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us try to ascertain what they are. Looking first, then, at the pause, it is easy to see that its only element is that of duration. We can extend it over longer or shorter time. In accent, however, on comparing the accented and unaccented syllables of words like barbarous, murmuring, tartarize, Singsing, and papa, we can clearly detect four elements. The accented syllable differs slightly from the unaccented-first, in duration : it is sounded in longer time; second, in force : it is sounded with more energy; third, in pitch: it is sounded on a key that, if used in music, would be relatively higher or lower in the musical scale; and fourth, in quality : it is sounded with more fulness or sharpness of tone. Simply by increasing the degree in which any of these elements enter into ordinary accentuation, we can increase the degree of emphasis represented by them. We have noticed, already, how the pause influences the division of consecutive words into verses. As applied to individual words, i. e., when used after or before them, it has evidently the same general effect as the prolongation of a sound; it gives the ideas expressed in the words more duration.

Let us examine now what phases of thought different kinds of duration, force, pitch, and quality are fitted to represent, and see how far they can aid us in determining what can be represented by analogous poetic forms. To attain our end, it will be necessary for us to go to elocution.

All the principles of this art can be classed under two heads, those of discoursive and of dramatic elocution. The first, generally termed the elocution of emphasis, is developed from instinctive methods of expression, and corresponds, in this regard, to words formed from ejaculations. It is used mainly in oratory. The second, generally

termed the elocution of personation, is developed by the reflective powers as a result of impressions received from without. Mimicry, in some form, underlies all its effects; for which reason, it will be seen at once to correspond to words formed as a result of imitation, and to be the phase of delivery used mainly in dramatic acting. Of course, the best elocution combines all the possibilities of the art; but, as a rule, the orator's chief aim is to give expression to his own thoughts; the actor's, to seem properly impressed by thoughts suggested by his surroundings.

In treating of duration, force, pitch, and quality, it will be best to consider, first, the discoursive, and then the dramatic, uses of each; and, in immediate connection with them, to direct attention to the corresponding developments in poetic form. More extended explanations and illustrations of the elocutionary part of this subject may be found in the author's “ Orator's Manual." For our present purpose, it will be sufficient to state, briefly, as introductory to what will be unfolded more fully as we go on, that, of the four elements of emphasis to be examined, duration is merely an external effect of sound, while force, pitch, and quality are all essential to the very formation of it; different degrees of force, as we learn from science, being determined by the relative size of the vibrations causing the tone; of pitch, by their relative rapidity; and of quality, by the relative size and rapidity of those compounded together, in order to produce any apparently single tone-almost every tone, as science has ascertained, being a compound.

With reference to the significance of these elements, while it is true that all, in a general way, represent, as has been said, emotive effects, all of them represent also certain peculiar phases of such effects. These, as manifested

in dramatic elocution, of course interpret themselves.

In discoursive elocution, duration measures the utterancethat is, it represents the mind's measurement of its ideas,one indication, by the way, of the appropriateness of the poetic term, meters, or measures, which result from giving different kinds of duration to syllables; force energizes utterance; pitch aims it; and quality tempers it. Of the last three, again, force imparts physique to delivery; pitch, intellectuality, and quality, emotion or soul, by which, as has been explained, is meant that balancing and blending of physical and intellectual tendencies which manifest the degree in which the man is master or slave of body or mind. Or, finally, to make a classification as comprehensive as possible of all the factors in our problem, it may be said that duration, in a general way, represents the promptings of the instinctive feelings, and the other three elements those of the reflective feelings. Pure instinct leads to fast time, reflective instinct to slow time, and the general movement or measure is the resultant of both. The degrees of instinctive influence connected with reflective feeling are represented in force; of purely reflective influence, in pitch; and of the equilibrium maintained between the instinctive and reflective influences, in quality. Besides this, it is well to notice that duration and force together are essential to the effects of rhythm, and pitch and quality together to those of tune; rhythm resulting from the measure of time or movement by regularly recurring impulses perceptible in the physical world; and tune from a similar cause, detected only by scientific analysis, operating through vibrations upon our inner nervous and mental organism.

These statements are preliminary. They will be explained and illustrated when the proper time comes—that

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is, in places where they will fall into line, so as to further the object of our present undertaking, which, as we must remember, is to show not what these forms are, but what, in elocution and poetry, they are fitted to represent.

CHAPTER IV.

ELOCUTIONARY AND POETIC DURATION.

The Elements entering into Rhythm, Duration, and Force—Duration:

Fast Time Instinctive, representing Unimportant Ideas ; Slow Time Reflective, representing Important Ideas ; Movement a Combination of the Two— The Pause as used in Elocution; in Poetry, at the ends of Lines ; in the Cæsura-Run-on and End-stopped Lines—Quantity, Short and Long, in Elocution and Poetry; as produced by Vowels and Consonants-Movement or Rhythm as influenced by Pause and Quantity-Feet of Three Syllables should represent Rapidity--Predominating Long Quantity injures English Hexameters-Feet of Four Syllables represent Rapidity.

WE

E have now to consider representation in rhythm,

resulting, as has been said, from a combination of the effects of duration and force. Taking up the first of these, it is evident that in elocution duration may be short or long, or both ; in the latter case making possible all the artistic developments of metre. Both experience and reflection show us that in the degree in which utterances are instinctive, as they are when under the influence of mere spontaneity, they find expression in short duration, or-what is the same thing-in fast time. But when one becomes conscious of surrounding influences to which he must conform his phraseology, these put him into a reflective mood, and under the sway of his impressions, he stops to think-sometimes to think twice-of what he is to say, and so uses slow time; or, to look at the subject from a different view-point, a speaker,

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