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in this direction. The only part of the passed the river at a ford above the bridge army which has been hitherto engaged They were attacked by brig. gen. Stew with the enemy, has been the cavalry, art, at the head of the piquets of the 18th and it is impossible for me to say too and 3rd German light dragoons, and driver much in their praise. I mentioned to across the ford. Their colonel, a generai your lordship, in my letter of the 16th, of division, Lefebre, was taken, together the success brig-gen. Stewart had met with about 70 ofhcers and men.-The afwith in defeating a detachment of cavalry fair was well contested. The numbers at Rueda Since that, few days have with which brig gen. Stewart attacked passed without his taking or killing differ- were inferior to the French; it is the ent parties of the French, generally supe-corps of the greatest character in their arrior in force to those which attacked them. my; but the superiority of the British On the march to Sahagun, lord Paget had was, I am told, very conspicuous. . I ininformation of 6 or 700 cavalry being in close, for your lordship's satisfaction, lord that town. He marched on the night of Paget's report of it. the 20th from some villages where he was Benevente, Dec. 29, 1808.-Sir; I have posted in front of the enemy at Majorga, the honour to inform you, that about nine with the 10th and 15th hussars. The 10ih o'clock this morning I received a report marched straight to the town, whilst lord that the enemy's cavalry was in the act Paget, with the 15th, endeavoured to turn of crossing the river at the ford near the it. Unfortunately, he fell in with a pa- bridge. I immediately sent down the pitrole, one of whom escaped, and gave the quets of the night, under lieut. col. Otway alarm. By this means the French had of the 18th. Having left orders that the time to forin on the outside of the town, cavalry should repair to their alarm posts, before lord Paget got round. He imme. I went forward to reconnoitre, and found diately charged them, beat them, and four squadrons of imperial guards formed took from 140 to 150 prisoners, amongst and skirmishing with the piquets and other whom were two lieutenant-colonels and cavalry in the act of passing. I sent for 11 officers, with the loss, on our part, | the both hussars, who having arrived, brig. of 6 or eight men, and perhaps 20 wound-gen. Stewart im nediately placed himself ed.--There have been taken by the ca. at the head of the piquets, and, with the valry from 4 to 500 French, besides a utmost gallantry, attacked. The loch considerable number killed; this since hussars supporied in the most perfect orwe begun our march from Salamanca. der. The result of the affair, as far as I On his march from Sahagun, on the 20th, have yet been able to collect, is about 30 lord Paget, with two squadrons of the 10th, killed, 25 wounded, 70 prisoners, and attacked a detachment of cavalry at Ma- | about the same number of horses. It is jorga, killed twenty, and took above 100 impossible for me to avoid speaking in the prisoners. Our cavalry is very superior highest terms of ail those en caged. Lieut. in quality to any the French have ; and col. Otway and major Bagwell headed the the right spirit has been infused into them respective night piquets. The latter is by the example and instruction of their slightly wounded. The utmost zeal was two leaders, lord Paget and briy-general conspicuous in the whole of my staff; Stewart.

and I had many volunteers from headAstorga, Dec. 31, 1805.- I arrived here, quarters, and other officers of your army, yesterday ; major gen Fraser, with his di- Amongst the prisoners is the general of vision, will be at : Villa Fran a this day, division Lefebre, (who commands the cat and will proceed on to Lugo. Lieut. gen. v Iry of he imperial guard,) and two capi Hope with his division, stopped yesterday tains, Our loss is, I fear, nearly 50 men twn leagues from this, and proceeds his kill:d and wounded. I will send a return morning, followed by sir David Baird the moment I can collect the reports The two flank brigades go hy the road of I have the honour to be, &c. PACETY Penfereda. I shall follow with the reserve and cavalry, to Villa Fr inca, either I have fırwarded the prisoners to Bar this night or to-morrow morn ng, accord niza. On the other side of the river the ing as I hear the approach of the French enim v form. d again, and at this instant The morning I inarche'l from Benevente, three guns of Captain Donoran's troop ar seven squadrons of Buonaparte's guards | rived, which did considerable executiolle LONDON : Printed' by T. C. Hansari), Peterbo ough Court, Fleet Street; Published by

R. Bagshaw, Brydges-Sireet, ('oven - jarde: Solid a'sı oy J. Budd, Pall Mall.

jieut. gen.

Vol. XV. No. 3.)


[Price jod.

* I trust, however, that no such villains as these will btain influence with our ministers, and prevail upon " them to be suspicious and tardy, in their operations for the assistance of the Spanish patriots. This is “the unla fair opportunity, that has offered for checking the progress of Nanoleon. It is the only cause, " to which all the people of Egland have heartily wished success. In all probability, it is the last op"portunity 'hat will off-r, for enabling w: to give a turn to the long-flowing lide of success. And, if we

rezect this opportunity; if we waste the precious hours that are now given us for action, in doubts, " hesitations, and delays, we, or, at least, thise amongst us, who shall be found to have been the cause “ of such conduct, ought to perish; or, which would be better, to linger out a life of misery, loaded with " the curses of all gooul men.”--POLITICAL REGISTER, 2nd July, 1808. Vol. XIV. page, 10. 65]

-[66 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. Napoleon, we should, up to the hour when SPANISH REVOLUTION. -With respect Sir John Moore's dispatches, or, rather, a to Spain, the interesting question now ap- few parts of those dispatches, were pubpears to be, not what will be the conduct lished, have been in the contident hope of of the people of that country; not what a successful issue to the campaign. Now, will be the result of the war; not whether indeed, the truth is pretty well known, in Joseph or Ferdinand will be king; not spite of the ga, bling of the General's diswhether despotism, in one shape or theother, patches. There is nobody, who, at best, will be re-established, or long-lost freedom expects any thing betier in the escape, be restored. Neither of these is now the of our men, with the loss of stores, ammuinteresting question, with regard to Spain. nition, waggons, cannon, and horses; and, The interesting questions are: Ist, what 1, for my part, shall think that we are very is the fate, that will probably attend our "lucky, if we avoid a capitulatici, far, very army in that country'; and 2nd, whether far less favourable to us, than the Convenour ministers, and especially the War- tion of Cintra was to the French; a capiSecretary, be not to blame for the injury tulation, negociated, perhaps, by that very and the deep dishonour, arising from a re- Junot, who, together with his army, treat, or rather a flight, before the enemy, ought now to have been prisoners in Engwithout having stricken a single blow, land. It is difficult to say, whether our without having so much as drawn a trig- commander, in Spain, has had it in his ger, offensively, against the armies of Na- power to prevent this danger, and this poleon.—With respect to the first ques probable result; but, I must express my tion, much need not be said, it being next opinion, ihat his marches and counterto impossible, that a knowledge of the marches do appear to me quite unaccounttrent should not, in a few days, have ren- able. “I do think, nay I am nearly sure, dered all discussion unnecessary. I shall, that, if a man like my Lord Cochrane ; therefore, as far as relates to this, confine nay, if Lord Cochrane himself, though not myself to a few remarks upon the delusion, a military officer, had had under his comwhich has been practised, and is still prac-mand an army of 28 thousand men, in tising upon this credulous nation. We Spain, he would have done something with have been led on, by lie after lie, till we them; or, at any rate, wat he would not are upon the eve of having the truth forced have remained, doing nothing, till he was upon us. All that Napoleon said, in his half surrounded by a force, before whom bulletins, was " false;" all were falsehoods he knew he must flee. A dirersion,' that came through that channel ; while, indeed ! What diversion has Sir John on the other hand, we were desired to be. Moore made, in favour of the Spaniards ? lieve, that our army, stated at 45 thousand Where are we to look for the evidences of strong, were upon the point of driving the that diversion ? Our army, without French out of the peninsula. The strength marching to meet the enemy, sees him of the Spanish armies was carried to 150 come into Spain, and take the capital. It thousand. An affected laugh was set up then remains inactive, or, at best, marches at the threats of Buonaparte. In short, about without attacking the en-my; and, just the reverse of the truth has, from first having waited in this situation, till the eneto last, been promulgated amongst us; so my has half surrounded it, runs away. This that, had it not been for the bulletins of is not the sort of diversion that Lorú Coch.


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rane has been making. Nothing,” says , tain more than half a million of men, allowLord Collingwood, can exceed the acti- ing for each man double what he receives “ vity and zeal, with which his Lordship in subsistence. The next fact is, that the

pursues the enemy. The success which regular infantry, at home, in the month of " attends his enterprizes clearly indicates July last, amcunted to not less than a hun“ with what skill and ability they are con dred thousand, and the regular cavalry to “ ducted; besides keeping the coast in not less than tæventy-five thousand men. " constant alarm, causing a total suspen- Now, then, let us bear in mind, that it was "sion of the trade, and harassing a body early in July, that the king, in his speech " of troops employed in opposing him, he to the parliament, promised us that he

has, probably, prevented those troops, would give assistance to the Spaniards, “ which were intended for Figueras, from having before solemnly made the same pro“ atvancing into Spain, by giving them mise to the Deputies from Spain; that, at “ employment in the defence of their own chis time, or soon after, Napoleon's decree, « coasts.” Flere we have evidences of a relating to the new constitution of Spain, real diversion. Such is the effect of com was received in England; that, in the mand, when in the hands of a man of skill middle of the same month Joseph Buonaand indefatigable attention to his business, parté set out on his way to Madrid ; that, and, besides, of undaunted bravery. One early in August, Joseph Buonaparte was frigate; only one frigate and about 300 driven from Madrid ; that, it was not till men, under the command of such a per- after this, that Buonaparté, who was then at son, is worth an army, 'aye, and a fleet Paris, set out to the North of Europe; and into the bargain, committed to the hands that, it was not until about the 1st of Novemof loungers, milk-sops, or, what is full as ber, that any part of the French army enterbad, boozing companions. I do not know, ed Spain, except that part, which had been that Sir John Moore answers to either of either beaten or put to flight, or besieged, these descriptions; but, it does appear to by the Spaniards, and that the whole of me, that, if he had possessed any great de- the coast of Spain and Portugal was at our gree energy, he would not have been in absolute command.--Along with the the situation, described in his last dis- intelligence, that Joseph had been driven patches. A commander should be equals from Madrid, we received the intelligence, ly distinguished for his enterprize and his that Napoleon had taken measures for prudence ; may possess one and not the drawing an immense army from Germany, other; but, in the conduct of Sir John and other parts, in order to send it to Moore, I, for my part, can discover no sa. Spain; so that, so early as the second week tisfactory evidence of either. He knew in August, we had to prepare for meeting that the French armies were in Spain; it the French in Spain. I have before shown, is not to be believed, that he was ignorant that we had the means of meeting them ; either of their strength or their distribu. and, now, every man in England has a tion; and, therefore, if he found himself right to ask, to demand, to insist upon too weak for attack, or resistance, he knowing, why those means were not duly should have retreated in tine, from doing and effectually employed; why this imwhich there was nothing to prevent him. mense army has been raised, and is kept There may be some circumstances, of up,

this occasion, it was not prowhich we yet are ignorant, and which, per to make use of it; what this army

is when explained, may fully justify this for, if not for the purpose of meeting, and commander; but, with my present in- fighting with, that enemy, who seems formation, this is


view of the matter.- to have sworn our destruction. It is As to the 2nd question; whether our minis now stated, as correct, that we have about ters, and especially the War-Secretary, be 28 thousand men in Spain; 25 thousand not to blame for the injury and the deep dis- foot and 3 thousand horse. Where are honour, arising from a retreat, or, rather, a the other 70 or 80 thousand foot and 22 flight, before the enemy, without having thousand horse? Why are they not in stricken a single blow, without having so Spain too? An army of about 60 thoumuch as drawn a trigger, offensively, sand men, one fifth horse, is as great as is against the armies of Napoleon ; as to this necessary for almost any enterprize; it is question, the first thing to be noticed; the as great as can be well brought into one first fact to be stated, is, that our arıný, ex- engagement in any part of the world. clusive of the expence of transports to car- But, it appears to me, that there was nothing Ty it about, costs us 23,000,000 of pounds that ought to have prevented the ministers sterling a year, money enough to main from having an army of 70 thousand foot


if, upon

and 15 thousand horse at, and in the “ Spanish people.” This has not, that I neighbourhood of Madrid, early in the have heard of, been, as yet, openly assertmonth of October last, weeks before the ed ; and, whenever it is asserted, there French army set foot in Spain. Having ought to be no dispute about the lac! ; but, collected a great force at the capital of the we shall have a right, a fuli and kingdom ; having made all due prepara- right, to ask, how they came to be deceired tions as to supplies of every kind; having with respect to either of these most input arms into the hands of the Spani- portant points. So early as the month of ards and amply furnished them with ne- July the Spaniards båd Deputies here, and cessaries for the field, we should, supposing we had Deputies, or Agen's, in Spain, the people to have been on our side, have whose expences will not fail to make a rebeen ready to meet the French, not only spectable figure in the next account of the with a fair chance, but with almost a cer distribution of the public money. Since tainty of victory; if, indeed, they had about the middle of October, still weeks dared to approach, which, it is more than before the arrival of the French army in probable, would not have been the case. Spain, and still time enough for us to send -But, " it was thought unwise to leave out troops, we have had Mr. John Hook* 2 French army in our rear in Portugal.Ham Frere in Spain. Could not he si nd Well, even supposing it to have been wise correct information, respecting the force to clear Portugal first; Portugal was ac- of the Spaniards and the disposition of the tually cleared early in Septeinber; and, people of Spain? Besides, in answer io all at most, it required but 30 thousand men pretences and excuses of this sort, we to do that Nay, after the Convention of have a right to say to the ministers, “you Cintra; after all the blundering and con charge us, and you make us pay, from 50 fusion arising from the ever-famous trio of " to 100 thousand pounds a year for secret commanders; even after all that, there " services abroad, and as much for secret was plenty of time to send a complete “ services at home; and, though we have army into Spain, to face Buonaparte on “ not had the soul to ask you what you

do his way to Madrid, without reckoning “ with either, and for what purposes, what upon the assistance of a single Spanish purposes indeed, you can want the latsoldier. But, as was foreboded in the

" ter; yet, surely, you cannot, with the Words of my motto, “ the precious lours charge of 50 or 100 thousand a year in " were wasted in suspicions and delays;” “ your hand, for secret services abroad, in hesitations and bickerings, in the con " have the impudence to plead want of dicts of hostile interests and hostile ca correct information, as to the strength of prices. It will be pretended, perhaps," the Spanish troops and the disposition that the Juntas, in Spain, did not, at first,“ of the people of Spain?"-There is, wish for our assistance; that they kept and there can be, no maintainable justifialori, until they saw Napoleon approach- cation for the measures, or the inactivity, ing. But, the answer to this is, that an which have led to the known dreadful English ministry, having the interest and situation of our army. We know, that the honour of their country at heart, our government had in its hunds, two would have well weighed the question, months before Napoleon set foot in

not then too late to Spain, an army quite sufficient to meet do any thing effectual; whether it was him there; to meet him in a country, not, then, too late to send ap army whence, by the people of that councapable of meeting that of the French; try, his brother and his troops had and, if they found that to be the case, been driven in disgrace; we know, that they would have sent no troops at all. The they had the means of sending this our fact is, however, that, when the applica- army to Spain, and even to the passes of i he tion was made, it was not too late ; for, it Pyrenees, long before he, with his army, was not too late even when our army was could possibly arrive at that point ; and, ordered to march from Portugal into we know, that they have so managed matSpain, which orders must have gone froin ters, that there is only about 28 iho is ind Whitehall early in the month of Septem- English troops in Srain to make head ber

, full two months before the French against a French army of, at :he very least, re-entered the Spanish dominions; so 100 thousand men. These faits are unthat

, there is not the smallest excuse, as to deniable. If we are told of dificulties in trant of time. But, “our ministers the transporting of so large an arris, we

Were deceived as to the amount of the ask, what you do, then, with the 23 mil" Spanish force, and the disposition of the lions of pounds sterling a year? What is

whether it was


the use of this immense army, if you can- | thing else, is proved by their utility ; by not, at two months notice, send it to a the good effects which they produce. spot at the distance of ten day's sail : There is a man, taking the name of a For what reason ; from what motive, do you “ Patriot Loyalist,” who is about to keep this army on foot, and make us pay publish, “ THOUGHTS ON LIBELS ; so dearly for it? For what reason do you and an Impartial INQUIRY into the strip the country of its most able labourers, « PRESENT STATE OF THE BRITISH leaving to cultivate the land few but the “ ARMY: which will contain Consideraaged, the children, the halt and the lame? tions on the Difficulty of convicting notoFor what reuson ; tell us for what reason s rious Defamatory Writers; and on the you do this, if you are unable to bring to - Effects which arise froin delay in making the striking-place men sufficient to cope them the Subjects of a Prosecution; also, with the enemy? Is it “ to defend this “ a Convincing Explanation of the flouristcountry?” Why, those against whom you ing and improved State of the Military would defend it, are now in Spain. Be • Establishment of England, under the sides, has not the pretence for keeping on « actual Commander in Chief; and Refoot this terribly large army, always been, « flections on the Dunger with which the that you wanted a disposable force; a force Constitution is threatened by systematic to send abroad; and, if you now plead printed Attacks, upon the public and difficulties in sending that force abroad, « Private Characters of Princes, and the what becomes of this pretence ?

-As to

High Officers of the Executive Governthe ground that may be taken by a set of “ ment.--Inscribed (without permission) persons, wrangling for place, it is a mat " to his ROYAL HIGHNESS, FREDE. ter of indifference to me, and to every RICK, DUKE OF YORK AND ALman who wishes well to his country. The “ BANY, and published by T. Egerrox, ground that we have to take, the ground “ at the Military Library, Whitehall."that the nation has to take, is described in Why, you ass; you thick-brained sot ; a very few words: either the ministers you stupidest of all mortals ; why did you were duly informed of the internal state fix upon this moment, of all others, to of Spain, or they were not. If they were write upon such a subject ? Generals and not, they have, in that way, shown their armies, who gain victories, need no pamwant of zeal or of capacity for great af- phlets written in their praise ; and those fairs; and, if they were, they have know who gain none will be praised in vain. ingly sent an army of 28 thousand men, « Libels” indeed ! " Prosecutions,” you to sneak away at the approach of the ene- empty-headed, malignant wretch!“ Difmy, to be captured, or to be cut to pieces; "ficulties of convicting !" Oh, it is truly to be placed in a situation, leaving it decent, at such a time, and under such a no choice but that of death or dishonour. dedication, to address the public! Fool;

-To the individuals, and to the army, convict us Buonaparté, fool! Prosecute, as a body, we, indeed, cannot well attach arraign, and convict him. That is the any dishonour ; but, that is not the man we want to see put down. point. The point is, what the world will “ libels ;" his speeches and bulletins. say of the conduct of this nation, during Attack kim; face him with your “thoughts this struggle respecting Spain. That is on libels. When you have done this, then the point; and, the judgment of the come and tell us your thoughts, and, perworld must be, that the cause, in which we haps, we may bear you; but, at present, engaged was (if Napoleon finally succeed) we think it something a little suspicious lost ; and that we were beaten and dis- when we see the eulogist of military chagraced. And, have not the people of this racter appeal to the law of Libel for proofs kingdom; the people who pay 23 millions of the truth of his assertions.of pounds sterling for the support of an lect, that the SUPREME JUNTA of Spain army, and who are yearly called upon began their labours by an edict for limitfor fresh sacrifices; have not this suffering ing the press. They have, at present, people a right to demand a knowledge of I presume, but little leisure for « Thoughts the cause of this great injury and disgrace? on libels,” and for the removing of the What, to us; what, to this nation, are all “ difficulties of producing conviction of the boasts about the " flourishing and im " writers.” Recollect that, beast ; and “proved state of our military establish- keep your thoughts” to yourself " ment?” What are these, to us, if the For my part, I wonder, that no one has army produce no effect upon the enemy? yet hit upon the scheme of trying the The excellence of armies, like that of every force of the law upon Buonapartě. He is

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