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With the odors of the forest,
With the dew and damp of meadows,
With the curling smoke of wigwams,
With the rushing of great rivers,
With their frequent repetitions,
And their wild reverberations
As of thunder in the mountains ?
I should answer, I should tell you,
" From the forests and the prairies."

-Hiawatha : Longfellow.
Then with deep sonorous clangor,
Calmly answering their sweet anger,
When the wrangling bells had ended,
Slowly struck the clock eleven,
And from out the silent heaven,
Silence on the town descended.

- Carillon : Longfellow. And this is the stronger form, representing bold assurance, positiveness, and dictation :

Honor, riches, marriage, blessing,
Long continuance and increasing,
Hourly joys be still upon you !
Juno sings her blessings on you.

- Tempest, iv., 1: Shakespear.
Shake the casements,
Break the painted
Panes that Aame with gold and crimson ;
Scatter them like leaves of autumn.

-Golden Legend : Longfellow. As has been said, this metre existed among the Greeks in two principal forms. The first was composed of one long syllable followed by a short, and called Trochee from Tpéxw, to run, or tpoxós, a wheel, and also Choree from xopējos, belonging to a chorus or dance. These terms in themselves signify little. They might be applied to many other movements. But Schmidt, emerging for a moment


from the too frequent lack of endeavor to interpret the meanings of metres, which characterizes the voluminous literature on this subject, tells us, in his “Rhythmic and Metric of the Classic Languages," that it is “a somewhat vivacious measure, serving for the expression of individual feeling," and this is all he says; but the correspondence between this, and saying, as has just been done here, that the metre has an internal motive and represents assurance, positiveness, and dictation, will be recognized by all. The other Greek form of this metre was the Spondee, so called from onovdai, the drink-offerings, and was used in religious hymns, like this, for instance, to Helios by Dionysius :

ευφαμείτω πάς αιθήρ

γη και πόντος και πνοιαι. . This is simply initial measure to which has been added the effect of predominating long quantity on unaccented syllables. The spondaic hymn would sound something like the following, which is an attempt to reproduce the effect of the Latin original:

Day of wrath, that day of burning,
All shall melt to ashes turning,
All foretold by seers discerning.

All aghast then, Death shall shiver,
And great Nature's frame shall quiver,
When the graves their dead deliver.

- Translated by A. Coles. The limited number of final syllables in our language which can end effectively lines of this kind, as well as the positive assurance expressed by them, sometimes passing, as in the Dies Iræ above, into almost fatalistic acquiescence, gives initial measure little popularity with our own hymn

writers. A few instances, indeed, can be cited of the use of a similar measure, but almost always in connection with occasional terminal measures, as in this; e. g.:

Glorious things of thee are spoken,

Zion, city of our God.
He whose word can not be broken,
Formed thee for his own abode.


All of our Long, Common, and Short Metre hymns, however, are written entirely in terminal measures. And this is what we should expect, for these measures' themselves, as well as their tunes, to which I shall refer by-andbye, express the effort of the soul as it reaches forth with a pushing persistence and determination toward that which is beyond itself, which means in the case of religious thought, aspiration,-a feeling especially in harmony with the spirit of the modern church.

The second kind of stress, called Terminal, and also Final and Vanishing, is applied when an utterance begins softly, and gradually increases in force, till it ends with its loudest sound. It seems to be used, as has been said, when one is conscious of outside opposition, obliging him to press his point, and so when his main wish is to impress his thoughts upon others. Its milder form may indicate merely complaint or peevishness, demanding consideration, as when the child whines out, “I sha'n't"; its stronger form indicates energy used with an intelligent design, and so a pushing pertinacity, persistence, or determination, in view of what is either liked or disliked, as in the exclamation, used either in banter or contempt, "Aha!" or in the sentences, “I am determined to remain true to my cause," “I despise the man."

The arrangement of accented and unaccented syllables

analogous to this is found evidently, for reasons similar to those already given, in a line containing feet of two syllables, that begins or ends with a foot, the first syllable of which is unaccented. We may call the following, therefore, Terminal measure. Here is its milder form, representing complaint demanding consideration :

O let the solid ground

Not fail beneath my feet,
Before my life has found
What some have found so sweet.

-Maud : Tennyson.
Alas ! I have nor hope nor health,
Nor peace within nor calm around,
Nor that content surpassing wealth
The sage in meditation found,
And walked with inward glory crowned.

- The Sun is Warm : Shelley. Here is its stronger form, representing earnest persiste ence, determination :

If that the world and love were young,
And truth in every shepherd's tongue,
These pretty pleasures might me move
To live with thee and be thy love.

-Nymph's Reply: Raleigh.
I cannot hide that some have striven,
Achieving calm to whom was given
The joy that mixes man with heaven ;
Who rowing hard against the stream,
Saw distant gates of Eden gleam,
And did not dream it was a dream.

– Two Voices : Tennyson Think not, thou eagle Lord of Rome,

And master of the world,
Though victory's banner o'er thy dome

In triumph now is furled,

I would address thee as thy slave,
But as the bold should greet the brave.

-Caractacus: Bernard Barton. As applied to spiritual relations, this pushing earnestness of terminal measure properly represents, as was said a moment ago, aspiration. Hence the use of the metre in most of our popular hymns; e. g.:

Praise God from whom all blessings flow.

My soul, be on thy guard. The Greek measure corresponding to this, was the Iambic, a term supposed to have been derived from iánto to drive forth, shoot, assail. Prof. Jebb, in his "Greek Literature," says it “was first used" (as in the case of the aha! cited above),“in raillery, which entered into the worship of Demeter as into a modern carnival.” “It was the form in which the more intense and original spirits loved to utter their scorn, or their deeper thought and emotion." It “was fitted to express any pointed thought.” This explanation of its uses evidently corresponds with that which has just been said of it here, viz. : that it represents an external aim, and is indicative of petulancy, push, persistence, determination, and in certain cases of aspiration. Schmidt endeavors to identify this metre with the Trochaic, because in this, as in that, every other syllable is accented. Of course, the rhythmical movements of both metres are the same, except at the beginnings and ends of lines. But, unfortunately for Schmidt's theory, these two places in the line give it its whole character, and a difference in them necessitates a difference in the ideas which the lines represent, and this not only in their metres, but also, as we shall find, by-andbye, in their tunes. The two metres, therefore, should not be identified.

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