« PreviousContinue »
I. For what reasons does it appear probable "from the nature of the case," that the first propagation of Christianity was attended with difficulty and danger?
II. Give "from profane testimony" an account of the sufferings of the first propagators of Christianity.
III. Show "by indirect considerations" that the story we have now is in the main that miraculous story which was delivered by the Apostles.
IV. Mention the reasons for which we are apt insensibly to undervalue the aggregate authority of the written evidences of Christianity.
V. In what centuries did Celsus, Porphyry and Julian live? and what arguments can be brought from their writings for the authenticity of our Scriptures?
VI. What is meant by "Apocryphal Books of the New Testament?" Mention some of them, and state in what their authority falls short of that of the books composing our sacred Canon.
VII. In appreciating the credit of a miraculous story, what "considerations relating to the evidence" may be left out of the
VIII. What are the instances with which the Miracles of the New Testament have been confronted; and what objections may be taken to them?
IX. Mention some of the facts related in the New Testament, which by their conformity with independent accounts establish its genuineness.
X. Show that the success of Mahometanism affords no argument against the truth of Christianity.
ORATIO PRO MILONE.
I. Mention according to the order of their position the provinces into which Italy was divided, and the period at which each was brought under the power of Rome. Describe the situation of Lanuvium, Aricia, and Interamna.
II. Give a narrative of the circumstances which attended the deaths of Sp. Mælius, Saturninus, and Drusus.
III. "Duodecim tabulæ." What disorders in the Commonwealth caused the framing of these laws? State the purport of any of those fragments which have been preserved. What measures were adopted, at other times, to remove the causes of contention between the different orders of the people?
IV. In what respects were the usual forms of trial abandoned in the case of Milo? Independently of this Oration, has any infor
mation been left which may guide us in forming an opinion of his criminality? Give an account of his subsequent fortune.
V. Mention the orators who preceded Cicero at Rome, or were his contemporaries, and the peculiarities by which, in his opinion, the eloquence of each was distinguished.
VI. Give the statement, made by Cicero, of the course which he pursued for perfecting himself in the art of oratory.
VII. Mention the public offices which were held by Cicero, and the dates of his appointment to them. What circumstances caused him to undertake the government of Cilicia? Give an account of his proceedings in that province.
VIII. "Cn. Pompeii justissimi viri." State some instances in the conduct of Pompey towards Cicero by which the propriety of the epithet here applied to him may be estimated.
IX. At what times were the different Comitia instituted? Explain the formation of them, and the purposes, peculiar to each, for which they were assembled
X. Give an historical explanation of the following passages: "In qua tandem urbe hoc homines stultissimi disputant? Nempe in ea, quæ primum judicium de capite vidit M. Horatii, fortissimi viri: qui, nondum libera civitate, tamen populi Romani comitiis liberatus est."
"Doctissimi homines memoriæ prodiderunt, eum qui patris ulciscendi causa matrem necavisset, variatis hominum sententiis, non solum divina, sed etiam sapientissimæ deæ sententia liberatum."
"Quæ ego vidi Athenis? quæ aliis in urbibus Græciæ ? quas res divinas talibus institutas viris? quos cantus? quæ carmina? prope ad immortalitatis et religionem et memoriam consecrantur."
XENOPHON. ANABASIS, I. II.
I. By whom, and when, was the office of Satraps instituted? What was the nature of the office? and how many were there of them?
II. Draw an outline of a Map extending from the Ægean, and marking the relative positions of the principal places mentioned by Xenophon in his first two books.
III. By what other name was Lydia called? What different families successively reigned in it? Enumerate in order the kings of the last family; and mention, with dates, the events by which that family acquired the throne, and by which their empire was terminated.
IV. Give the English values of the δαρεικός, οβολός, σίγλος, καπίθη, χοίνιξ, παρασάγγης, στάδιον, πλέθρον, ὀργυιά.
V. Explain the following phrases: θέσθαι τὰ ὅπλα—ἔφερε καὶ ἦγεν—ἀμφὶ ἀγορὰν πλήθουσαν—εὐνοϊκῶς ἔχειν—ἐτάχθησαν ἐπὶ τεττάρων.
VI. Translate and explain ἐμβάλλει εἰς τὸν Μαίανδρον. Also, ὅπως μὴ ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ. What other senses has ἐπὶ with a dative case?
VII. Distinguish accurately the ὁπλῖται, ψιλοὶ, and πελτασταί. What Grecian nations excelled in different kinds of military force? and which of them are mentioned in these two Books with their characteristic excellence?
VIII. What were the dialects of the Greek language? In which did Xenophon write? Mention some particulars in which his style differs from other stages of the same dialect.
ΙΧ. Ξέρξης ἡττηθεὶς τῇ μάχῃ. What battle was this? Give its date in years B.C. and Olympiads. Do the same with the battle of Issus, and describe its geographical situation.
X. Explain the following assertion of Tissaphernes : ἐγὼ γείτων οἰκῶ τῇ Ἑλλάδι.
XI. Translate the following:
1. Καὶ τοῖς στρατιώταις ὠφείλετο μισθὸς πλέον ἢ τριῶν μηνῶν· καὶ πολλάκις ιόντες ἐπὶ τὰς θύρας ἀπῄτουν. Ὁ δὲ ἐλπίδας λέγων διῆγε καὶ δῆλος ἦν ἀνιώμενος· οὐ γὰρ ἦν πρὸς τοῦ Κύρου τρόπου ἔχοντα μὴ ἀποδιδόναι.
2. Ἐν τούτῳ δὲ τῷ τόπῳ ἦν μὲν ἡ γῆ πεδίον, ἅπαν ὁμαλὸν ὥσπερ θάλαττα, ἀψινθίου δὲ πλῆρες· εἰ δέ τι καὶ ἄλλο ἐνῆν ὕλης ή καλάμου, ἅπαντα ἦν εὐώδη, ὥσπερ ἀρώματα δένδρον δ' οὐδὲν ἐνῆν. Θηρία δὲ, πλεῖστοι μὲν οἱ ἄγριοι ὄνοι, οὐκ ὀλίγαι δὲ στρουθοὶ αἱ μεγάλαι ἐνῆσαν δὲ καὶ ὠτίδες καὶ δορκάδες· ταῦτα δὲ τὰ θηρία οἱ ἱππεῖς ἐδίωκον ἐνίοτε. Καὶ οἱ μὲν ὄνοι, ἐπεί τις διώκοι, προδραμόντες ἀνειστήκεσαν πολὺ γὰρ τοῦ ἵππου θᾶττον ἔτρεχον· καὶ πάλιν ἐπεὶ πλησιάζοι ὁ ἵππος, ταὐτὰ ἐποίουν· ὥστε οὐκ ἦν λαβεῖν, εἰ μὴ διαστάντες οἱ ἱππεῖς θηρῷεν διαδε χόμενοι τοῖς ἵπποις.
No. 11.—[Continued from No. LI.]
I HAVE already troubled you with some observations relative to artificial memory: but I am so confident of its utility in a great variety of respects, that I am unwilling to drop the subject, and cherish the hope that I shall be able, from time to time, to bring under your notice fresh results of this study.
In No. 51. of your Journal I made some remarks which
were intended to be general. I stated, however, two or three particular illustrations of my design. By them we were enabled to arrive at an easy method of remembering the duration of the Teraλuòs, the date of Apollonius Tyaneus, and the difference of the expressions, pollicem premo, and pollicem verto. I purpose to continue these particular instances, and am confident that many, who now read without benefit, would by a little attention stay the swift flight of knowlege; fix in the mind those fluttering facts which wander there in confusion; and, by giving them a local habitation, enable themselves to say of them in the words of Ulysses:
Οἶδ', οὐ γὰρ ἄκρας καρδίας ἔψαυσέ μου.
After premising that no order is to be expected in the position of the following facts, I proceed to particularise a fourth memorial association. It was not until a few weeks since that I discovered that I had from time to time read and forgotten the Glyconic and the Pherecratic measures. I determined to invent some mode by which these metres should not elude my memory hereafter. 4. I fixed the Glyconic by this Glyconic of Horace Urit me Glyceræ nitor.' 5. The Pherecratic by a line of the same writer in this metre: Insignemque pharetra.' And thus by a little exertion I succeeded in imprinting on my mind two points of knowlege, which no care or attention had hitherto been able to secure.
6. In Valpy's Grammar, p. 12, we are told, that 'a contraction of two syllables into one, without a change of letters, is called Synæresis:' and that, if there is a change of vowels, it is called Crasis.' How shall we remember this? For the difference does not seem suggested by the derivation of the words. In Synæresis, a and e are contracted into one vowel, the word remaining the same. This is a sufficient distinction.
7. The penultima of comparatives in wv, is long in the Attic, short in the Ionic and Doric dialects. Valpy's Grammar, p. 153. Consider a word like xaxxioves at the end of an Iambic line in the dialogue of Euripides.
8. The Choriambic foot consists of one long, followed by two short, and one long. By an inversion we obtain bicchŏriamb. Though, it must be confessed, this may be better known from the choreus, and the iamb. Some grammars, we have observed, state the choriamb, but omit the choreus, which is synonymous with the trochee.
19. The Ionic a majore we obtain from the word mājōrĭbus. The Ionic a minore is --, the reverse of the former.
10. The Proceleusmatic I remember by repeating its two first syllables, which are Latin words: procě procě.
11. The Dochmiac by prefixing its two last syllables: miacdōchmiac.
12. The first of the Pæonic feet is. Paonia, a district of Macedonia, is so marked. The second places the long syllable in the second place: and so the third, and the fourth, in the corresponding places. The measure of the Epitrite feet is precisely the reverse of this. Thus, the third Pæon is : the third Epitrite is -~-.
13. 'Eruvavтo is an instance of the Antispastic. The termination avro, the same number of syllables in these words, and the past tense of the Greek word, cannot fail to bring this to the memory.-Tervo is an instance of the Amphibrachys: but the derivation of the word, meaning a short syllable on either side, takes away the necessity of any artificial association. The Amphimacer is easily remembered for the same reason. It had been well for science, had all words been formed thus conveniently for the purposes of the memory.
14. The Bacchic is . Now Iacchus and Bacchus are used for the same person. The term lacchic will fix in the mind the measure of this foot.
15. The Pyrrhic may be remembered by the word πuρi,
16. The Molossus is marked like the united words μos and σᾶς: μολοσσος.
17. "Latius patet oμóvλos quam óμólvos," says Schweighauser ad Polyb. 1. 10. The former is more full than the latter. 18. In distinguishing the accentuation of words in TÍXTW, TρÉQW, &c. Dr. Valpy (Gr. Gr. p. 168.) writes: Aaorpódos, he who λαοτρόφος, feeds the people: ... λaóτpo¢os, he who is fed by the people.' Who can forget this part of an hexameter: λα | στροφος | he who is fed by the people.
19. Of the two Plinys the elder was the naturalist. often hear of 'natu maximus,' seldom of 'natu minimus.' 20. Cohors' was larger than 'manipulus.' Think of a mere handful.
21. Cicero reckons three Jupiters. The termination of Jupiter' may establish the fact in the memory.
22. • Attici dicunt τίθημι, τίθης, τίθησι, says Dawes. ̓Αθ ἢ ναι will make this
23. Ζήσοιτε, and μᾶλλον ἂν ἐσοίμην are solecisms. these words and in σoxoxoμès will make this plain.
The o in
24. We readily know, and never mistake the quantity of aditus, obitus; why should we perpetually hesitate in that of coitus and abitus?
25. Teixos is, cursus: Tpoxos, rota. That is cursus, which has the acute.