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Weeping he told them this, and they, at the villager's bidding, Knitting with knee to knee a wreath at the altar's railing, Knelt as he softly led in the prayer of the consecration. In it the children joined, until in a tremulous accent Closing the prayer he had asked for the Lord's benediction upon them. This passage from Longfellow is a typical specimen of what is called English hexameter. Here is another (not so good), from Frothingham's translation in many respects an admirable one-of Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea :

Thitherward up the new street as I hasted, a stout-timbered wagon
Drawn by two oxen I saw, of that region the largest and strongest,
While with vigorous step a maiden was walking beside them ;
And, a long staff in her hand, the two powerful creatures was guiding,
Urging them now, now holding them back, with skill did she drive them.

Not until such lines have been reduced to a form more like the following, can we be prepared to debate whether or not the effects of the classic hexameter can be reproduced in English. Those, too, who choose to compare these lines with the original, will find this translation more literal than the last.

Now my eyes, as I made my way along the new street there,
Happened to light on a cart with a frame of the heaviest timber,
Drawn by a pair of steers of the largest breed and stoutest.
By their side was a maid, and with vigorous gait was walking,
Waving a staff in her hand, and guiding the strong pair onward.

Urging or holding them in, right skilfully did she drive them. In these last lines, there are more spondaic verses,verses, that is, in which the fifth foot contains two syllables—than were often used in the classic hexameters. But this fact does not change the general effect of the movement. Matthew Arnold says of the following, that, “it is the one version of any part of the Iliad which in some degree reproduces for me the original effect of

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Homer." It is a translation from the third book made by Dr. Hawtrey of Eton College:

Clearly the rest I beheld of the dark-eyed sons of Achaia,
Known to me well are the faces of all ; their names I remember.
Two, two only remain, whom I see not among the commanders,
Castor fleet in the car,-Polydeukes brave with the cestus,
Own dear brethren of mine,-one parent loved us as infants.
Are they not here in the host, from the shores of loved Lacedæmon?
Or though they came with the rest in ships that bound through the waters,
Dare they not enter the fight, or stand in the council of heroes,
All for fear of the shame, and the taunts my crime has awakened?

Instead of two we sometimes find three consecutive unaccented syllables, combined with which there is occasionally a slight but secondary accent on the second of these. As the general effect of this kind of rhythm is to cause four syllables to be uttered in the time usually given to two, it increases the rapidity of the movement; e.g.:

The king has come to marshal us in all his armor dressed,
And he has bound a snow-white plume upon his gallant crest,
He looked upon his people, and a tear was in his eye ;
He looked upon the traitors, and his glance was stern and high ;
Right graciously he smiled on us, as rolled from wing to wing,
Down all the line in deafening shout, God save our lord the king !

“And if my standard-bearer fall, -as fall full well he may,
For never saw I promise yet of such a bloody fray, -
Press where ye see my white plume shine amid the ranks of war,
And be your oriflame to-day, the helmet of Navarre.”

- The Battle of Ivry: Macaulay.



Force, representing Instinctive Tendency of Utterance, or Physical

Energy–Different kinds of Force—the Degree of Force-Loud and Soft Force as used in Elocution-Their Poetic Analogues-Loudness and Softness, Strength and Weakness, Great and Slight Weight as represented by Long or Short Accented or Unaccented Syllables.

THE next rhythmical element of expression to be

considered, is force. This is to sounds what different degrees of light and shade are to objects of sight; and is essential to the effects of rhythm in the same way that shading is to those of proportion. In elocution, no one in feeble physical health can manifest an excess of force, while, at times, without it, his delivery may be characterized by the greatest amount of intelligence and soul, of thought and the emotion that is con nected with thought. For these reasons, it seems right to infer that force represents physique rather than intellect or spiritual feeling; in other words, energy that is instinctive and connected with the physical nature rather than any thing that is reflective and connected with the psychical. As used for emphasis, force differs mainly in three regards, which, according to the principle of classification pursued hitherto, may be stated thus: first, on its purely instinctive or physical side, it differs in degree—it may be loud or soft ; second, on its reflective or intellectual side, it differs in gradationit may be strongest at the beginning,

middle, or end of the utterance of a syllable or word; and third, in emotive relations, affected more or less by both instinctive and reflective influences, it differs in regularity -it may be abrupt or smooth.

Let us consider, first, the degrees of force. It is probably not necessary to illustrate the statement that, in elocution loud force indicates a great degree of energy, and soft force a slight degree of it. As loud and soft are relative terms, it is evident that in poetry their analogues are found in forms in which the relative force is decidedly greater on certain syllables than on others; therefore, in metres in which the accents are strongly marked. This condition is realized, as a rule, where the accented syllables are long, in quantity, and the unaccented short. Here are metres of this character:

Louder, louder chant the lay;
Waken lords and ladies gay!
Tell them youth and mirth and glee
Run a course, as well as we ;
Time, stern huntsman ! who can balk ?
Stanch as hound and fleet as hawk ?
Think of this and rise with day,
Gentle lords and ladies gay!

-Hunting Song : Scott.
When, wide in soul and bold of tongue,
Among the tents I paused and sung,
The distant battle flashed and rung.

- Two Voices : Tennyson, Strike, and when the fight is over,

If ye look in vain for me,
Where the dead are lying thickest
Look for him who was Dundee.

-Burial March of Dundee : Aytoun.
How firm a foundation, ye saints of the Lord,
Is laid for your faith in his excellent word !

-Hymn : Kirkham.

If both the accented and unaccented syllables are short in quantity, the movement is rapid, indicating, as has been said before, thought that is unimportant; and we have a rattling effect, analogous to loudness that does not convey an impression of strength4.g.:

Then we let off paper crackers, each of which contained a motto,
And she listened while I read them, till her mother told her not to.

-Ferdinando and Elvira : Gilbert.
Now elderly men of the bachelor crew,

With wrinkled hose

And spectacled nose,
Don't marry at all ;-you may take it as true,

If ever you do,

The step you will rue,
For your babes will be elderly, elderly too.

-The Precocious Baby: Idem.
“O maidens," said Pattison, touching his hat,
"Don't blubber, my dears, for a fellow like that ;
Observe I'm a very superior man,
A much better fellow than Angus McClan.”

--Ellen Mc Fones Aberdeen : Idem. If both the accented and unaccented syllables are long in quantity, the movement is slow, indicating thought that is important, and the accent is less decidedly marked. This gives us the poetical equivalent for force characterized by weight and strength, though not necessarily by loudness

O good gray head which all men knew ;
O voice from which their omens all men drew ;
O iron nerve to true occasion true;
O fall'n at length that tower of strength
Which stood four square to all the winds that blew !

-Ode on the Duke of Wellington : Tennyson.
The woods shall wear their robes of praise,

The south winds softly sigh,

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