
and put it in the power of others who are pro
fessed enemies, to overturn and destroy the places cited, and every where else, shews; por
constitution and establishment bas be or his counsel made it an objection that
Persons of characters and stations are False they do not; so that it would be very much mis
Brethren. spending your lordships' time, to go to prove, what is not denied, that by men of characters
Therefore persons of characters and stations, and stations, he intends men of characters and
do, &c. stations in Church and State.
The two first propositions are what I have The two propositions being thus cleared, let shewn the Doctor plainly to lay down; the us see if that which is laid hold of to declaim so other oply a necessary consequence, earnestly upon, have any more weight in it, Would any one expect that the Doctor should that is, the joining together these two distant | be so forgetful of the rules of logic, as when he propositions.
had laid down the premises, to deny the conThe objection, rightly stated, is this :
clusion ? Or to deny the conclusion to be He has in one place affirmed of all False his doctrine, who laid down those premises? Brethren in general, “ That they do in them. Can it be thought, that he laid them down selves weaken, undermine and betray, and put without an intention that his hearers should it in the power of others, who are professed make the conclusion? Or could he think it enemies, to overturn and destroy the constitu- possible they should not make it? tion and establishment."
Or, shall the suppressing a conclusion so And seven pages off, has represented men of plainly arising, which is taken notice of in some characters and stations as False Brethren. that write of logic as an elegance in discourse,
And we (very unreasonably !) have charged pass for an excuse? him with suggesting, “ That there are men of Let the Doctor describe False Brethren in characters and stations in Church and State general as betrayers and destroyers of the who are False Brethren, and do in themselves Church, and the proper objects of the rage and Weaken, undermine and betray, and do en- fury of the people, and then expose as False courage, and put it in the power of others who | Brethren those in the administration, persous are professed enemies, to overturn and destroy of characters and stations, from the chief to the the constitution and establishment.”
least, the people will quickly make the appliThis is the true strength of the objection, cation. . and the very stating it exposes it.
If any one sbould inflame the mob to such The general mischief he mentions, as com- a degree of rage and mistaken zeal, as to formon to all False Brethren, page 15, I presume get the spirit of the Gospel, and to believe it will be admitted to belong to those describ- | their duty to serve God by breaking the public ed, page 7; why then not as well to those peace, and to support his Church, by pulling Page 22 ?
down all meeting-houses, and rifling the houses Must not what is said of all False Brethren, of all Dissenters; he needs afterwards only tell VOL. XV.
them, This is a meeting-house; here liveth a / spoke in reproachful terms of magistrates in Dissenter, they are not so dull as to fail of general, he has pointed to those that have, and making the conclusion; therefore this house those that bestow the honours of the Church, is to be pulled down ; therefore this man is to and places and preferments in the state; be be plundered ; and of putting it immediately in has pointed to the chief; his reasoning, when execution where they dare.
he shews the malignity of the sin from examSuppose such a map should, in defence of ples of persons of characters and stations, is the himself, say, “I did not bid them pull down stronger, the greater these persons are, as the this house, nor rifle that; my telling them all examples of the greatest are the most conta. meeting-bouses were to be pulled down, all gious; but yet he relies upon it, that since the
Dissenters to be marked and plundered, was general mention of persons of characters and 'four months before I told them this was a stations takes in the meanest as well as the meeting-house, or that man a Dissenter; and greatest, it is not to be doubted but the all-disto carry back a man's words, spoke only by cerning people, especially when sufficiently way of information, to what was said four fired and enraged, will restrain the words to the months before by way of doctrine, is the most innocent meaning, and apply them only greatest hardship in the world.”
to inferior officers, constables, and those in the Would this pass for an excuse? Or would it nearest degrees to them. not add to the indignation against so insperti This is the sum of this notable excuse. nent a trifler on so sad an occasion.
Let this therefore, where, by bending their * My lords, the burning a meeting-house, the united force against it, they seemed to have the burning all the meeting-houses, the laying this greatest hopes of making some impression, metropolis once more in ashes by the enemies serve for the specimen chosen by themselves, of our constitution, is nothing to the inflaming of the hardships of inferences and innuendoes in the nation, and rendering the queen and her this charge. administration odious to the people.
The third clause, “ That he chargeth her Shall it then be an excuse for the Doctor majesty, and those in authority under her, with here, when he has laid down the premises, to a general mal-administration; the first, That say, that he has not in words expressed the he suggests that her majesty's administration, conclusion ?
both in ecclesiastical and civil affairs, tends to Shall the meanest of the people, clearly and the destruction of the constitution;" are so rightly collect, this is Dr. Sacheverell's doc- manifest, that after what has been said, and is trine ; and shall not we in accusing, and your unanswered, it would be but losing time to at Jordships in judging, be allowed to collect it, tempt to make them more plain. when we are endeavouring to preserve the And their defence, and the books and pam. queen and constitution, and all that is dear phlets read on this head, are not to the purto us ?
pose. Surely, my lords, we shall. Nor is the strictl For sure, the shewing that there have been consequence that your lordships find in this some paltry scribblers, few in number, many clause, always necessary in cases of this nature: long since dead, some inad, some that have unbut I was willing to shew it here, that your dergone the infamous punishment of the pillordships may see with what justice this was lory, most of them prosecuted or unknown, made the great topic whereupon to declaim does not prove that there are seminaries for the against hardships; and to couple such infe open profession of those blasphemies and inrences with innuendoes, as if both were the pieties; much less, that they are suffered by same.
the government, or that their follies can be As for taking one part of one sentence, and called an open violence upon the Church, or another part of another, whoever makes a con- their faults made the general character of the clusion in logic ever does it; and ovly then does nation, and charged upon the queen and her amiss in it, when in doing it he departs from 'administration. the proper rule, and where the consequence is When a scandalous book is published, or not just; which I have shewn is not the case contagious sin committed, any subject who has here, and nobody has attempted to make out a real zeal to prevent the mischief spreading, that it is.
may apply to the proper magistrate to suppress • It is as little to the purpose what is said, that it; and if inferior magistrates neglect their he has not restrained this to persons of the duty, may carry the complaint, against them highest characters and stations; which I shew- and it, to their superiors. ed so fully before, that it has been thought But is it to be endured, in any established more advisable to pretend I admitted what I be government, that a man pass over all the malieve I plainly disproved, than to offer any an gistrates, and make an appeal to the people, not swer to my reasons.
only against the offenders, but against the ma. • I will only add, that it is not pretended, that gistrates too? there is one word in the Sermon that looks like This is properly faction, this is invading the the least bint, that only inferior officers were royal authority; it is in the Doctor's own meant; and it is plainly shewn that others words, “A rebellious appeal to the people as were intended': and then the Doctor's excuse the dernier resort of justice and dominion;" it amounts, at best, but to this: he has indeed is erecting a popular tribunal, where pot only
scribblers, but the queen and ber anthority are human society, as religion ; for it destroys all to be tried
common honesty, faith and credit in the world, The Doctor, indeed, pretends that his zeal and in the place of it, sets up an universal trade was only against those offenders, and such as of cozenage, sharping, dissimulation and down, keep not within the bounds of the Toleration right knavery. For what dependance can there Act; that bis warmtla of speech, was only to be upon a man of no principles? What trust in stir up the magistrates to put the laws strictly equivocations, evasions and lies? Nor indeed in execution; and he solemnly protests he in- could any one be supposed so sottish, as to tended Bo reflection on the queen, or her mi-place the least confidence in these men, did pistry; that by the dangers of the Church, he they not bait their hook, and cover their trea.. meant only those judgments, which the just chery with the sacred and plausible pretences anger of a provoked God might be reasonably of friendship, whereby they are capable of doexpected to inflict on so wicked a people. ing much more mischief, than a bare faced
I cannot pretend to repeat his very words, and professed enemy. In wbat moving and but I apprehend this to be his sense, and beg lively colours does the holy Psalmist paint out pardon if I mistake his meaning.
the crafty insidiousness of such wily Volpones ? My lords, I am amazed at the Doctor's so • Wickedness,' says he, is therein, deceit and lemo protestations. I will avoid hard words as guile go not out of their streets. For it is not much as I can; but if, when he calls God to an open enemy that has done me this disho. witness in se solemn a manner, he should then nour, for then I could have borne it: neither speak without foundation of truth, plainly was it mine adversary that did magnify himagainst his Sermon, and be even then using the self against me, for then, peradventure, I little arts of evasion, and diverting the question, I would have hid myself from him. But, it instead of that sincerity which ought to accom was even thou! my companion, my guide, pany so solemo an oath, I leave it to your lord and mine own familiar friend. We took sweet skips to give a name to such behaviour.
counsel togetber, and walked in the House of Is it possible to say he intended not to reflect God as friends. There is no faithfulness in on the administration ?
| their mouths, their inward parts are very Give me leave to read to your lordships, two wickedness; their throats are open sepulcbres, pages in bis Sermon, to hich I before re- and their words are smoother than oil, yet be ferred; and be pleased to observe, as I go they very swords.' Like Joab, they pretend along, how much they are applicable to un- to speak peaceably, and smite us mortally under: knowo autbors, or the dead, to Asgill, tbe Ob- the fifth rib. servator, the Review, or other writers, tbat he “3. Thirdly, With regard to a man's self, bas made so filthy a collection out of'; or to it is hard to distinguish, wbether our False Atheists, or Dissenters, exceeding the limits Brethren prove themselves guilty of more exprescribed by the Toleration; or to Occasional cessive knavery, or folly. For whatever these Conformists, Dissenters too in the main, but cunning temporizing politicians may think, when the occasion of a place calls them to they will find, after all their shuffling and comChurch ; and your lordships will have one in- pliance, that the plain road of truth, honesty, stance of bis sincerity in his solemn protesta- and integrity, is both the most prudent, as well togs.
as the safest way they can follow, and that the " 2. Secondly. In regard to the world, what wisdom of this world is as much foolishness a Fast scandal and offence must it give to all with men, as it is with God. For certainly persons of piety and integrity, to see men of there is no sin that so much disappoints its character and stations, thus shift and prevari. own ends as this does. Perhaps the mao may cate with their principles, and starting from obtain the present advantage be bas in prospect, their religion upon any occasion of difficulty or by relinquishing his old friends and principles; trial, and like the disciples, flying from and form but is ever such a mercenary convert received saking our Saviour, when his life lay at stake ? heartily into the bosom of his former enemies ? To see men's opinions sit as loose about them Or, are they ever found so credulous, and goods, as their garments, to be put on or off for con- natured, as, to forgive, and believe such an venience? What can unwary persons conclude apostate cordial and sincere, and tit to be trustfrom such tergiversation and hypocrisy buted in any matter of weight or importance, who that all religion is state-craft and imposture? | has betrayed his own party for the little sordid That all godliness is gain; and that the doc. (lucre of a place, or preferment: and is again trives of the Church lie not so much in her ar- ready to be retrograde, whenever the wind ticles, as ber honours and revenues ? Without shall cbange, and veer about ? Such a False Soult, this modern latitude and infamous dou- Brother may serve the present turn of bis ad-, We dealing, as it can proceed from nothing but versaries, who may seem, whilst they want We rapkest Atheism, so it must propagate it the tool, to flatter and caress bim ; but let such Wieresoever it goes; and it is not to be ques- a turn-coat rest assured, he shall meet with toned, but that the wonderful increase and im- bypocrisfor hypocrisy; and since he is got pudent appearance of all sects and heresies in upon the stage, shall act his part and be hissed qis kingdom at present, beyond what was ever off when he bas done. Such a wise game do shown in former ages, is chiefly to be attri- our projectors play, they barter and betray their outed to it. But this crime is as pernicious to friends only to sell themselves slaves into the