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num sensibus et deleniendis animis et adhibendis voluptatibus? utrum lenocinium, inquit, a grege delicatae iuventutis an orbis terrarum imperium a populo Romano petebas?' horribilis oratio, sed eam usus, vita, mores, civitas ipsa respuit. neque enim Lacedaemonii, auctores istius vitae atque orationis, qui cotidianis epulis in robore accumbunt, neque vero Cretes, quorum nemo gustavit umquam cubans, melius quam Romani homines, qui tempora voluptatis laborisque dispertiunt, res publicas suas retinuerunt: quorum alteri uno adventu nostri

exercitus deleti sunt, alteri nostri imperii praesidio disciplinam 75 suam legesque conservant. XXXVI. quare noli, Cato, maiorum

instituta, quae res ipsa, quae diuturnitas imperii comprobat, nimium severa oratione reprehendere. fuit eodem ex studio vir eruditus apud patres nostros et honestus homo et nobilis, Q. Tubero. is, cum epulum Q. Maximus P. Africani patrui sui nomine populo Romano daret, rogatus est a Maximo, ut triclinium sterneret, cum esset Tubero eiusdem Africani sororis filius. atque ille, homo eruditissimus ac Stoicus, stravit pelli.

delicatae] cf. ad Att. I. 19. 8, libidinosae ct delicatae iuventutis.

horribilis] “awful,' with sarcastic horror. cf. Catull. xiv. 1 2, di magni, horribilem et sacrum libellum.

civitas] the spirit of our institutions.

cotidianis] sc. the συσσίτια or φιδίτια. . The Cretan messes were called ανδρια. .

in robore] on hard oaken benches, επί του κλιντηρίου ψιλού. Αthen. I42 a.

cubans) leaning on the elbow or a cushion. They ate kaońuevol.

alteri] The proconsul Q. Caecil. Metellus (hence called Creticus) sub. dued the Cretans, B.C. 68—67.

alteri] Since the break-up of the Achaian League and the destruction of Corinth (B.C. 146), the Spartans had been protected dependants of Rome.

xxxvi. 75. eodem ex studio] so in § 66.

Q. Aelius Tubero] a grandson of L. Aemilius Paullus. Q. Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus was a grand

son, and this Scipio (cf. on $ 58) a son of the same, adopted by a son of Scipio Africanus the Elder. Tu. bero was a noted Stoic, cf. Brutus § 117, de Or. III. $ 87. Also a learned jurist, cf. Gellius, I. 22, Scipio was found dead in his bed, not without some suspicion of foul play, B.C. 129. cf. Mommsen, bk. IV. c. 3

epulum] a funeral banquet.

nomine] 'in honour of. This use is very nearly the same as that in $S 69, 82.

triclinium] a table with a set of three couches. See Rich, dict. ant.

slerneret] 'lay.' Implies not merely the providing of rugs, &c., for the couches, but also the dishes for the table. H.

ac Stoicus] ironically thrown in, as if it were a step higher than homo eruditissimus. And a Stoic to boot.'

pelliculis] with shabby goatskins,' instead of rich coverlets and cushions.

culis haedinis lectulos Punicanos et exposuit vasa Samia, quasi vero esset Diogenes Cynicus mortuus et non divini hominis Africani mors honestaretur: quem cum supremo eius die Maximus laudaret, grátias egit dis immortalibus, quod ille vir in hac re publica potissimum natus esset; necesse enim fuisse, ibi esse terrarum imperium, ubi ille esset. huius in morte celebranda graviter tulit populus Romanus hanc perversam sapientiam Tuberonis. itaque homo integerrimus, civis opti- 76 mus, cum esset L. Pauli nepos, P. Africani, ut dixi, sororis filius, his haedinis pelliculis praetura deiectus est. lus Romanus privatam luxuriam, publicam magnificentiam diligit; non amat profusas epulas, sordes et inhumanitatem multo minus. distinguit rationem officiorum ac temporum, vicissitudinem laboris ac voluptatis. nam quod ais nulla re adlici hominum mentes oportere ad magistratum mandandum nisi dignitate, hoc tu ipse, in quo summa est dignitas, non servas. cur enim quemquam, ut studeat tibi, ut te adiuvet, rogas? rogas tu me, ut mihi praesis, ut committam ego me tibi ? quid tandem ? istuc me rogari oportet abs te an te potius

odit popu

Verr. & 23,

nur.

lectulos Punicanos] wooden benches of the Punic pattern, to serve as lecti. H. But see Appendix D.

vasa Samia] earthenware, not, as they should have been, of metal, e.g. Corinthian bronze: [not silver, as Fabius had himself not much of that, Plin. H. N. XXXIII. 141.] Z. cf. auct. ad Herenn. iv. 64, utatur (argento) licet, nos Samiis delectabi

H. Diogenes] of Sinope, the most celebrated of the Κυνικοί. He was noted for his plain-speaking (trappnoia), and for his devotion to proving the smallness of human needs. His tub is well known. The Cynics were in many points the moral forerunners of the Stoics.

et non] 'instead of.' supremo die] his funeral.

laudaret] the funeral oration, delivered in the Forum at the Rostra by some relative of the deceased. sapientiam] 'philosophy.' 76. deiectus est] = in praeturae

petitione repulsam tulit. cf. I in

me aedilitate deiecissent. odit......diligit] quoted by Quint. IX. iii. 82, as an instance of the figure distinctio.

privatam......publicam] For sense cf. pro Flacco § 28, Hor. Carm. II. 15, 13, privatus illus census erat brevis, commune magnum.

inhumanitatem] • boorishness,' want of refinement. cf. $ 66.

distinguit...voluptatis] The thought is the same as $ 74, qui tempora voluptatis laborisque dispertiunt. But what it does here I know not. H. well remarks that nam quod ais, etc. refers to the sordes, etc. above, and that this is probably an addition by some later hand. It is, however, good Latin enough : I only doubt the term voluptas of a funeral-banquet.

ut mihi praesis]=ut tibi liceat mihi praeesse. H.

quid tandem?] what is one to say? . dear me!'

a me, ut pro mea salute laborem periculumque suscipias ? 77 quid, quod habes nomenclatorem ? in eo quidem fallis et

decipis. nam si nomine appellari abs te cives tuos honestum est, turpe est eos notiores esse servo tuo quam tibi. sin etiam, cum noris, tamen per monitorem appellandi sunt, cuir nomen petis quasi incertum sit? quid, quod, cum admoneris, tamen quasi tute noris, ita salutas? quod, posteaquam es designatus, multo salutas neglegentius? haec omnia ad rationem civitatis si derigas, recta sunt: sin perpendere ad disciplinae praecepta velis, reperiantur pravissima. quare nec plebi Romanae eripiendi fructus isti sunt ludorum, gladiatorum, conviviorum, quae omnia maiores nostri comparaverunt, nec candidatis ista benignitas adimenda est, quae liberalitatem magis significat

quam largitionem. 78 XXXVII. at enim te ad accusandum res publica adduxit. credo

Cato, te isto animo atque ea opinione venisse, sed tu impru

te potius a me] For this question derigas ad]=judge by the standard cf. Plato Rep. 345–6, Ar. Pol. 11. of......, guide by......cf. § 3,

ad norii. 6. The Stoic dogma is given by mam derigenti, de Or. I. § 130, ut Diog. L. VII. 121, moliteúdeo dál ad hanc similitudinem huius histrioφασί τον σοφόν, αν μη τι κωλύη...... nis oratoriam laudem derigamus. de και γαρ κακίαν εφέξειν, και έπ' αρετήν Rep. II. S 55, exempla ad quae reliqua παρορμήσειν. .

oratio derigatur mea.

So with abl. 77. nomenclatorcm] These must de Fin. II. $ 7, voluptate omnia diri. have been at this time allowed by gentes. The MSS. vary as to the law, for in B.C. 72 when Cato was form of the word. candidate for the military tribune- recta] cf. on § 3. Pravum or cur. ship, νόμου γραφέντος όπως τους παρ- vum is the Stoic antithesis to rectum. αγγέλλουσιν είς αρχήν ονοματολόγοι cf. Hor. Epp. ΙΙ. 2. 44. Persius μη παρώσι, χιλιαρχίαν μετιών μόνος III. 52, IV. II, V. 38. ÉTELO ETO TQ vouw, Plut. Cato, 8. perpendere] test by weighing them

sin etiam ......etc.] very mutilated in the Stoic scale of right and wrong. in the MSS. H. gives it up. I have taken his etiam cum, and Z.'s quasi. reperiantur] ‘must surely be found,' incertum sit is from MS. Lag. 9. though of course I leave it to a Stoic •But if, even in case of men whom like yourself to decide. cf. Madv. you know, you must needs make a $ 350 b. For the matter of this show of asking your recognition passage H. cf. de Or. I. $ 112. agent before addressing them, why comparaverunt]=instituerunt. cf. is it that you ask “who is this auct. ad Herenn. iv. § 23, bene coming?” making as though you did maiores nostri hoc comparaverunt. not know the man?' I admit that xxxvii. 78. res publica] the this is forced, but the passage is too common weal. State interests. far gone for any clear or certain isto......ea] H. treats this as a case explanation.

in which one demonstr. pronoun (as rationem civitatis]=civitas $ 74. often) is caught up by another, re

cf. $ 3.

dentia laberis. ego quod facio, iudices, cum amicitiae dignitatisque L. Murenae gratia facio, tum me pacis, otii, concordiae, libertatis, salutis, vitae denique omnium nostrum causa facere clamo atque testor. audite, audite consulem, iudices, nihil dicam adrogantius, tantum dicam, totos dies atque noctes de re publica cogitantem ! non usque eo L. Catilina rem publicam despexit atque contempsit, ut ea copia, quam secum eduxit, se hanc civitatem oppressurum arbitraretur. latius patet illius sceleris contagio, quam quisquam putat, ad plures pertinet. intus, intus, inquam, est equus Troianus, a quo numquam me consule dormientes opprimemini. quaeris a me, 79 ecquid ego Catilinam metuam. nihil, et curavi ne quis metueret, sed copias illius, quas hic video, dico esse metuendas; nec tam timendus est nunc exercitus L. Catilinae quam isti, qui illum exercitum deseruisse dicuntur. non enim deseruerunt, sed ab illo in speculis atque insidiis relicti in capite atque in cervicibus nostris restiterunt. hi et integrum consulem et

ferring to Nägelsbach Stil. $ 93. 1. shew that in Cicero's opinion the Add. Mady. § 489 a.

But ea goes

force outside is not so dangerous as with opinione ; it does not catch up are the forces of conspirators (copiae) isto. Z. rightly explains isto animo in the city. cf. in Catil. 1. § 9. as your usual spirit.' cf. $ 64, cum quisquam] cf. on g 60. intus, intus. ista natura, ‘with the temperament

cf. in Catil. II. § II. we all know so well.' ea opinione= dormientes] Verg. Aen. II. 265, that belief,' viz. that the common invadunt urbem somno vinoque sepul. weal demands the condemnation of tam. Murena. The sense then will be, ‘I 79. ego] Cicero had left the charge readily believe that it was your well- of the war to his colleague Antonius. known patriotism, backed by the z. belief that in this case you had taken quas hic video] in Catil. 11. § 5, the side of your country, that brought hos, quos video volitare in foro. you here.' cf. Madv. § 486.

nec tam...... ) in Catil. i1. $ 5, opinione] There is a certain arch- tam exercitum illum esse nobis quam ness in this word : Cicero insinuates hos, qui exercitum deseruerunt, pertithat Cato “supposes' or 'believes? mescendos. (I use the word in the modern sense) dicuntur] sc. it is merely a lie, a something at last. cf. $$ 61, 62, 63. stratagem, that they may catch us

laberis) i.e. your patriotism is de napping. Z. with MS. Lag. 9 reads ceived; you are on the wrong side, videntur. for Rome needs a consul like Murena. cervicibus] Z. quotes ad Fam. XII. T. cf. pro Marcell. § 20, viris non 23. 2, easque (legiones ) in cervicibus cupiditate aliqua aut pravitate lapsis nostris collocare. sed opinione officii.

restiterunt] have stopped behind. copia] the sing. is rare in this cf. Liv. XXXVII. 21, ut nemo pug. sense. Z. suggests that it is used to nandi causa restiterit.

non

bonum imperatorem et natura et fortuna cum rei publicae salute coniunctum deici de urbis praesidio et de custodia civitatis vestris sententiis deturbari volunt.

quorum ego ferrum et audaciam reieci in campo, debilitavi in foro, compressi etiam domi meae saepe, iudices, his vos si alterum consulem tradideritis, plus multo erunt vestris sententiis quam suis gladiis consecuti. magni interest, iudices, id quod ego multis

repugnantibus egi atque perfeci, esse Kalendis Ianuariis in re 80 publica duos consules. nolite arbitrari, mediocribus consiliis

aut usitatis vitiis aut **; non lex improba, non perniciosa í largitio, non auditum aliquando aliquod malum rei publicae

quaeritur; inita sunt in hac civitate consilia, iudices, urbis

§ 82.

natura] 'character,' 'tempera- saepe] Cicero speaks of previous ment. cf. § 64.

attempts in Catil. 1. SS 11, 15, but fortuna] circumstances,' 'posi- there as here he is probably exag. tion. cf. § 83.

gerating the fact by way of frightendeici] 'be dislodged,' a military ing the jury. term. deicere praesidium (a guard) his vos si=hi, si vos iis. H. is common in Caesar, and cf. Hor.

eşi atque perfeci] sc. I stood out Epp. II. 2. 30, praesidium regale loco against the further delay of the condeiecit, ut aiunt, summe munito et sular election, and carried it through multarum divite rerum. cf. also in spite of danger. cf. § 52. T.

duos] cf. 4. This was the argucustodia] cf. $ 64.

ment that procured Murena's acquitreieci] have repelled.' cf. ad tal, as Cicero says, pro Flacco $ 98, Fam. II. 10. 2, feliciter ab Antiochea nemo illorum iudicum clarissimis hostem reiecerat. • Have foiled' pro- viris accusantibus audiendum sibi de bably comes nearest to the sense. ambitu putavit cum bellum iam geSee the metaphor from gladiators' rente Catilina omnes me auctore duos thrusts, in Catil. I. § 15 with Mr consules Kalendis Ianuariis scirent Wilkins' note.

esse oportere. Quintilian VI. i. 35 rein campo] cf. & 52.

marks the same. debilitavi] so SS 80, 43. The word 80. vitiis] so the MSS. Z justiproperly means to‘cripple,’ ‘maim.' fies usitatis by II in Verr. II. § 9, si cf. Liv. xxi. 40, Gaius, III. 146, usitato more peccasset. The lacuna debilitati opp. to integri of gladiators which follows is filled up thus by after a fight. cf. also $ 82.

in foro

Fr. Richter, aut [humana ac tolerefers, I think, especially to the randa audacia ab istis desperatis second speech against Catiline. See hominibus agi]. H. the menace in § 6 of that speech. largitio] cf. on $ 24.

compressi] so Phil. II. $ 21, impe- rei publicae] dative after malum. tum tuum compressisset. 'Have stop- quaeritur, is aimed at, sc. by the ped,' 'brought up sharp.' Sallust conspirators. says ianua prohibiti.

inita sunt] in the passive this domi meae] alluding to the attempt phrase is always used with gen. of of G. Cornelius and L. Vargunteius the gerundive. inire consilium someon his life. cf. in Catil. I. SS 9, 10, times takes infinitive. Madv. § 417 Sall. Cat. 28. add pro Sulla § 18. obs. 2. cf. § 81.

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