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1483. Tuesday following Henry Duke of gether, Buckingham desired the Pro

Buckingham made an Oration to the tector's Pardon, and Licence to acLord Mayor, Aldermen, and Com. quaint his Grace with the Intent of mons in the Guildhall of London, their coming (as tho' he had not wherein he asperled King Edward known it before) which, in short, IV. as a Tyrant, his Children as was to beseech him to take the Crown Bastards; endeavoured to prove the and Government of the Realm up. Protector to be the only true Heir on him. At which Words the Proto the Crown ; persuading the Citi- tector began to look angrily, withal zens, that they should therefore join denying to yield thereto. Where: with the Nobility in petitioning the upon his Privado, Bucking bam, threatProtector to take the Government ned, saying, That if he would not, of the Reaim upon him, according they would find out some other to his very right and juit - Tiile. Man that should, for they were reThe next Day the Mayor, Alder- solved that King Edward's Linemen, and chief Commoners of the age should no longer reign over City resorted unto the Protector to them ; and then Richard was pleas. Baynard's Castle ; whither also re ed to accept the Crown as his just paired Buckingham and other No- Right; the People thereat shouting bles, with many Knights and Gen- and crying, King Ricbard, King tlemen. When they were met to Richard.

RICHARD III.

Ichard III. Son of Richard Head; he therefore imployed Sir 1483: R

with all his Teeth, and Spirit, to procure these Childrens Hair to his Shoulders. This his Destruction; which accordingly be monstrous Birth foreshewing his did : For about Mid night Milu monitrous Conditions and Proceed- Forej? and John Digbron, Tirrel's ings. June 22. he was by the No- bloody Inftrumeris, came into the bility and Citizens of London elect- Chamber where the young King ed King of England, and afterward and his Brother lay, and suddenly by Act of Parliament was confirm- wrapt them up in the Bed cloaths

, ed. On June 2;, he took his Seat keeping by Force the Feather-Bed in the King's Bench Court, and there and Pillow's hard upon their Mou:hs, pronounced Pardon of all Offences that they were therein smother'd 10 committed against him. On July 4. Death. This Villany done, Sir James he came to che Tower, where he caused the Murtherers to bury their created Estates, ordained the Knights Bodies at the Stair's Foot, somewhat of the Barh, set at Liberty the Arch. deep in the Ground, under a great bishop of York, and the Lord Stan- Heap of Stones; though afterward ley; and July 6, was anointed and King Richard caused them to be crowned at Westminster : But this taken up, inclosed in Lead, and to Usurper well knowing, that whildt be cast into a Place called the Black. his young Nephews were living, the deeps, at the Thames Mouth.' But Crown would not stand firm on his the Justice of God pursued the Mur

therers:

1

therers ; for Foreff rotted away Piece- refused, thus answering him, ' In 1483. meal, Tirrel died for Treason under “good Faith, my Lord, I love not Henry VII. and Dighton lived and much to talk with Princes, as a died a Vagabond beyond the Seas : Thing not at all out of Peril, And the Ulurper, after this detestable • although the Words be withFaa, never had Quiet in his Mind, ' out Fault; forasmuch as it shall never thought himself secure ; but noç be taken as the Party meant when he went Abroad, his Eye still • it, but as it pleaseth the Prince to whirled about, his Body was privi. • conftrue it. And ever I think on ly fenced, and his Hand ever on his Æsop's Tale, that when the Lion Dagger; his Sleep interrupted with had proclaimed, that on Pain of fearful Dreams, sometimes suddenly • Death there should no horned Karting up, leaping out of his Bed, • Beast abide in the Wood; one that and running about the Chamber. • had in his Forehead a Bunch of Immediately also after this Murder • Flesh_fled away a great Pace. began the Conspiracy betwixt the · The Fox that saw him run so fast, Duke of Buckingham and divers o- • asked him, Whither he made all sher Gentlemen, against the Mur- ' that Haste ? He answer'd, In Faith derer. The Occasion of Bucking- • I neither wot nor care, so I were bam's falling off from Richard is ' once hence, because of this Prodiverly reported ; some say it was • clamation of horned Beasts. What because the King would not grant • Fool (quoth the Fox) thou mayest him the Duke of Hereford's Lands, ' well enough abide, the Lion meant to which he pretended himself the 'not thee, for there is no Horn on rightful Heir ; others impute it thy Head. No marry, quoth he, to the Duke's High mindedness, that wot I well enough ; but what that he could not bear the Glory and if he call it an Horn, where of another. Himself said the “ am I then?' But tho' the Bishop Occafion was, the Murder of the at the first declined talking of State two Children : Bee be the Occa. Matters with the Duke, yet afterfion what it would, yet this is wards, when by often discoursing mot sare, that this Enmity of the with the Duke, and other CircumDuke's to the -King proved of stances, he found him to be of a good Consequence to the rightful proud Stomach, and emulated the Heirs to the Crown. For hereupon king's Greatness, he would speak the Duke left the Court, retiring to his Mind frankly enough to him, his own House of Brecknock, where rendring the Ulurper as odious as he had in his Custody that true was possible, by alledging his UnFriend to King Edward's Potterity, nacuralness to his own Mother, in John Morton, Bishop of Ely, who, charging her with defiling the Marby his Wisdom, abused the Duke's riage Bed ; his Unnaturalness to his Pride to his own Deliverance, the own Brothers and Nephews, in fay, Duke's Destruction, and Benefit of ing they were Bastards; his murderó,

"T such to whom the Crown of Righting his Nephews, and other

Enor. appercained. When the Duke was mities. Then to tickle the Duke's at first become alineated from the Ambition, the Bishop would comKing, and came to his own House, mind him to be a Person of such he folicited the Bishop, his Prison- raie Virtues, that he merited to &T, to speak his Mind freely to him wear the Crown himself, inviting in Matters of State ; but the Bishop him for God's Sake, and his Coun

try's

1483. try's Sake, to take the Government another Army in Devonshire and

upon himself, or otherwise to devile Cornwall; and in Kent, Sir Richard fome means how the Realm might Guilford, and other Gentlemen, raibe rid of the Tyrant, and brought fed a Party; all which was done in under some good Governour. When a Moment. But the Usurper marchthe Duke had pondered awhile ing with his Host against the Duke's upon this and the like Discourse of Forces, which were molt Welch, the Bishop's, he acquainted the Bi- they, for want of Pay, and other shop, That his Resolutions were to Provision, brake up the Camp, and advance Henry Earl of Richmond to left the Duke to shift for himself; the Crown, and that the said Earl which when the Confederates unof Richmond, Heir of the House of derstood, they also dispersed themLancaster, should marry the Lady felves. The Duke of Buckingham in Elizabeth, eldest Daughter of Ed Disguise repaired for Security unto ward IV. by which Marriage the a Servant of his near Shrewsbury', Houses of Pok and Lancaster Thould named Humphrey Banister ; but the be united into one. To effect all King by Proclamation, promising which, the Duke and Bishop first great Rewards to him that should made the Mothers of Elizabeth and detect the Duke ; that Wreich, B2. Henry privy to their Design, and nisler, for the Hope of Gain, beemployed divers trusty Inftruments trayed his Master the Duke ; who to intere{t the Nobility and Gentry with a Guard of Men was conveyed in the Design.

Then the Bishop to Salisbury, where without Arraignleft Brecknock in Disguise, and fail ment or Judgment, the Duke loft ed into Flanders, where he did Earl his Head. Howbeit the Traytor Ba. Herry eminent Service. Many great nisler did not only lose his promised Persons combined to dethrone the Reward, but also received juft PuUsurper, which he having Know. nishment from Heaven ; for his elledge of, fent his loving Letters delt Son fell mad, and so died in a to the Duke of Buckingham, whom Hog.Siy; his second Son became dehe understood to be Head of the formed and lame in his Limbs; his Complotters, requesting him most third Son was drowned in a small earneitly to come to Court, for he Puddie of Water ; his eldest Daugher was in great Want of his wife was ftruck with a foul Leprosy ; and Counsel. But the Duke mistrutt- himself, being of extreme Age, was ing his smooth Words, excused found guilty of Murder, but faved himself that he was fickly, and not by his Clergy. Divers of the Earl well able to travel. The King of Richmond's Party were put to therefore sent his Command to him, Deach ; and so jealous was the King and Threats withal,, if he refused now of his ill-gotten Greatness, that to give his Attendance; unto which he stored the Sea.coasts with Arthe Duke sent this resolute An- mies of Men, furnished the Ports fwer, That he would not come to with Store of Munition, and made his mortal Enemy; and immedi, all Things ready to prevent Earl ately prepared War against him. Henry's Arrival; caused a ParliaThen Thomas Marquels of Dorset ment to be assembled at Weltwirjier, ! came out of Sanctuary, and also wherein the said Earl, and all such gathered a Band of Men in the as had Aed the Land in his Belaf, Norch; Sir Edward Courtney, and his were made Enemies to their native Brother, the Bishop of Exeter, raised Country, their Goods confiscated,

their Lands and Possessions condem- Way to which Place there met him 1483. ned to the King's Use. Moreover, Sir Rice ap Thomas, a Man of great ñ the Usurper sent his Agents laden Command in Wales, with a great with Gold, and many gay Promises, Body of Men, to fide in his Quarto the Duke of Bretaigr, offering rel, which Earl Henry afterwards what not, if he would either send requited, by making ihis his first Earl Henry into England, or commit Aider Governour of W'ales : From him there inco Prison ; but the Duke Shrewsbury the Earl marched to himself lying extream sick, his Trea. Nereport, where Sir Gilbert Talbot surer Peter Landose, corrupted with met him with Two Thousand Men Gold, had betrayed the Earl into from the Earl of Shrewsbury. Thence Richard's Hards, had not the Earl he palled to Litchfield, where he was had timely Notice of it, and pre- honourably received. But when the vented it by a speedy Escape unto Usurper understood that the Earl the French Court, where he receive daily increased in Strength, and that ed great Favours. Dr. Richard Fox, he was advanced so far without any then a Student in Paris, was emi- Opposition, from his Court at Notnently serviceable to the Earl in that tingham, he set forth his Hoft to meet Nation. And the Duke of Bretaign, the Earl, which he did near unto when he understood the Treachery Market Bosworth in Leicestershire. of Landofe, was highly displeased, His Van-guard he disposed of in a and continued a Favourer of the marvellous length, to strike the more Earl and his Cause. But all these Terror into the Hearts of his Foes, things, with many more, were a- the leading whereof was committed gainit King Richard, which he very to John Duke of Norfolk. His own well foresaw, tho' he knew not well Battallion was furnished with the how to remedy; yet that he might best approved Men of War. When make his Tiile and Interest as good he had ordered his Army for fight, as he could, he devised to marry he animated his Followers to bewith his Niece, the Princess Eliza- have themselves valiantly ; alledgberh; but his Queen Anne food in ing to them, that it was against a his way to this for the present, tho' Company of Runagates, Thieves, not long, for she fell into the re. Outlaws, Tray ors, beggerly Bremorselets Hands of Death, but whe- taigns and faint-hearted French Men, ther natural or violent, is not well that they were to fight, who would known. After which Richard courts oppress and spoil them of their the Lady Elizabeth, his own Bro. Lands, Wives, and Children; that ther's Daughter, tho' in vain, for these their Enemies were such Cothe abhorred the Motion. How. wards, that they would fly falter eyer when Henry heard of Richards from them than the filly Hart beAttempts, and not knowing what fore the Hound ; that the Earl of Time, through Flattery and Persu3- Richmond, Captain of the Rebellion, fion from some Persons, might do was but a Welsh Milk-sop. For their upon the young Princeis's Good- Love to him their Prince, their Nature, he haled for England, set- Zeal to their Native Country, he ting fail from Harfleet with about wished them that Day to fhew their 200 Men, Argust 15, and arrived English Valour, afturing them that at Milford-Haven the seventh Day for his part he would either triumph following; from whence he advan- in a glorious Victory, or die in the ced toward Sbrewsbury. On his Quarrel with immortal Fame. Now

1483. St. George for us, and us for Vic- Lord Stanley sent in Aids of fresh

cory, faith he : Hafte therefore Soldiers ( under the Leading of forward, and remember this, that Sir William Stanley ) which were I am he that with high Advance- raised, as he pretended, for Richard, ment, will prefer the valiant and but intended them, when he should hardy, and with severe Torture will see his time, for Richmond's Service. punish the daftard and cowardly These entred the fight with such Run-away. The Earl of Richmond's Courage, that they put the UlurFore-front was commanded by the per's Forces to fight; when the Earl of Oxford, the Right Wing by Usurper closing his Helmet, said Sir Gilbert Talbot, che Left by Sir to such that brought him a swift

John Savage, the main Battle by Horse for his Escape, This Day shall The Earl himself, and his Uncle finish all Battles, or else I finish my Jasper. When the Earl had ordered Life: So thruiting into the Throng his small Hoft, confifting of about of his Enemies, he manfully fighting 5000 Men, he rode from Rank to died in the Place, A. D. 1485, Rank, and Wing to Wing, encou- August 22. There died wih him raging his Followers to fight; al- that Day the Duke of Norfolk, the Jedging the Juitness of their Quar. Lord Ferrers of Chartley, Sir Richard rel, which God would bless; assu- Radiliffe, Sir Robert Brakenbury. ring them, that for so good a Cause The Number of both parties slain in as to free the Land of a Moniter,

the Field were 4000.

Sir Williar a Tyrant, a Murderer, he would Catesby, with other Persons of Quathat Day rather become a dead Car- lity were taken, and two Days af

. rion upon the Ground, than a Car were beheaded at Leicefter, pet Prisoner kept alive for Reproach. Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, the Advance therefore forward, faith Duke of Norfolk's Son and Heir, behe, like true hearted Englishmen, ing then also taken Prisoner, the display your Banner in Defence of Earl of Richmond demanded of him your Country; get the Day and how he durft bear Arms in Behalf be Conquerors, lose the Day and of that Tyrant Richard ? To which be Villains. God and St. George he answered, he was my crowned give us a happy Success. Then King, and if the Parliamentary Auimmediately a fierce Battle com- thority of England set the Crown upinenced, and was manfully conti. on a Stook, I will fight for that Stock. nued on either Part. At length And as I fought then for him, I will the King having Intelligence that fight for you when you are eltablithEarl Henry was but Nenderly ac. ed by the said Authority. King Ricompanied with Men of Arms, he chara's Crown, which was taken therefore with his Spear in the Rett amongst the Spoils of the Field, the ran violently towards the Earl; in Lord Stanley Earl of Derby set upon which Rage, at first Brunt, he bare Earl Henry's Head. The Nain Body down and overthrew the Earl's of the Usurper all tugg'd and corn, Standard, New Sir William Brandon stark naked, was truffed behind the Bearer thereot; next encountred Blanch St. Leiger, a Pursuivant at Sir John Cheiny, whom he threw to Arms, like a Hog or Calf, the Head the Ground, ihereby making an and Arms hanging on one side of the open Passage to the Earl himself

. Horse, and his Legs on the other, al. In which very Instant, when the ter which Manner it was brought to Earl was like to be dillrefled, the Leicefer, where it was buried in the

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