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cum hoc fieri bellissime posset: 'fundus Sabinus meus est': 'immo meus,' deinde iudicium: noluerunt. fundus, inquit, qui est in agro, qui Sabinus vocatur. satis verbose : cedo, quid postea ? eum ego ex iure Quiritium meum esse aio. quid tum ? inde ibi ego te ex iure manum consertum voco. quid huic tam loquaciter litigioso responderet ille, unde petebatur, non habebat. transit idem iure consultus, tibicinis Latini modo : unde tu me,

xii. 26. Cicero gives an instance XX. 10 SS 6-te, that the solemn of legal formalities, a lis vindicia- joining of hands and claiming of a rum, or actio rei vindicandae. It

disputed property was of old perwas one of those conducted with a formed on the property in the prelegal wager or stake (actio sacra- sence of the praetor; for the XII menti). The defendant staked a tables said si qui in iure manum sum of money on the justice of his conserunt. As the empire of Rome refusal to give up the property grew in Italy and the praetors were (sponsio), the plaintiff accepting the more arıd more busied with their wager to prove the justice of his juridical functions, they found it too claim (restipulatio).

Either party

much of a burden to go far and gave security to the praetor for the near, settling questions of property money, and the loser forfeited the

on the spot; hence by tacit consent fixed sum to the State. Gaius, IV. the custom was changed; the par13. These actiones were intended to ties, instead of joining hands in iure supplement the defective old law. (i.e. before the praetor), went on

bellissime conversational, like challenge to the property in quesEng. 'nicely.' “Though it might tion ex iure (i.e. from the presence have been done very nicely thus, of the praetor), joined hands there,

“the Sabine estate belongs to me. and brought back some piece or No, to me,” and then the trial other into court, e.g. a clod, to and decision; they would not have which they laid claim as representit so,' i.e. the iuris consulti.

ing the property. See Appendix E. inquit] 'says the jurist.'

loquaciter] with adj. cf. de Off. ex iure Quiritium] so Gaius Iv. III. $ 112, acerbe severus, Tusc. D. v. 16. in accordance with the legal § 6, impie ingratus. rights of a Roman citizen.' Op- unde] sc. a quo fundus petebatır. posed to in bonis esse. cf. Gaius the defendant knew not how to II. 40, 41,

. . ut alius possit esse ex answer such a chattering pettifogger,' iure Quiritium dominus, alius in the bombastic forms are too much bonis habere. nam si tibi rem mån- for him. cipi neque mancipavero neque in iure transit] changes sides and prompts cessero, sed tantum tradidero, in bonis the defendant, as a flute-player acquidem tuis ea res efficitur, ex iure companies first one singer, then anQuiritium vero mea permanebit, other. Quint. VII. i. 51, has donec tu eam possidendo usucapias. adopted this simile.

inde] 'for that reason I call you Latini] The story in Liv. ix. 30 from the praetor's tribunal to join shews that they were not Roman hands with me on the said estate.' citizens. Thus the haruspices were inde. sc. quia meum esse aio. cf. Etruscans. Ern. unde...inde inf.

unde...... inde.] cf. on inde sup. ex iure] We learn from Gellius,

inquit, ex iure manum consertum voca

casti, inde ibi ego te revoco. praetor interea ne pulchrum se ac beatum putaret atque aliquid ipse sua sponte loqueretur, ei quoque carmen compositum est, cum ceteris rebus absurdum, tum vero in illo : suis utrisque superstitibus praesentibus istam viam dico; ite viam. praesto aderat sapiens ille, qui inire viam doceret. redite viam: eodem duce redibant. haec iam tum apud illos barbatos ridicula, credo, videbantur, homines, cum recte atque in loco constitissent, iuberi abire, ut, unde abissent, eodem statim redirent. isdem ineptiis fucata sunt illa omnia : quando te in iure conspicio, et haec: anne tu dicas, qua ex causa vindicaveris? quae dum

revoco] 'I call in turn.' Of invi- • As I see you here in court, I want tations, pro Rosc. Amer. § 52. to know whether you are responsiHere, “I return your challenge.' ble for the title. This seems to be

pulchrum] Z cf. de Nat. Deor. some part of the formal procedure 1. § 114, deum nihil aliud in omni in a suit concerning a disputed title, aeternitate nisi mihi pulchre est' and is quoted again in pro Caecina et 'ego beatus sum' cogitantem. 'For $ 54, actio est in auctorem praesentem fear that, while all this was going his verbis; quandoque te in iure conon, the praetor might fancy himself spicio. a fine lucky fellow, and bring out anne tu dicas] Gaius, iv. 16, has some remark on his own account, a postulo, anne......, but the text there set form of words was made up for is corrupt, and Z., with great plausihim also.'

bility, maintains that the MSS. superstitibus] = testibus praesentia postul has been wrongly completed. bus. cf. Festus, p. 305 M. Hence anne dicas he makes = numquid aliud perhaps, as H. remarks, praesentibus an dicturus es; but I am not sure here is a gloss. If not, it must, that I understand this. It is a part as Z. says, be used of time and of the proceeding in a case of vinsuperstitibus of place. Either party dicatio, as above.

The clod was having their witnesses here now brought into court, and was claimed present.' utrisque is the dative. by either party in turn, as above,

istam] sc. to the property. They adding sicut dixi, ecce tibi, vindictam did not really go, but moved off a imposui. This was a festuca or

wand, symbolizing the hasta barbatos] cf. pro Sestio s 19, spear, the Roman sign of ownership. unum aliquem ex barbatis illis, exem- Then the praetor told both to let plum imperii veteris, imaginem an- the thing go (mittite ambo). The tiquitatis. The custom of shaving first claimant then asked the defendwas introduced into Italy B. C. ant (as here), why he had laid claim 300. See Prof. Mayor's note on to the thing; the latter answered Juven. XVI. 31, dignum barba dig- ius peregi, sicut vindictam imposui. numque capillis maiorum.

A went on quando tu iniuria vindiin loco] so Tac. Ann. II. 4. loco cavisti (since your claim is a wrong. is also used thus.

ful one), D aeris sacramento e proquando te in iure conspicio] It voco (or L aeris etc.), and B rejoined went on postulo anne fuas auctor. similiter ego te. The proceedings

few steps.


erant occulta, necessario ab eis, qui ea tenebant, petebantur ; postea vero pervulgata atque in manibus iactata et excussa

inanissima prudentiae reperta sunt, fraudis autem et stultitiae 27 plenissima. nam cum permulta praeclare legibus essent con

stituta, ea iure consultorum ingeniis pleraque corrupta et depravata sunt. mulieres omnes propter infirmitatem consilii maiores in tutorum potestate esse voluerunt: hi invenerunt genera tutorum, quae potestate mulierum continerentur. sacra interire illi noluerunt: horum ingenio senes ad coemptiones faciendas interimendorum sacrorum causa reperti sunt. in omni denique iure civili aequitatem reliquerunt, verba ipsa then took the form of a personal this: the woman got her tutor's conaction, founded on the alleged neg. sent to her making a coemptio fidulect of an obligation, and it was regu- ciac causa; then the caemptionator larly tried by a iudex or arbiter. made her over again to some person This was in iudicio, as opposed to of her own choice. This latter in iure, before the magistrate. See emancipated her, and then she was Lord Mackenzie, Rom. Law, part v. only the ward of the man who had cc. 2, 3; Gaius, iv. 5; and for dis- emancipated her, her tutor fiducia, tinction between civil and criminal cius. Gaius, 1. 114, 115, 166, 195. causes, Mommsen, book IV. c. 10. sacra] sc. privata, often great bur

tenebant] 'knew,' were up in dens on property at Rome, in honour them. cf. tenet § 22. Or perhaps of the tutelary god of a family or were exclusively in possession of gens.

In order to ensure their them.' cf. § 25.

maintenance (perpetua), they went excussa) 'shaken out,'«examined.' with the property. cf. de Legib. II. cf. de Off. III, $ 81; Tusc. Disp.1.988, § 47 foll., Plaut. Capt. 775, sine

fraudis] "chicanery' or 'pitfalls,' sacris hereditatem=an unencumbered as one who pleaded informally causa property. Add Orator § 144. cadebat. cf. on § 9.

coemptiones] The coemptio was a 27. iure coạisultorum] This rare symbolic sham-sale, by which a wo. form is certainly found here.

man passed into the power of some infirmitatem consilii] so Gaius, 1. man either matrimonii causa, i.e. 144, propter animi levitatem. Ulp. in manum mariti sui, or fiduciae XI. I, propter sexus infirmitatem et causa (transacted either with her propter forensium rerium ignoran- husband or some stranger); for intiam. But Gaius, 1. 199, ridicules stance, if a woman inherited an this latter theory, which however estate burdened with sacra, she cum was not uncommon.

sene coemptionem fecit. He then genera tutorum] Sometimes a man, came into her property, sacra ininstead of appointing by will a guar

cluded. Then he at once manu. dian for his wife in event of his own mitted her, and gave back the prodecease, gave her in that case the perty in parcels as dona.

The old right to choose for herself. Such a man being poor (in fact chosen as guardian was called tutor optivus, such), when he died, had no proand would no doubt be chosen as one perty to leave, and the sacra fell whom the woman could manage to through for want of heirs. See lead. But the most common way of Gaius, I. 113, 114. shaking off a disagreeable tutor was aequitatem ......tenuerunt] 'They

tenuerunt, ut, quia in alicuius libris exempli causa id nomen invenerant, putarent, omnes mulieres, quae coemptionem facerent, Gaias vocari. iam illud mihi quidem mirum videri solet, tot homines tam ingeniosos post tot annos etiam nunc statuere non potuisse, utrum diem tertium an perendinum, iudicem an arbitrum, rem an litem dici oporteret. XIII. ita- 28 que, ut dixi, dignitas in ista scientia [consularis) numquam fuit, quae tota ex rebus fictis commenticiisque constaret, gratia vero multo etiam minus. quod enim omnibus patet et aeque promptum est mihi et adversario meo, id esse gratum nullo pacto potest. itaque non modo beneficii collocandi spem, sed etiam illud, quod aliquando fuit, 'licet consulere?' iam perdidistis. sapiens existimari nemo potest in ea prudentia, quae neque extra Romam usquam neque Romae rebus prolatis quidquam valet; peritus ideo nemo haberi potest, quod in eo, quod sciunt omnes, nullo modo possunt inter se discrepare ;

have dropped the spirit and held xiii. 28. [consularis]. H. plausifast to the mere letter.'

bly urges that this is most likely a in alicuius libris] In some treatise gloss, as gratia is directly opposed on the forms of coemptio.

to dignitas, and in § 25 Cicero says ut putarent] I prefer this with Z. primum dignitas in tam tenui scienand the MSS. .so as actually to tia non potest esse. fancy that'. This is of course

promptum] 'ready to hand.' cf. mere banter on Cicero's part, as de Or. I. § 237, prompta defensio, II Gaius, Gaia, Titius, Titia, Seius,

in Verr. IV. § 42. Seia etc. are legal personae ficticiae. aliquando] ‘formerly,' i.e. before Gaia seems to have been generally the days of Flavius. employed in forms of coemptio. licet consulere?] ‘is it allowed to Compare "John Doe' and 'Richard

take your opinion?' a formal address Roe. See Quint. I. vii. 28.

to a jurist in the good old days of iam] ‘now really,' 'upon my their power. So in jest Hor. Sat. word. cf. Phil. II. § 8, iam in- II. 3. 192, ergo consulere et mox video magistro tuo, ib. § 19.

respondere licebit ? consule. non potuisse] Of course these are prudentia] H. cf. Corn. Nep. merely the usual redundancies of Cimon 2 § 1, magnam prudentiam legal caution. tertium according to quum iuris civilis tum rei militaris. Roman calculation would be=pe- rebus prolatis] In times of vacarendinum, arbitrum, either appoint- tion, either (a) the regular iustitium ed by the parties, without inter- edictum, or (6) caused by tumult and ference of a magistrate, or by the insurrection, or (c) generally, on magistrate after the preliminary either account. cf. Plaut. Capt. 78, hearing in iure. cf. on § 26. In 79, ubi res prolatae sunt, quom rus this latter sense he was properly homines eunt, semul prolatae res sunt called iudex. In the xii Tables was nostris dentibus. iudici arbitrove.' CIC. pro L. Mur.


difficilis autem res ideo non putatur, quod et perpaucis et minime obscuris litteris continetur. itaque, si mihi homini vehementer occupato stomachum moveritis, triduo me iure consultum esse profitebor. etenim quae de scripto aguntur, scripta sunt omnia, neque tamen quidquam tam anguste scriptum est, quo ego non possim 'qua de re agitur' addere : quae consuluntur autem, minimo periculo respondentur. si id quod oportet, responderis, idem videare respondisse, quod Servius, sin aliter, etiam controversum ius nosse et tractare

videare. 29 quapropter non solum illa gloria militaris vestris formulis

atque actionibus anteponenda est, verum etiam dicendi consuetudo longe et multum isti vestrae exercitationi ad honorem antecellit. itaque mihi videntur plerique initio multo hoc

§ 91.

difficilis.. ...continetur] M. well to Servius); give a different one, and compares de Orat. I. § 192, omnia you have gone so far as to detect a sunt enim posita ante oculos, collo- disputed point of law and are for cata in usu cotidiano, in congressione trying an issue on it.' hominum atque in foro; neque ita quod Servius] i.e. recte. A severe multis litteris aut voluminibus mag- compliment. nis continentur.

controversum ius] cf. de Orat. I. perpaucis litteris] i.e. libris. He § 242, ius quod ambigitur inter periis here speaking of the ius priva- tissimos, pro Caec. $ 69, ius varium, tum, which at this time consisted Quint. XII. iii. 8. Add de Off. III. only of (a) the xii Tables, (6) a few laws, (c) the edicta praetorum, (d) tractare] to handle, examine. the verbal forms of procedure, such 29. formulis] written forms for as those noticed above. Z. and H. judicial proceedings, beside which

me] He had studied under the in Cicero's time still existed the old great jurist Q. Mucius Scaevola in actiones (or legis actiones), verbal his youth, cf. Brutus § 306, and is processes according to law. The said to have written a treatise de iure latter had been productive of great civili in artem redigendo, Gellius I. hardship and injustice, and were 22. 7.

eventually given up, Gaius IV. II, de scripto] sc. the concepta verba 30. For the formulae cf. pro Rosc. or formulae, Gaius IV. 30.

Com. SS 24, 25. scripta sunt] ‘are to be found in ad honorem] 'in relation to office, the books,' manuals of formulae. for attaining.' So $ 38, ad famam.

anguste] ‘so closely worded.' plerique] A hit at Sulpicius' early

qua de re agitur] A regular phrase devotion to oratory, and his later used in legal forms. cf. Brutus abandonment of it. Cic.

says of $275, Topica $ 95, Gaius IV. 47. him, Brutus § 151, that after his

respondentur etc.] 'and as for a return from Rhodes videtur mihi in legal opinion, you run next to no secunda arte (sc. in iure civili) pririsk in giving it. Give the proper mus esse maluisse quam in prima answer, and it tallies with that of (sc. in eloquentia) secundus cf. my learned friend yonder (bowing Quint. XII. iii. 9.

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