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If necessary, a distinction might be drawn between these two forms of Quadruple measure and those forms of it in which the primary accent belongs to the second of its two Double measures. The following, for instance, is usually considered to be an example of Initial Double measure. But it might be divided into feet like these, and termed Final Diinitial Quadruple measure, because the primary accent belongs to the final double foot constituting the Quadruple measure:

We the falries | blithe and antic,
Of dimensions not gigantic;
Though the moonshine mostly keep us,
Oft in orchards frisk and peep us.
-Fairies' Song : Thomas Randolph.

Trans. by Leigh Hunt. And this, for similar reasons, might be termed Final Diterminal Quadruple measure:

Domestic bliss has proved my båne

A harder case you never heard,
My wife (in other matters sane)
Pretends that I'm a Dicky-bird !

-Bains Carew: Gilbert. In such cases, however, it is better to attribute the greater prominence given to certain of the accented syllables, not to the supposed fact that the lines containing them are composed in Quadruple measure, instead of-as seems to be the case-in Double measure; but to the effects, considered in Chapter Fourth, of short quantity which increases the rapidity of the movement, and of the pauses in the middle and at the end of each line which increase the emphasis of the accented syllables immediately preceding them. If we call the measures that we have just examined Quadruple, what is to prevent our supposing that verses, written in triple measure like the

following, contain feet composed of four, or even six, syllables ?

Guvener B. I is a sensible man ;
He stays to his home | an' looks arter his folks.

- The Biglow Papers : Lowell. We have seen now that all the different kinds of elocu tionary stress have correspondences in poetic measures. It remains to be said that, just as different kinds of stress may be used in reading different parts of the same sentence, so different kinds of measures may be used in the same verse, either for the sake of variety, or to give peculiar emphasis to some word or syllable thus thrust into unusual and unexpected importance.

Here terminal accent is used for initial, at the beginning of a line :

Hears amid the chime and singing
The bells of his own village ringing.

- Carillon : Longfellow. And here at the end of a line :

Silence on the town descended,
Silence, silence everywhere.


Here initial accent is used for terminal, at the beginning of a line, and also at its end :

Blaze with your serried columns,
I will not bend the knee.

- The Seminole's Defiance : G. W. Patten. And here at its end :

O sacred head now wounded,

With grief and shame weighed down.
-Hymn: Bernard through Gerhardt tr. by 7. W. Alexander,

In the following, with the variety that is common in triple measure, we have initial accent in Sunbeam; terminal, in From cape; median, in The mountains; initial triple, in Over a; and terminal tripple, in with a bridge, etc.

From cape to cape with a bridge-like shape,

Over a torrent sea,
Sunbeam-proof, I hang like a roof,
The mountains its columns be.

- The Cloud : Shelley. Corresponding to the methods of dramatic elocution, changes in measure are often made in order to represent the movements of certain objects described. Notice, in the following terminal double measures, how the placing of the accent on the first syllable of many of the feet, serves, by changing them into initial triple measures, to convey the impression of rapidity:

Each creek and bay
With fry innumerable swarm, and shoals
Of fish that with their fins and shining scales
Glide under the green wave, in sculls that oft
Bank the mid sea ; part single or with mate,
Grase the sea-weed, their pasture, and through groves
Of coral stray, or sporting with quick glance
Show to the sun their wav'd coats dropt with gold.

- Paradise Lost, 7: Milton. Notice here, too, the words italicized :

Far along
From peak to peak, the rattling crags among,
Leaps the live thunder. Not from one lone cloud,
But every mountain now hath found a tongue.

-Childe Harold : Byron. And the representation of the movement of the leaf, when the poet comes to speak of it, in the following:

Is it the wind that moaneth bleak?
There is not wind enough in the air
To move away the ringlet curl
From the lovely lady's cheek,-
There is not wind enough to twirl
The one red leaf, the last of its clan,
That dances as often as dance it can,
Hanging so light, and hanging so high,
On the topmost twig that looks up at the sky.

-Christabel : Coleridge.



Regularity of Force combining its Instinctive with Reflective Tendencies,

and representing Emotive Influencel Abrupt and Smooth Force, as used in Elocution-Irregular and Regular Accentuation corresponding to them in Poetry-Abruptness in Short and Long Lines-Imitative Effects, etc.

THIS subject of changes in metre introduces us, natu

rally, to the third way in which force on different words may differ-namely, in regularity. It may be abrupt or smooth, each respectively representing the amount of mere instinct or of reflection in the emotion accompanying the momentum. Abrupt force indicates interruption, excitement, vehemence, anger; smooth force continuity, satisfaction, gentleness, delight. The poetic equivalent for the first seems to be found in lines in which there is a break in the regularity of the rhythm, either because two accented syllables are brought together, or a larger number of unaccented ones than the rhythm warrants. For instance, we must all perceive the abrupt effects produced by the first syllables of Battering, and belching, and by the word Far in the following, coming, respectively, as they do, immediately after the accented words, sob, wide, and flame :

I will not cease to grasp the hope I hold
Of saintdom, and to clamor, mourn, and sob,
Battering the gates of heaven with storms of prayer.

- St. Simeon Stylites : Tennyson.

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