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offensa; lites severe aestimatae; cui placet obliviscitur, cui dolet meminit. postremo tu in provinciam ire noluisti. non possum id in te reprehendere, quod in me ipso et praetore et consule probavi, sed tamen L. Murenae provincia multas bonas gratias cum optima existimatione attulit. habuit proficiscens dilectum 'in Umbria : dedit ei facultatem res publica liberalitatis, qua usus multas sibi tribus, quae municipiis Umbriae conficiuntur, adiunxit : ipse autem in Gallia, ut nostri homines desperatas iam pecunias exigerent, aequitate diligentiaque perfecit. tu interea Romae scilicet amicis praesto fuisti. fateor, sed tamen illud cogita, non nullorum amicorum studia minui solere in eos, a quibus provincias contemni intellegunt.

xxi. et quoniam ostendi, iudices, parem dignitatem ad con- 43 sulatus petitionem, disparem fortunam provincialium negotiorum in Murena atque in Sulpicio fuisse, dicam iam apertius, in quo meus necessarius fuerit inferior Servius, et ea dicam vobis audientibus, amisso iam tempore, quae ipsi soli re integra

ria. reprehensa, called in question by some decision.

i viri fortes] sc. Sullani milites.

pars] 'a considerable part,'as often, cf. Liv. I. 10, Caeninenses Crustuminique et Antemnates erant ad quos eius iniuriae pars pertinebat.

lites, etc.) If you have assessed the amount of the restitution to be made, taking a hard view of the case. [In the times of the empire the amount was fixed at four times the value of what was taken; in quadruplum, Jul. Paull. V. 27.] This seems to have been confined to State cases, and was quite a separate matter from the verdict (iudicium). See in particular pro Cluent. SS 115--116, and Ramsay's note. In Gellius IV. 4. 2, we have a case of breach of promise of marriage, where litem pecunia aestimabat = used to assess the da mages at such-and-such a sum.

cui placet] he who approves of it. Nobody 'gets anything by it.' Z.

meminit] and so the presiding magistrate gradually becomes unpopular.

bonas gratias] A regular combina.

tion, cf. aliquam bonam gratiam, pro imp. Gn. Pomp. $ 71. For the plural=gratias apud multos, cf. $ 24.

liberalitatis] generous help in equipment-money, &c. Z., and I do not see how the word will bear any other interpretation.

conficiuntur] are made up out of borough-towns in Umbria. These municipia are the old Latin colonies, planted as garrisons when Rome was gradually conquering all Italy. By the Julian law of B. C. 9o they received the Roman franchise.

Gallia] Transalpina, in 64 B. C. ipse, he made a chance,' opposed to dedit res publica.

nostri homines] Roman capitalists, publicani, &c.

non nullorum] sc. place.hunters.

xxi. 43. provincialium] “official.' So provincia, San official charge,' § 41 etc.

amisso] 'though the time for applying them is now past and gone.' cf. de prov. Cons. § 17, tempore amisso annus est integer vobis expectandus.

re integra] 'while it was yet time. cf. on est integrum & 8.

saepe dixi. petere consulatum nescire te, Servi, persaepe tibi dixi, et in his rebus ipsis, quas te magno et forti animo et agere et dicere videbam, tibi solitus sum dicere, magis te fortem accusatorem mihi videri quam sapientem candidatum. primum accusandi terrores et minae, quibus tu cotidie uti solebas, sunt fortis viri, sed et populi opinionem a spe adipiscendi avertunt et amicorum studia debilitant. nescio quo pacto semper hoc fit-neque in' uno aut altero animadversum

est, sed iam in pluribus—,simul atque candidatus accusationem 44 meditari visus est, ut honorem desperasse videatur. 'quid

ergo? acceptam iniuriam persequi non placet?' immo vehementer placet, sed aliud tempus est petendi, aliud persequendi. petitorem ego, praesertim consulatus, magna spe, magno animo, magnis copiis et in forum et in campum deduci volo: non placet mihi inquisitio candidati, praenuntia repulsae, non testium potius quam suffragatorum comparatio, non minae magis quam blanditiae, non declamatio potius quam persalutatio, praesertim cum iam hoc novo more omnes fere domos

consulatum] not interpolated. Ci. cero is quoting his own words in private to Sulpicius during his last candidature. There is of course no implied opposition, such as 'though you do know how to stand for the praetorship and quaestorship.' cf. Quint. XI. i. 69.

his rebus ipsis] sc. his denunciations in the Senate, and his preparations for prosecuting a successful rival.

fortis] ‘resolute. Perhaps better fortissimi with MS. Lag. 9.

a spe adipiscendi] i.e. they make people think that he has given up all hope of success.

fit...ut] is the connexion. desperasse] to have given up for lost. For the acc. after despero, cf. de Rep. VI. § 25, in Catil. II. § 19, ad Fam. XII. 14. 3. It is also constructed (a) with acc. and inf., (6) with de and abl., (c) absolutely like 'to be in despair,' (d) with the dat., saluti, etc.

44. magnis copiis] A company of friends of the clients usually escorted

a candidate to the forum, where he canvassed (prensabat), and on the day of election to the Campus Martius, where the voting went on. It was an object to secure as many Senators and equites as possible. The larger a man's company, the more likely he was thought to succeed. cf. auct. petit. cons. SS 16—18.

deducij The regular word for escorting a candidate. cf. § 69 foll.

inquisitio] the hunting up of evidence against a candidate. Here it is of an unofficial proceeding, for the purpose of having the materials ready to hand. Usually of the official search for evidence after the charge has been formally laid and received by the praetor. cf. II in Verr. II. §11.

suffragatorum] cf. on § 16.

declamatio] ‘ranting’against what displeases you.

persalutatio] 'general greeting 'to all you meet. cf. persalutare in pro Flacco $ 42.

praesertim cum] Madv. on de Fin.

omnium concursent et ex vultu candidatorum coniecturam faciant, quantum quisque animi et facultatis habere videatur.

videsne tu illum tristem, demissum ? iacet, diffidit, abiecit 45 hastas.' serpit hic rumor : "scis tu illum accusationem cogitare, inquirere in competitores, testes quaerere? alium faciam, quoniam sibi hic ipse desperat. eius modi de candidato rumore amici intimi debilitantur, studia deponunt, aut desertam rem abiciunt, aut suam operam et gratiam iudicio et accusationi reservant. XXII. accedit eodem, ut etiam ipse candidatus totum animum atque omnem curam, operam diligentiamque suam in petitione non possit ponere ; adiungitur enim accusationis cogitatio, non parva res, sed nimirum omnium maxima. magnum est enim te comparare ea, quibus possis hominem e civitate, praesertim non inopem neque infirmum, exturbare, qui et per se et per suos et vero etiam per alienos defendatur. omnes enim ad pericula propulsanda concurrimus, et qui non aperte inimici sumus, etiam alienissimis in capitis periculis amicissimorum officia et studia praestamus. quare ego expertus et petendi et defendendi et accusandi mo- 46 lestiam sic intellexi : in petendo studium esse acerrimum, in defendendo officium, in accusando laborem. itaque sic statuo : fieri nullo modo posse, ut idem accusationem et petitionem

II. $ 25, explains these particles as=
. idque cum tamen,' quamvis,' 'and
that though. If so here, it must go
very closely with declamatio, which
must = 'stopping at home to prac-
tise a speech against Murena,' as 2.
explains it. cf. Prof. Mayor on Phil.
II. $ 42. But it seems to me that
Cicero was Madvigi securus, and
meant, 'I do not prefer the voice of
sulky indignation to that of general
greeting, particularly as people no.
tice it and feel inclined to vote
against such a candidate.' cf. SS 24,

support.

45. hastas] weapon of offence. “He has given up the contest.' iacet. cf. § 30.

faciam] 'I shall vote for another candidate.' cf. pro Planc. $ 9, facit eos, a quibus est maxime ambitus.

xxii. accedit ut Madv. $ 373, obs. 3.

e civitate exturbare] The lex Tullia inflicted a penalty of ten years exile.

non inopem, etc.] Or he would never have come forward as a can. didate. te and hominem are quite general.

alienissimis] cf. § 8, de Orat. II. $ 200.

46. esse in] belongs to, is required by.

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[consulatus] diligenter adornet atque instruat: unum sustinere pauci possunt, utrumque nemo. tu, cum te de curriculo petitionis deflexisses animumque ad accusandum transtulisses, existimasti te utrique negotio satis facere posse : vehementer errasti. quis enim dies fuit, postea quam in istam accusandi denuntiationem ingressus es, quem tu non totum in ista ratione consumpseris ? XXIII. legem ambitus flagitasti, quae tibi non deerat; erat enim severissime scripta Calpurnia. gestus est mos et voluntati et dignitati tuae. sed tota illa lex accusationem tuam, si haberet nocentem reum, fortasse armasset, petitioni vero refragata est. poena gravior in plebem tua voce 4-7 efflagitata est; commoti animi tenuiorum : exilium in nostrum ordinem ; concessit senatus postulationi tuae, sed non libenter duriorem fortunae communi condicionem te auctore constituit. morbi excusationi poena addita est : voluntas offensa multorum, quibus aut contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est aut incommodo morbi etiam ceteri vitae fructus relinquendi. quid ergo? haec quis tulit? is, qui auctoritati senatus, voluntati tuae paruit, denique is tulit, cui minime proderant. quid ? illa, quae mea summa voluntate senatus frequens repudiavit, mediocriter adversata tibi esse existimas? confusio

adornet] “equip,' prepare.' instruat. "marshal,' array,' organ ize.' cf. pro Cluent. SS 18, 191. The metaphor seems to be a military one. cf. on $ 22.

sustinere] carry out,' 'act.' cf. de Orat. II. S 102, tres personas unus sustineo. This seems to be a stage metaphor.

deflexisses] Here we pass to a race. The change of metaphors here is very rapid, and does not appear to me happy. te is in the MSS., and, though against Cicero's usage, seems defensible. I believe that he is thinking of the circus. 'After turning yourself (like a chariot) out of the course,' i.e. you were like a driver who gives his attention during a race to some thing off his course, and divided attention was fatal to your success as it would be to his.

quis dies] quis adjectival. cf. Madv. 88, obs. 1.

in ista ratione] ‘in carrying out that plan.' cf. 83, I in Verr. $ 34, tua ratio est ut secundum binos ludos mihi respondere incipias, mea ut ante primos ludos comperendinem.

xxiii. erat] there was the Cal. purnian law, with its provisions of the strictest.

Calpurnia] passed in B.C. 67 by G. Calpurnius, consul of the year, at the desire of the Senate. It was severe, and quite superseded all the earlier enactments on the subject. It inflicted a heavy fine on a candidate who (whether successful or not) had employed bribery. It also de

prived him for ever of the right of holding office or sitting in the Senate, but allowed him to stay at Rome. A fine was also probably inflicted on the agents, in particular those called divisores. 2. well remarks that these must be the plebs, the increase of whose penalties was called for by Sulpicius. Moreover, one who had been condemned for ambitus might regain his former position (in integrum restituebatur) by procuring the conviction of another on the same charge (pro Balbo $ 57, pro Cluent. $ 98, Quint. XI. i. 79), but did not get back the fine. This system of reward was not peculiar to the lex Calpurnia.

gestus est mos] This was in the meeting of the Senate at which the senatusconsultum was carried leading to the lex Tullia in this very year.

tota illa lex] the lex Tullia. It probably followed the terms of the senatusconsultum, given in 67. Another provision is quoted by Cicero himself, in Vatin. $ 37, quum mea lex dilucide vetet biennio quo quis petet petiturusve sit gladiatores dare nisi ex testamento praestituta die, also pro Sest. § 133. It was a supple. ment to the Calpurnian law, defining the proofs of guilt more closely, and adding to the penalties, (1) of Senators, i.e. candidates, ten years exile, (2) of the agents, an increase of the previous fine. Moreover, any juror or witness who pleaded illness as an excuse for non-attendance, thus im

peding the trial, was to be liable to some penalty not now known. H. however refers this penalty to the accused.

haberet] sc. accusatio tua. So Z. after MS. Lag. 9, and I prefer this to haberes of the other MSS., though adopting it with hesitation.

47. efflagitata est] was called for and carried.

commoti] A feeling of our occupation's gone.' i nostrum ordinem] Since Sulla had made the quaestorship a passport to the Senate, candidates had practically come only from the senatorial order. H.

concessit] ‘gave way to,' with no object. cf. & 57. H.

fortunae communi] A strange way of stating it. They had the option of abstaining from bribery. But they did not generally do so, and in B.C. 67 it was the Senators who had opposed the hard provisions of the proposed lex Cornelia of G. Cornelius the tribune, and had procured the passing of the lex Calpurnia in its stead.

excusatio] often employed to defer the hearing of such a charge till the accused entered on his office, and was out of the law's reach. If this be meant here of the accused, the penalty was doubtless, as H. says, directed against the candidates. But

Cic. pro L. Mur.

it may equally well (and with more likelihood, it seems to me) be referred to cases of witnesses or jurors falling ill. See below, quibus ...... laborandum est, and note. They often fell ill when a friend was on his trial.

addita est] sc. on the top of their illness. cf. Phil. II. $ 31, cur quaestores additi ? and Prof. Mayor's note.

laborandum] i. e. stand the wear and tear of a trial in court.

fructus] What the allusion here is we do not know. H. has a note in which he refers to the punishment of exile. But Z. rightly urges that multorum cannot be the accused candidates, and his conjecture, that jurors or witnesses who stayed away because of illness were to lose some privileges (e. g. the right of sitting on a jury or giving evidence) for the future, seems to me far more probable.

haec] these provisions, i.e. this law. is. Cicero.

proderant] Cicero's own course was run. He is making out that Sulpicius was the real author of the severity of the Tullian law. He was known to have advocated even stronger measures, and this, says Cicero, was a bad thing for his candidature.

confusionem suffragiorum] some

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