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nominated, because employed in presenting (from 1737 to present) the liquids for the service of God. The Scripture furnisbes no sufficient data for determining its capacity.

MIND was exactly double the size of a 107, or 2) gallons. According to Dr. Bernard,'—"Urna Romana, sive sesquimodius Romanus: i. e. 24 sextarii Romani."

na rendered Ball; but also petentnS: 2 Chron. iv. 5.: and xepapesos: Is. v. 10. It was the tenth part of the Omer in liquids, as the Ephah was in dry things : Ezek. xlv. 11. In John ii. 6. PLETPytas should be translated, not by the modern word “firJetpatas kins,” but by measures or baths. So large a quantity (about

2 40 gallons) was probably designed not only to supply the new married couple with wine during the seven days of their nuptial feast (Jud. xiv. 12. with Gen. xxix. 27, 28. Tobit xi. 19.) and to provide for their future occasion; but also to prove most specially the reality of the miracle. 3

an the same as the 73, xopos, was the largest of these measures : Ezek. xlv. 14.

Sect. 2. Dry; or, according to Corn-measure. So is represented by Mr. Horne + as the smallest: but whence has he taken it-for it has not been noticed by Godwyn, Stocke, Buxtorf, Lamy, Calmet, or Parkhurst?

The ap is explained by Josephus, by Gertny, the Roman Sextarius :a little more than our pint. It does not appear in sacred history, till the reign of Jehoram, king of Israel ; 2 Kings vi. 25.

nay, being the 10th part of an ephah, and equal to about six pints English, is said to have been thus applied from its primary meaning to press, as being the most contracted of these measures : Exod. xvi. 36.

Xovič, a Grecian measure for corn: Rev. vi. 6.: by some reckoned equal to about a pint and a half English. It should be read a Chønix, 5 instead of our indefinite and unmeaning translation, "a measure.

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1 In his elaborate “ Mensuræ Concav. Antiq." appended to Dr. Pococke's Comment, on Hosea.

2 Dr. Campbell's Four Gospels translated, &c.; see particularly Vol. iii. pp. 295, 296. Edinburgh ed. 1821.

3. Dr. Pearce's Miracles of Jesus vindicated, &c.; Part iii., cited in Parkhurst's Greek Lex. p. 432.

4 Introduction to the H. Script. &c. Vol. iii. p. 60.

S. Part I. of a most judicious Prelim. Dissert., No. viii. of Dr. Campbell, Vol. i. pp. 316-328.

TND literally denotes a measure; and therefore with propriety applied to a specific purpose. In the reduplicate form : Is. xxvii. 8: TNDND, it signifies a repeated or exact measuring.

which may be literally called ,איפה or, more frequently אפה

the baking measure; for this quantity was usually baked at one time; as well as the radical intimation of the word. The Septuagint have often translated it by Ilempa, a baking. Equal to 7) gallons; or near an English bushel.

705 containing half an Omer or Cor. So several of the Hexaplar versions Huixopov, and Vulg. dimidio coro: Hos. iii. 2. Sixteen pecks, or four bushels, or two strikes.

720 derives its appellation, according to Godwyn,2 from 101 an ass, because it contained the quantity of grain which an ass could conveniently bear. But, says Park hurst, “the largest measure; in which many things were often jumbled (from 701 to disturb) together.” It held to the amount of 32 pecks and upwards, or about 1 quarter:3—and consequently equal to eight cubic feet of water.

CHAP, JII. WEIGHTS. As the ancient Hebrews were chiefly an agricultural 4 people, they were not much addicted to commercial pursuits-and consequently a primitive simplicity would characterise their weights and all their mercantile transactions. Indeed, all their weights refer to money; and might properly be arranged under our Troy or Jewellers' weight.

Among the Biblical terms usually applied to this subject, the following deserve notice:

Spu to weigh, is the word most generally employed to express this idea : Gen. xxiii. 16. Spn, in Dan. v. 25, 27, is only the Chaldaic form of the same word. 13x, literally a stone, signifies also a weight; which was, as

, frequently with us, of stone : Deut. xxv. 13. and Prov. xvi. 11. are beautiful allusions to the stony weights of the Hebrews.

1 Gusset, &c. quoted by Parkhurst, in his Heb. Lex. p. 34. 2 Moses and Aaron, Civil and Eccles. Rites, &c. p. 262.

3 A Quarter of wheat was so called, on the supposition that it weighed 500lb., or a quarter of a Ton.—A cubic foot of water weighs 1000 ounces; of course 32 cubic feet weigh 2000lb., which were formerly a ton. The bushel, or one eighth of a quarter, is equal to 1000 ounces, or a cubic foot of water.-Joyce's Pract. Arithm. pp. 48, 49.

4 Fleury's Manners of the Ancient Israelites, &c. p. 63. $ The Hebrew weights were not made of metal, lest the rust should

زون

بیون

Obs tò neigh, balance, make even :-and of similar import is the term

MX :-though it does not occur as a verb, yet " in Arabic the cognate verbs and

signify to weigh, balance;" and D'NXO a pair of scales : Lev. xix. 36. Jer. xxxii. 10. Ezek. v. 1.

Ja a particular weight; from its radical signification of distributing or computing by weight, as well as number.

Rev. xvi. 21. seems the only example, in the New Testament, of the occurrence of this term; where tahaytiaid, the weight of a talent, is read by the Syriac 192729, obviously from a talent.

A standard was provided for the Hebrew weights in a variety of ways':--- by the golden candlestick in the sanctuary: Exod. xxv. 31- 39.; and the silver sockets on which rested the vails of the tabernacle: Exod. xxxviii. 27.-besides the particular specifications of Exod. xxx. 13. Lev. xxvii. 25.

The superintendents of weights and measures among the Israelites were much in the Egyptian style, the priests and Levites. To them the standards were delivered ; and indeed, article by article, to particular persons; that so, if of gold or of silver, they might re-deliver it by weight; besides, the whole tribe of Levi were maintained by the public, in return for their devoting themselves to the sciences, 3 See likewise David's appointment: i Chron. xxiii. 29.

The Weights mentioned in Scripture.

lbs. oz. pen. grs. Σοβολος. Obolus. A Gerah.

12 ypa Huiou. Dimidium, Half Shekel.

5 0 Spu4i8gazmov. Siclus. A Shekel.

10 0 Δρ.Λιτρα.

Libra, A Pound. 1 O оо
Mina. Minah.

2 6 0 0 25/Ταλαντον.

Statera, A Talent. 125 0 0 0

Mva/מנה

72, the smallest weight, seems to be thus denominated as resembling in smallness the dust which a saw makes from wood. Thus the smallest coin among the Greeks was called Dentov,

eat them, and they should become lighter. They were all made of stone :-and hence the Vulg. reading of Prov. xvi. 11.-Lamy's Introduction, &c. p. 254. note.

1 Dr. Castell, referred to in Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon, p. 10.

2 For additional illustration, the reader may consult pages 392–394. of Vol. iii. of Michaelis’ Comment., &c.

3 Michaelis' Comment., &c. Articles Lii. and ccxxvii, in Vols. i. and iii.

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little ; and our ancestors also had their mite. The variations of its weight, by different writers, are from five to twelve ounces.

ypa, to separate or cleave asunder, is a shekel broken in two; a half shekel. Gen. xxiv. 22.

Spw the standard weight, to which all others were conformed; as they are in England to our pound, significantly derived from pendo, I weigh. It is generally reckoned at about half an English ounce. The weight of Absalom's hair, mentioned 2 Sam. xiv. 26., was 64 pounds of our Avoirdupois or grocers' weight. A comparison of Exod. xxx. 13. with Ezek. xlv. 9, 12. proves that the common shekel and that of the sanctuary were really the same. The reason of the appellation UTP Spu was because the standard of this, as of all other weights and measures, was kept in the Sanctuary, according to 1 Chron, xxiii. 29; as with us in the Exchequer. ."

0732 usually estimated from Ezek. xlv. 12. at 60 shekels or 2} pounds : but by Josephus and Parkhurst at 100 shekels, the latter directing to compare 1 Kings x. 17. with 2 Chron. ix.

1 16. It is observable, that this word is to be found only in the books of Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, and Ezekiel.

na talent, appears from Exod. xxxviii. 25, 26. to have been equal to 3000 shekels; and consequently about 125 lbs. Dr. Cumberland, however, estimates it at 934 pounds; and Michaelis, at little more than 323 English Avoirdupois.3

Aitga, in John xii. 3. and xix. 39. a pound; and is supposed to have been somewbat less than 12 ounces, as it is well known the Roman libra4 was. This word, says Scapula, is used by the old Greek writers; and by the Sicilians for the obolus, or weight of 12 ounces. January, 1824.

J. W. (Money in our next.)

2

! Thus remarks Parkhurst, who has given a judicious discussion of the subject, in his

Hebrew Lexicon, p. 767. 2 Calmet's Bib. Encyclop. on Mina, Vol. ii. last edition.

3 These distinguished writers are noticed byParkhurst—Hebrew Lexicon, pp. 313, 314.'

4 Dr. Adam's Roman Antiquities-Weights and Coins, p. 490. fifth edition, 1801.

5 Encyclop. Britan., on Medals, No. 45.

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255

Is the Nightingale the Herald of Day, as well as the

Messenger of Spring ?

No. III.-[Concluded from No. LV.)

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Que bien cantan los Ruisenores
Las mananitas con zelos
Y con tristezas las noches.

Principe d'Esquilacle. This is, as Mr. Bowring remarks in a letter addressed to me, “a curious fiction of the Spanish poets, that the Nightingale sings of jealousy in the morning, and of sorrow at night.”

The same enlightened gentleman has referred me to Shakseare's Song in the Passionate Pilgrim, beginniog :

As it fell upon a day,
In the merry month of May,
Sitting in a pleasant shade,
Which a grove of myrtles made,
Beasts did leap, and birds did sing,
Trees did grow, and plants did spring:
Every thing did banish moan,
Save the nightingale alone:
She, poor bird, as all forlorn,
Lean'd her breast up-till a thorn,
And there sung the dolefull'st ditty,
That to hear it was great pity:
Fie, fie, fie, now would she cry,

Teru, Teru, by and by. “This,” says Mr. B., “evidently supposes the nightingale to

" sing in broad day-light.”

Strada's verses have been already referred to; but I must refresh the mind of the reader with an excellent translation of

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them :

“Ed. Br. If your Ladyship will allow me, I will repeat some lines, which I met with the other day in an old neglected Poet, Crashaw. They seemed to me wonderfully beautiful, though somewhat of the quaintest.

“LADY M. But are they to the purpose ?

“Ed. Br. You shall hear. They are taken from a piece called Music's Duel. The contest is between a sweet lute's master' and 'the harmless syren of the woods.'

He lightly skirmishes on every string,

Charged with a flying touch; and streightway she VOL. XXIX. Cl. Jl. NO. LVIII. S

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