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vocal organs to prevent the accomplishment of his object; and the loudest part of the sound is on the first part of the utterance. This is the most instinctive, and, in this sense, physical, form of stress. In the second case, the sound is pushed forth expulsively, as if the man were conscious of an outside possibility of opposition, and of the necessity of pressing his point; and the loudest sound is at the end of the utterance. This is a deliberative stress, force given with a design ; and, in this sense, is reflective and intellectual. In the third case, the sound is uttered so that it blends the effects of both the other methods, either as in the effusive median stress, or in the ways indicated in the descriptions given below of compound, thorough, and tremulous stress. In dramatic elocution, of course, these same methods would represent things having a bursting or pushing sound or tendency, or both of these together.
These two methods of applying energy to articulation, and different combinations of them, give us the different kinds of stress: termed, if the chief force is used at the beginning of the accented utterance, Initial, indicated thus >, and used in this:
Up, comrades, up !-in Rokeby's halls
Ne'er be it said our courage falls !
Let the consequences be what they may, I am determined to proceed. If in its middle, Median, <>, and used in this:
O joy to the people and joy to the throne.
If at both its beginning and end, Compound, X, and used in this:
Ye blocks, ye stones, ye worse than senseless things.
If at its beginning, middle, and end, with strong force, Thorough and used in this :
Lend, lend your wings, I mount, I Ay.
O grave, where is thy victory? If at all three, with weak force, Tremulous mm, and used in this:
Pity the sorrows of a poor old man. It may be difficult for those not acquainted with elocution to detect at once what is meant by stress; but it will become clearer as we proceed. The first important thing for us to notice in connection with it, is that, though given mainly on the accented syllable, it is often, especially in flexible voices, communicated to more than one syllable. In the following, for instance, the same kind of compound stress is used on the one syllable in hard and on the two syllables in cruel, and might be used on the three syllables in a word like villanous, were it substituted for cruel.
Oye hard hearts, ye cru-elmen of Rome. So it is with other kinds of stress. The three syllables in misery might receive the same gradations in force as the one in woe. It is owing to this fact with reference to force that analogies, important though subtle, may be detected between different kinds of stress and different kinds of poetic measure. An accent, as has been noticed, falls on every second, third, or fourth syllable of a verse, and the number of accents in a line determines the number of feet or measures in it, a foot being composed of one accented syllable and, as the case may be, of one, two, or three unaccented syllables. Below, separated by bars, will be found all the principal kinds of feet.
ment's glance at them will detect that the character of each measure is determined by the place in it, whether its beginning, its middle, or its end, on which the accent falls. In the same way, the character of any given kind of stress is determined by the place in the utterance, whether composed of one or of more syllables, on which the chief force falls. In other words, poetic accent influences syllables grouped in feet or measures, precisely as elocutionary stress influences syllables grouped in words. For this reason, the measures in the paragraph below are named according to the analogy between the places in them on which the accents fall, and the places in words made most prominent by the different kinds of stress. The Greek names for corresponding measures are also given.
Initial measure, or initial double measure, is determined by what may be called initial accent, and corresponds, if composed of one long syllable followed by one short, to the Greek trochee or choree; if of two long, to the Greek spondee; e. g.:
Tell me | not in | mournfull numbers. Terminal measure, or terminal double measure, is determined by what may be called terminal accent, and corresponds to the Greek iambus, composed of one short followed by one long syllable ; e.g.:
The tràin | from out | the cas | tle drèw. Initial triple measure is usually the same as the Greek dactyl.
Over the roadways and on through the | villages. Median, or median triple measure, is usually the same as the Greek amphibrach; e.g.:
There came to the beach a poor exile of Èrin.
Terminal triple measure is usually the same as the Greek anapæst; eg.:
O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave. Compound triple measure is the same as the Greek amphimacrus, or as feet used in certain of the pæonic stanzas.
Nearer mý | God to thèe È'en though it I bè a cròss. Diinitial quadruple measure is usually the same as the Greek ditrochee, with a primary accent on every first, and a secondary on every third syllable; e.gi:
Roses are in blossom and the rills are filled with | water-cresses. Diterminal quadruple measure is usually the same as the Greek diiambus, with a primary accent on every second ; and a secondary on every fourth syllable ; e.g.:
The king has come to mårshal us, Quadruple measures might have their primary accent on their third or fourth syllable, i. e., on their final double foot, and be termed, therefore, Final diinitial or Final diterminal; or they might be Compound, having an initial and terminal foot, and be termed, to indicate the foot coming first, Initial-terminal or Terminal-initial. I can recall, however, no English measures of these kinds.
Now let us see what ideas each of these measures, according to elocutionary analogy, is fitted to represent. We will begin with Initial stress, called radical also. As has been said, this characterizes utterances that burst forth abruptly with their loudest sound at their beginning, as in the sentence, “Go on, I say; get along; I tell you I 'll not wait for you; move on.” In fulfilment of the principles stated above, this stress is used when one seems to be conscious of nothing but his own organs to prevent the expression of his ideas, and when therefore his main wish is to express himself so as to be distinctly understood. In its milder form, it serves to render articulation clear and utterance precise ; in its stronger form, it indicates great physical momentum, and therefore bold, and sometimes vehement assurance, positiveness, and dictation.
Bearing in mind now what has been shown before, that the important places in a line of verse are its beginning, before which, and its end, after which, the voice of the reader naturally pauses, it may be said, that whenever lines containing feet of two syllables begin or end with a foot, the first syllable of which is accented, the emphasis characterizing the verse is the same in general tendency as when single words receive initial stress. It is possible, for instance, to read the following with any kind of elocutionary stress; but the arrangement of accented and unaccented syllables is such, that, when read without design, one naturally gives to each foot the kind of emphasis characterizing initial stress. We may call this, therefore, the measure of initial accent or Initial measure. Here is an example of its milder form, representing, like initial stress, clearness and precision of statement :
Take the open air, the more you take the better ;
-Advice : Anon.
Go where glory waits thee,
-Go Where, etc. : Moore.
Should you ask me, whence these stories,