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bands of their enemies, who shall treat them those that desert them; to give place by subwith more insolence, disdain and tyranny, than jection, no not an hour: to despise speaking, honest men do with scorn and contempt, if shuffing compliances, and put on their bravest they do not go the whole lengths of their party, resolutions, which the present case required : stick at nothing, though never so impious and There is a denouncing woe to the fearful heart absurd, and run from one extreme to a quite and faint hands; a shewing the perils and low contrary. Thus little, tbus base, thus odious, estate of the Church, that her sons deserted thus contemptible, thus servile, nay thus exe. ber, that she lay bleeding of her wounds; that crable is the traitor and double dealer in ber adversaries were chief, and her enemies at the sigbt, not only of all honest men, but that time prospered. the most professed knaves, and hypocrites!. Is this the language of one, that is only Who canpot but have a tacit regard and vene- laying before magistrates the abuses of a few ration for a man of steadiness and probity, that inferior persons, within their power, subject to upon all occasions is true to himself and his their authority, and whom they could easily cause; is above the threats, as well as flat- crush, and desiring those magistrates to correct teries of this world, still trusting in his God, | them ? and his own integrity and justice, despising his In short, is it calling upon the magistrates, interest or success, and is under all circum- or upon the people, for justice ? stances like that God, and religion he believes Again: and serves, without variableness, or shadow He solemnly declares his meaning in the of change, but is the same to-day, to-morrow, Sermon to have been, That the dangers of the and for ever. Farther, these False Brethren Church are only such as arise from the sins of cannot be more odious to God and man, than the nation, but not in the least from her mathey are to themselves, who are always a self- jesty and her administration. contradiction, full of confusion and perplexity, Let any one cast bis eye upon the Sermon, perpetually haunting themselves, the worst of or upon the Dedication of that preached at dæmons, maintaining an irreconcilable war Derby, and try how the several expressions betwixt the vutward and inward man, con- suit this scheme; and he will see, the formists in profession, half-conformists in prac- Doctor had nothing of it in view then, but ibat tice, and non-conformists in judgment. Such it is contrived since, for him to pretend now. a mixture of inconsistency and nonsense, that What dangers of the Church and Constituany one that has the least spark of conscience, tion he means in the Sermon is too plain to be or reason, must renounce and detest. But shifted off by a protestation : he tells you exthis dismal effect has such a state of habitual pressly what they are, and from whom : from hypocrisy, that it quite dainps and extin- men, whom he describes as being in the adguishes both, quenches the Holy Spirit of God, ministration, who undermine and betray the and crucifies his Son afresh, and as it finds a Church, and enable others to destroy it; they man void of shame, generally (without a mi- / are such as he apprehends, not from the hands raculous conversion) leaves him incapable of of God, but from ihe treachery and violence of repentance, and both damps him here, and men. hereafter; and as he chose it in this world, ap- Accordingly, the wbole tends to stir up anger, points bim in the next his portion with hypo- indignation and fury against those men; not to crites, and unbelievers, with all liars, that have move humiliation and prayers to God, to avert their part in the lake which burns with fire and those impending judgments. brimstone, with the grand father of falshood, But possibly he may expect to be understood, the devil and his angels. And so here we pot of an immediate vengeance of God, or his leave our False Brethren, in the company they delivering us into the hands of a foreign enemy, always keep correspondence with.”
but bis permitting wicked men at home to ofer. To go on. Is that true that he only calls throw the Church. upon the magistrates for justice upon these If we take it 10 be so, this solemn protesoffenders?
tation is a mere evasion, and a shifting the If bis intent really were to exhort the ma- question. gistrates (before whom he preached) to put the It is true, the overtbrow of the Church and Jaws in execution, one would expect to find it Constitution is the heaviest judgment can befal vehemently pressed under the fourth head, us, and if it does happen, must be accounted where he undertakes to shew what should be the act of Divine Justice punishing us for our the result of all; but I have searched careful sins. All national punishments are certainly ly, and can find nothing there, nor any where the more immediate acts of the justice of else, of any such exhortation.
Providence; and the instruments made use of There is indeed a calling upon the pastors of to bring them about are very often wicked men. the Church, who were not present, to thunder The profane writers, the Atheists, the out anathemas against schism; which could abusers of the Toleration, the vilifyers of not be to persuade those pastors that did not Holy Orders, ofthe Church, and of Cbristianity, hear him, but to condemn their remisspess to and other wicked men, may have given great the people that did. But all the rest is to the provocation to Almighty God; and if I should people, to adhere to the fundamental prin- say so great, as may give just cause to fear a ciples; to watch against, mark and avoid, liudgment upon us, that may endanger the Church and Constitution ; yet still the question | I scorned to take advantage of, and, in what I is, what hands are about to execute this judg. said, rectified. ment upon us ? Wecharge bim as representing But this served for a shew of an excuse. the Charch in danger under her majesty's ad. They said something more on this head, but ministration; as suggesting that her majesty's not to what was my objection ; but promised administration, in Church and State, tends to the Doctor should clear all. the destruction of the constitution; and conse- My lords, I think I might reasonably here quently, that the hands of those in the admi- put an end to the trouble I am giving your nistration are about to execute such judgment: lordships ; but that I apprehend some things And he solemnly protests, he apprehends no which fell from the Doctor, and which has danger but from God.
not fallen in my way already, may be proper My lords, this is trifling; for every such to be taken notice of, so far as concerns what is danger is from God, and is his judgment, who- within my province. ever they be, whether her majesty, apd ber! I own, his speech was extremely well comministry, or any others, that immediately bring | posed, fitted not so much to inform (his case it upon us.
would not bear that), as to move, (wherein his This, therefore, instead of answering, is hopes were more justly placed ;) not so much to erading, and diverting your lordships' view | state the question, and clear it, as to divert it: from the persons he charges to be working the All the plausible topics were laboured, and all ruin of the Church, to God, the, supreme di the arguments that pressed hardest upon him, rector and over-ruler of all the actions and de and most required an answer, passed over in signs of men. As if the reflection on the queen silence; the whole framed to give the passions and her administration were the less, for saying, mastery over reason, and to induce a persuasion, that they are the instruments in the hand of God that so good, so excellent a man as he painted lo scourge tbe nation for its sins, and to exe. bimself, that has so many virtues, so great cute bis vengeance in overthrowing the Church sincerity, so true a zeal for religion, could not and Constitution.
be guilty of this charge, though plainly proved So that I am afraid, this part of his solemn upon him : The protestations were strong and protestation is either false, or evasive, or both. hearty, and such as will read well amongst the
And let so much suffice to be added on these people; clear of all those qualifying clauses, clauses.
ibat might perbaps have made it suit better To what I offered to your lordships on the with the truth of his case, but would have had clause of keeping up distinction of factions and the inconvenience of giving to the readers susparties;
picion of guilt. Av agreeable concern for reI desire to add the weight of one authority, ligion and virtue ran through all ; which will out of the excellent Sermon preached by the always strike an audience, and seems intended most reverend prelate, my lord archbishop of to make some amends for the rage and fury, York, and produced by the Doctor.
and zeal for party in the Sermon. The words are these : “ They are factious, 1 I only wish, for the Doctor's sake, the comthey are setters up and abettors of parties, wboposer had preserved a little more regard, as endeavour to destroy, or unsettle, or disparage, well to what was fit to be said here, (where the or in the least hurt or weaken the government, truth of the whole matter is known as to what and the laws as they are established : let the was fit to be said abroad, and given it a little principles on which they go, or the pretences more resemblance of the Doctor and his they make, be what they will."
Sermon; that he had not calculated so many Whether the Doctor hath not endeavoured parts of it for an appeal to the people, and to in the highest degree to disparage the govern obtain their acquittal upon bis own word. And ment, and consequently to weaken it, your lord. I must needs say for myself, (though my ships will judge.
liking, or disliking it, is of very little moment) As to the other clauses, they have offered had it had fewer and less solemn appeals to very little, and I will not repeat what I said God Almighty, or more truth, or I knowo less before.
of the matter, I should have liked it much Only I would take notice, that under the better.. ' head of stirring up to arms, something was He begins with making his order, the Church urged by the counsel in relation to what I said and Christianity to be concerned in the cause;
pon some texts of Scripture, but so entirely intending it, I presume, to be understood abroad mistaking my meaning, that I think myself as a charge upon bis accusers, that in his ubconcerned therein.
person they arraign all these. As for perverting Scripture;
But I shall not pretend to follow bim througlıThe counsel would seem to pretend some out the whole speech, only point out some falibing or other to be the mistake of the printer, lacies in it. without saying where tbe mistake is, or how | My lords, great regard is to be bad to the they world have it read.
word, much more to the solemn declaration, I will tell your lordships what the mistake is; much more to the oath of a clergyman, when is pripting the second chapter of Lamenta- he is free and unbiassed. cons instead of the first, and misplacing the re- But when he stands in judgment, when the lerences to Lameutations and Zachariah; which rod is over hiin, when there is only one way open for escape from the just punishment due | (upon the Impeachment of the Commons) may. to his crimes, by protesting his innocence ; Let the contrivance lie never so deep, be ne. neither his word, nor his, declaration, nor bis ver so artfully wrought, when it strikes at our oath is to be regarded.
all, it would be absurd to say, the Commons That method will acquit all that are accused; may not bring it to the bar of justice, and your and the less conscience any such wretch has, lordships prevent its dreadful effects, and give the surer and easier will be his, escape. it the punishment it deserves.
And therefore your lordships will judge, by My lords, without that power, your constiwhat the Doctor has taught the people, what tution were weak and precarious. he has published, and not by what he pre- The Doctor observes in what manner the tends to be his intentions in doing it.
Charge against him is supported, not by exHe makes complaint of the generality of the press sentences of his, but by inferences, and Charge, that it was such that he knew, not joining independent sentences, (as to that part where it would point.
I have considered it already); and be seems to My lords, suppose we had followed the more expect, that if he were guilty of suggesting and common way, and set forth all the passages maintaining the things charged upon him, we have read, or the whole Sermon and Dedi- the passages might as easily be pointed to in cation verbatim, (as we might have done with his Sermon, as the doctrine iu those he proout pointing out wbat we objected to, or wby; duced ; and that bare reading, without a cora had that left him less in the dark? It was ment, would convict bim. therefore more for his advantage, that we No, my lords-Even Doctor Sacheverell is should tell him the particular points we would not yet arrived at that pitch, as to arraign the insist upon, than if we had left ourselves at li- government so directly and openly, as to preach berty at the Trial, to make as many points as a general doctrine. we then pleased.
This fallacy seems very gross, He lays it down for a rule, that the higher For is it reasonable to think, that a man that the charge is, the more clear ought the proof intends to unbinge the government, to expose to be.
an administration, to fire the people, to raise My lords, the proof here is indisputable; the sedition, should speak directly and plainly? Sermons and Books are not denied to be his. No he is to cover his design even from those And these are all that strictly make the evidence be is to draw in ; he is to pretend zeal for rein the case; the rest is but argument, and ligion, insinuate himself by degrees, not shock shewing them to be libellous in the particulars, his hearers at first with a declaration against a in the Charge.
queen they are fond of; be must pretend Zeal But take proof in a larger sense, so as that for her majesty, to preserve their good opioion it may extend, to the reasoning upon the evil of himself, while he is doing that which by dem dence, and to the making good the Charge, as, grees will alienate tbeir affections from her. in this case is perhaps not improper :
This he must do, though there were none to I have no reason, in respect of this Charge punish, and to prevent the dashing bis own against him, to contest his rule, because the hopes of success. But when he knows that the proof of it is clear in that sense too.
power of the administration, he is to revile and But yet, for the sake of justice, I shall take rail at, is over him, and at hand; that is a far, the liberty to say, that, as applied to this case, ther reason for caution : therefore in such disit is a fallacy.
courses, dark phrases are to be studied, confused This sort of proof arises from the sense and descriptions will be frequent, with a perpetual doctrine of his books.
perplexity of expression, between saying what And, I presume, the Doctor cannot hope, bis rancour will not let him with-bold, and with that because this is charged to be so high a bolding what his fear will not let bim speak crime, as defaming and undermining the go- out. Schemes of speech are to be contrived, veryment, any more favourable meaning is to that have two meanings; the one more obvious be put upon bis words, than if it were the less and plain, to have its full effect upon the peocrime of defaming a private person; or that ple; and the other (that will occur to nobody your lordships should not understand in this else) a reserve to be offered to a court of juscase, that whicb every body else that hears it, tice. This is naturally to be expected in sedi. understands) and which your lordships would tions discourses. But if your lordships will have understood, if it had not endangered the pass this by, wbich has spoke infinitely more government.
plain and audaciously than any other (I ben I own, I cannot comprehend why your lieve) that ever so publicly dared authority, lordships should be more shy of defending the your lordsbips may expect to see a new disgovernment than a private reputation; or most course from the Doctor, where sedition, that afraid of censuring that which is infinitely the bad but a very thin disguise in this, shall there most dangerous consequence, if it escape un have none at all. censured.
And this may serve for an answer to what is On the contrary, in the case of those things urged from bis zealous expressions for the which tend to the overthrow of the constitution, queen; for if the whole discourse have quite where the rules and methods of inferior courts another tendency, it is plain that tbose are only cannot apply a proper remedy, -your lordships parts of the blind and disguise,
He complains, that he is accused for what | Nay, where does he shew that he has exerted be has omitted, as if done with design; and his any such endeavour at all ? silence is made criminal.
i On the contrary, he has fallen into the My lords, I was the person that took notice methods used by those that are against her maof his omissions, but I did not make them a jesty, to undermine and weaken ber title, and part of bis Charge.
to disparage her government, and to render it * Indeed, when he in bis Answer protested (as odious to the people. Dow he does more solemnly) his loyalty, I took He complains that where he presses Obe. that profession into consideration, as a part of dience to the queen, we say he means the Prehis Defence, wbich I ought to take notice of. tender. I bad learned that the best way to try the
My lords, it was one of the omissions that I truth or falsity of pretenders to virtue or reli- | urged against bim in the manner I have just gion, was by their fruits.
mentioned, that he no where presses obedience Accordingly I considered his management of to the queen. his text in this Sermon, how agreeable it was Does he think it had not become him to shew to such profession, and to see what fruits of where he did press it, if he could ? loyalty I could find there.
Or what name does he think is to be given to And your lordships will now apply those ob his taking it for granted, that he had done that, terrations to his solemn appeal to God before which it was expressly charged he had not your lordships, that bis intentions, in that Ser done, and which he cannot shew he has ? mon, were to exert his best endeavour for the He seems to complain of some expressions security of her majesty.
that have been used against him by the I shewed your lordships, that he omitted the managers, as not becoming this place, or his only true notion of False Brotherhood in State, order. which took in the non-jurors and disaffected, My lords, 1 hope we shall always demean though his text led to it; that he had omitted ourselves with just respect towards your lordto make the proper use of the doctrine of Pas ships. sive Obedience, which was to press obedience And as to bim, he is to consider that there and submission to her majesty, though the day is a wide difference between what a private and the doctrine seemed both to require it. man says of others, much more of his go
That be bad set up another notion of False vernors, in conversation, or in popular assemBrotherhood, which I shewed to be, upoh his blies, and wbat is spoke of an accused person own principles, wrong.
at his trial. In the former case, it is not fit to By these I tried his pretences, and shewed, speak ill of them, that which is true; in the that if they were sincere, this behaviour was other, the crime is to be represented as it is, unaccountable ; but if he were at heart for the and the person is to have no respect paid him Pretender, 1 made it manifest that all bis pro that shall any way tend to prevent shewing the cedure was just; nay, that even his notion of full enormity of the crime in all its true colours, False Brotherhood was right to bim that was And if any thing has been said, which other of that mind, and that his application of the wise bis orders would have, secared him from, first of Lamentations was exact and fine upon let him remember that his crime deprives bim that supposition, which is never to be justified at this time of that protection; where it is one or excused on any other.
aggravation, that he has abused his holy funck This I then pressed no farther, than to shew tion ; which it was the business of the manathat his Sermon had in it no fruits of that loyalty / gers both to say and to make out. which he pretended.
He complaios that there is no allowance But I may make a furtber use of it row, as a made to a minister rebuking vice and irreligion plain contradiction to his solemn declaration with zeal, when he happens thereby to be carPor bas be pretended to give any answer to ried into an expression not well-guarded.
My lords, bis zeal is levelled more at person's Was I wroug in my notion of False Brother than crimes, he mentions not false doctrines to bood, or was he right in his? Has be made confute them, nor the faults of those that bear that use of Passive Obedience, as to press sub him, that they may amend them ; but rails at mission to the queen from it? Has he not let persons absent to expose them ; 'and raise the the non-jurors escape, though his text led him passions of his auditory against them ; his zeal to speak against them, and advanced a wrong leails to hunt out faults, for an occasion of comnotion of False Brotherhood merely to fall foul plaint; to magnify whatever is amiss, and upon those that justify the Resistance in the charge all home upon the government; departbevolution, and cut off thereby every colour of ing from the office of an ambassador of the title to the Pretender? Or does he offer to re Prince of Peace, and preaching sedition and Concile that proceeding with his pretence ? rebellion.
And then, though bare omission were not And in such case, his orders are so far from a fault, yet I may now ask, is that omission con- being an excuse, that they are an aggravation ; Sisterit with his protestation of an intention to when he who ought to preach peace, longexert his best endeavoor, for security of the suffering, gentleness and submission, fornent's queen? Did he 'exertor intend to exert his best divisions, creates jealousies, heighteus animo. ordearours, that omitted thitgs so very obvious? | sities, and disturbs the government,
. But wbere there is a Sermon truly tending several texts and passages by them cited, shall to promote religion and virtue, God forbid that be said to have been by ibem ineant of particular any incautious expressions in it, though justly persons and things, and shall be considered in exceptionable, should be laid hold on as an the most criminal sense, and be inade by such occasion to punish the preacher; it has not construction, one ground of an Impeachment been done, nor, I think, ought to be,
for High Crimes and Misdemeanors." : Yet when a minister presumes to go out of These are the words of his Answer; and, his way, and to meddle with the government, give me leave to ask, do they deny, or do they he ought to be more than ordinarily wary in confess the charge ? his expressions, since his character gives bis NeitherB ut are an appeal to the pas. reflections greater weight and force with the sions of the people, amongst whom it has people, and his errors will therefore do the been so industriously and irregularly dispersed. greatest mischief.
Yet I dare say every onwary reader took And this man that professes to preach politics, | the Doctor to have denied this Charge, and felt and laughs at those that tell him it is his duty some indignation against the Commons for to preach peace, and is inflaming the people making it. against their sovereign, must not think bimself | My lords, he has now come upon bis trial, entitled to that favour.
| he has been charged home upon this bead. I own I am very well pleased to hear the | And permit me to say, there cannot be a Doctor's declaration in favour of the Succes - heavier charge upon a minister of the gospel, sion in the House of Hanover, and his earuest nor more affecting to any one that has not prayer for perpetuating it. Because, whenever abandoned all pretence to common honesty, our sins shall be the occasion of our losing the Give me leave to mention some of those best of queens, the security of our religion and solemn words, wherein a priest receives bis liberties for our posterity depends upon it. orders. “ Receive the Holy Ghost, for the
But I a little wonder, that he appeals to God, office and work of a priest in the Church of that in this Sermon he had sincere intentions to God; and be thou a faithful dispenser of the exert his best endeavours for the security of word of God, and of bis Sacraments, in the the queen, and the Protestant Succession. I name of the Father, of the Son, and of the hope he is hearty for both, but sure bis best Holy Ghost." endeavours for them are not exerted in this This crime therefore, when committed by a Sermon.
priest, is betraying that sacred trust reposed in As for the queen, I have spoke already. him with his holy orders; it is forging the
As for the Succession, I own myself entirely authority of God, it is assuming a superiority at a loss, in what part of the Sermon it is, that over the inspired writers, if not over him that he bas exerted any endeavour at all for the inspired them. security of the Protestant Succession: I do The Doctor therefore, that is sensible (as not find any thing that I appreheud can con- he says) of the load of guilt and infamy the cern it, except that place where he ridicules the charge of the Commons lays upon bim, and notion of any right to the crown but an here- whereof this is surely the heaviest part; what ditary right.
| does he say to this? The counsel having in great measure de. He says, If he be guilty he is to answer it clined that head about wresting and perverting at another tribunal, where he is to be judged divers texts and passages of Holy Scripture, by those scriptures. and seeming to promise that the Doctor should "My lords, so he is to answer at that great give satisfaction therein ; I was in great expec- tribunal for every branch of this present tation of his performance there ; but am | Charge. miserably disappointed, and cannot but be iu But is this all? Is he negligent of his repusome confusion for the Doctor, though he seems tation in no other instance but this, that is the to bave entire satisfaction in himself.
tenderest and most affecting ? His conduct upon this clause, from first to Or will he tbus give himself up for a falsifier Jast, amazes me,
of the Word of God, and yet have the couHis Answer put in before your lordships to
nt in before your lordships to | fidence to hope for any reputation, or any cathe Charge of the Commons, is throughout pacity of doing good in preacbing it? evasive and reflecting; but in this part of it Is it thus the dignity of the sacred order is there is a master piece of equivocation and to be supported ? malice, to avoid either confessing or denying Is this the cause of the Church, and of the Charge, and to cast an odium on the Com Christianity? And are they wound up in the mons ás persecutors of the clergy.
fate of an impostor and false prophet? The words are these:
Pardon the warmth of expression ; his not "Hard is the lot of the ministers of the saying a word to the Charge, owns all this. - gospel, if, when they cite the Word of God in My lords, it is true (as the Doctor has said)
their general exhortations to piety and virtue ; | the Sacred Order, the Church and Christianity or in reproof of men's trangressions, or where are concerned in this cause ; but it is, that they are lamenting the difficulties and conflicts they may be cleared from the reproach brought with wbich the Church of Christ, whilst mili- | upon them by this unhappy man. tant bere on eartb, must always struggle; the "But if he be self-condemned, if le dare not