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1216. Fire happened upon the Bridge, fons were destroyed by Means there

and about Three Thousand Per- of.


A. B. of

Richard A.D. Enry III. at about ;

Years , was and that when Lewis himself jould

ed King, the oth Day be King, he should peaceably part with Cant. after ķis Father King John's De. them. That Lewis frould immedi

cease, the Earl of Pembroke being. ately render 10 King Henry all Holds i by common Consent of Peers and and Places taken in the War; for the Prelates, constituted Guardian of Performance of all which Lewis took him during his Non-age. This No. his Oath. On the other Part, the ble Earl set out against Lewis, and at King, Legate Walls, and the Earl Lincoln utterly defeated his Army; swore, That the King should reffore which Discomfiture was called Lewis to the Barons and others, all ibeir Fair, from the great Spoil that the Rights and Inheritances, with all Earl's Soldiers took from the Lewin their Liberties formerly demanded of ftians, and City of Lincoln. Here King Jubn. That none of the Laity the chiefeft of the malignant Barons pould suffer Damage and Reproach were taken, with about 400 Knights, for taking Part on either Side. That besides Esquires, and of other Sorts Prisoners should be released.

This innumerable. A great Number al- done, Walio absolved Lewis and so of such as escaped out of the his Adherents, and Lewis took his Fight, were knocked on the Head Leave of England. Yet was not by the Country People. Likewise England quiet long, for Willian about the fame Time a fresh Supply Earl of Aumael, Foulk de Brent, and of Men and Money coming from Robert de Viepont, with others, comFrance, were scattered, funk, and mitted divers furious Riots, the taken by the English Fleet, the Eng- Church and State being grown into lijh in the Engagement using unfla- such Disorder, that every Man da. ked Lime, which they threw into red to aitempt in either, what his the Faces of the Monsieurs, blinding own Audaciousness fould fuggeft. their Sight therewith. Then to give The Welch they made fome Siirs. no Rett to Lecvis's declining, For. And one Fitz Arrulph, a Citizen of junes, the Earl of Pembroke closely London, attempted to set up Louis besieged London with Lewis in it, again ; for the which himself and where he brought the Matter to two others were hanged, and many Capitulation. The Heads whereof more had their Hands or Feet cut were, Thar Lewis and oke Barons off. The Barons they were high for fbould submit to the Judgment of the a Confirmation of their Liberties. Church, whole Censure they bad And Lewis of France, upon the dong' contemned. That Lewis Would Death of his Father, seized Rochel, depart the Land, and never return and the whole Country of Poition, with Design to do Harm. That he (which belonged to the King of Daould endeavour with his father, Englard) into his Hands; under sbat all fucle Things that belong to Pretence, that King Henry, an Ho.


mager for Aquitain, was not pre- King, who fought it: That he said, 1216. fene at his Coronation, nor yet ex. that the King was a squins ey'd Fool, cused his Absence by Ambaffadors. a kind of Leper, deceitful, perjur'd, Whereupon Henry summons a Par- more faint-hearted than a 'Wodiament for Aid to recover his Losses, man: That he had hindered the which being granted, he sent over King from entring upon foreign his Forces, which discomfited the Lands belonging to him, whereby Friach. But the King neceffi- the King's Peers and People consumtated for more Monies for car- ed their Treasures vainly : That sying on of his Design in Gaf he had enticed the King of Scots coign, wrung, from the Londoner's Daughter, and traiterously defiled Fire Thousand Marks above their the Noble young Lady, whom he Fifteenths; alledging, that they had married in hope to be King of Scotto his Prejudice given Lewis the land in her Right, if the survived like Sum. The Clergy also were her Brother : That he had stolen compelled under Pain of Papal Cen- out of the Jewel-House a precious fure, to pay the Fifteenth, not only Stone of such wonderful Virtue, as of their Temporals, but also Eccle- to make him that had it invincible fiaftical Goods : And by Advice of in Battle, and had bestowed that Hubert de Burgo, Chief Justice, the Stone upon Lewellix, Prince of Wales, King revoked the Charters of Li- the King's Enemy, & c. But the berties, which for above two Years Earl doubting that he should not had been practised through the have a fair Tryal, retired himself Realm, pretending, bis Non-age into Elex, whither he was prosecuwhen granted. Which caused in ted by armed Men, and in a Chapall a great Hear:-burning against pel at Brentwood was apprehended; Hubert. Howbeit, the King was out of which the rude Soldiers well furnished with Money and haled him, and sent for a Smith llen, which he caused to be trans- to make Shackles for him; which ported into Britain ; and on the when the Smith underttood that fame Day in which he fet Sail from they were for him, fetching a deep England, himself in Person did Sigh, he said, Do with me what visit the Poor and Feeble, dealing you please, and God bave Mercy on large Alms to them, and not refu. my Soul; but as fure as she Lord fing to kiss the Sick and Leprous, lives, I will never make Iron Shace But before that the King had Op- kles for him, but will rather die the portunity to effect any thing in those worst Death that is. For is not this Parts Confiderable, the Irish rebel- the moft Loyal and Couragious Huled, constraining him to return, to bert, who jo often barb preferred reduce them into Order. Which England from being deflroyed by when he had done, he advanced a- Strangers, and restored England so gainst che Well, whom he also re- England ? Let God be judge between pressed, tho' not without considera- him and you, for using him so unble Lofs. About this time Hubert juftly and inhumanly, requiring bis de Burgo, Earl of Kent, was accu- most excellent Deserts with the worf fed by the Bishop of Winchester, and Recompence that can be. Notwithothers, for the committing of many Itanding all this, Sir Godfrey de Crangreat Crimes : As, that he did dir- comb, who commanded ihe Party, laade the Duke of Austria from bound the Earl, and convey'd him to marrying his Daughter with the the Tower of London, where he had


1216. not long been, e'er the Bishop of into Tears, affirming, That he had

London procured his Liberty, tho' left no Peer about him in the King. fhortly after he was again impri- dom. And now the Bishop of foned, In his Place the King e- Winchester, hated of the People, was lected for his Counsellor and Con- commanded by the King not to fident, Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of neddle any further in State Matters. Winchester, who displaced the Eng- And against Peter Rivallis, Lord lill Officers ; and in their Rooms Treasurer, the King was so enrag'd, placed Poi&tovins and Britons, Ituf- that he sware he would pluck out fing the King's Castles with them, his Eyes were it not for Reverence intrusting as it were, the Treasures, of Holy Orders. And by the WorkStrength, and Realm itself in their ings of the Bishops, an Accord was Hands, to the great Discontent of effected betwixt the King and his the English Peers, who now con- Peers, and the Poiclovins were federated against the Strangers, and commanded to depart the Realm. refused, upon the King's Sum- Howbeit, the Land was not yet mons, to appear in Parliament ; cased of its Oppreflors and Opprelsending this bold Message to their fions ; for the Pope sent over into Sovereign, That if out of Hand he England Three Hundred Romans, removed not the Bishop of Win- requiring to have the first Benefice chefter, and Strangers out of his that should become vacant, to be Court, they all of them, by the bestowed on them ; requiring also common Consent of the Kingdom, great Sums of Money of the Clergy would drive him and his wicked for Maintenance of the Pope's Wars Counsellors out of it, and would against the Emperor: Which tho' consult about creating of a new the Clergy at first opposed, yet King. Wtereupon the King, ani- 'were forced to yield unto it at lait. ma ed by Winchester, commanded The Pope himself had a Mind to the Earl Marthal, with all others have come hither in his own Perwhom he suspected, to appear at fon, but the King's Council liked Gloucester, where the king was not thereof, alledging, that the Rowith an Army: Which they refu

mans Rapines and Simonies had e. fing to do, the King burnt their nough itained England's Purity, tho Manors, and gave away their the Pope himself came not personally Inheritances to Poikiovins. The to spoil and prey upon the Wealth Earl Marshal contracts ftri&t Amity of the Church. with Lewellin Prince of Wales, and About the Year 1240, Richard made great Spoil on the Poffeffions Earl of Cornwall, the King's Broof the King's reputed Seducers. ther, with the Earls of Pembroke, Shrewsbury he fack'd and burnt. Cheer, Lincoln, Salisbury, and maGilbert, Lord Boljet, the Earl's great ny other honourable Persons, de. Confederate, fet Fire on A.kmundtu- parted for the Holy Land, and in ry, not far from Huntingdon. But . D. 1242, the King passed the the Earl Marthal having crossed the Seas to recover Poil?ou, but effected Seas into Ireland, there to recover not any thing remarkable, cho' te his Lands, taken from him by the expended great Score of Treasure. Fraud of the Bithop of Winchester, Upon his Return into England, he was there wounded to Death ; for was therefore compelled to be burwhose Loss the King, to the Won- thensome to his Subjects for reder of all that saw it, broke forth cruiting of his exhausted Treasure,

as well by the Levy of Escuage, as well having risen in Rebellion : 1257. of Loan and otherwise. The Jerus, Against whom Prince Edward was in especial Manner, were made sen- sent, who, tho' he wanted not Cou. 5. Edmund fible of his Wants. Too much of rage, yet in one Batile. loft 2000 of Abingtheir Money, thus raised, 'tis faid, English Men, and was beaten out of ton, A. B. he expended in Entertainments and the Field.

of Cant. Shows; tho' afterwards the King re In A. D. 1257, was Richard Earl fie&ting on his former Profuseness, of Cornwall, the King's Brother, in Gifts and Entertainments, he elected King of the Romans, and shortened the Allowances of his was crowned at Aquisgrane, having Hoolhold and Entertainments, wish- paid a large Sum of Money for the out any Regard to Majesty. And Honour. At this Time the Earl was to spare his own Charges the more, reputed to possess so mach ready be invited himself now to this Coin, as would every Day, for ten Man's House, now to that ; but no Years, afford him an hundred Marks where contencing himself with upon the main Stock, befides his his Welcome, unless himself and Rents and Revenues in Germany, and his Queen, Son Edward, yea, and the English Dominions. chief Favourites, were presented And now the King relapsed into wich costly Gifts. 'Tis faid, that his own Profuseness, and favouring he was sometimes reduced to that of the Portlovins, and other ForeignPenury, that he was forced to live ers ; the Nobles hereupon came exupon the Alms of the Church. quisitely armed to the Parliament, This King designed, at least pretend- holden at Oxford, with a Refolued, to go for the Holy Land, when tion to force the King and his Athe Parliament granted him large liens to their Propolals; which Aids upon this Condition, That at were, That the King should unthis Time, orice for all, he should feignedly keep the Charter of Lisubmit himself to govern by Law, berties: That such an one Mould be and confirm the Charter of Liber in Place of Justiciary, who would ties, or Magna Charta : Against judge all impartially : That the the Breakers whereof a moit fo- Fo.eigneis fould be expelled the lemn Curfe was pronounced. The Realm : And that Twenty-four King swearing to keep all Liber- Persons Mould there be chosen, to ties, apon Pain of that execratory have the sole Administration of Sentence, “ As he was a Man, a King and State, and yearly appoint

Christian, a Knight, and a King, ing of all great Officers ; relerving ' anointed and crowned'. Yet, to the King the Ceremonies of Honotwithstanding his Oath and the nour; binding themselves by Oath Corse, the King, (wo

or three to see these Things performed, and Years after, caused the Tenth of all the King and Prince swearing to Exgland and Ireland to be collect- observe the Ordination of these difed for his own Use and the Pope's, loyal Barons, who had, by an Ediet the Pope having given the King given out, high Menacings against dom of Sicily to his Son Edmund; all that should refift. The Poistobar the Engliß Subječts were first to vins were so terrified by these viowia it for him; which the Nobles lent Proceedings, that they fled in. peremptorily denied the attempting to France. The giddy People jointhere being Occasion enough for ed with the Barons, as the AsierMoney and Men at Home, the tors of their Liberties; the Lon

1257. doners bound themfelves under their the Tower. Howbeit at London, in

publick Seal, to aflift them in the a Parliament there held, Matters Boniface, common Cause : Richard, King of were pieced up, though shortly afier 4. B. of the Romans, the Barons would not all was rent again, both sides maCant. suffer to come into England, but in a king fresh Preparations for War.

private Manner, with a very small King Henry drew towards Oxford,
Train ; and being landed, they ex where the Rendezvous of his Friends
acted an Oath of him ; and upon and Forces were appointed ; from
Pain of forfeiting all his Lands in which University he dismissed all
England, bound him to join with the Students, being above Fifteen
them in reforming the State, which Thousand, of those only whose
they factiously had assumed to do, Names were entred into the Matri,
having appointed four Knights culation Book. Whereupon many
Commissioners in every Shire, to of them went to the Barons to
enquire of all Oppressions, and to Northampton, whither Henry came,
certify the same to them. And the and breaking in at the Town. Walls,
better to strengthen their Cause, Si- encountred his Enemies, amongit
mon Montford, Earl of Leicester, whom these Students of Oxford had
Head of the Factionists, with o a Banner by themselves, advanced
thers, passed into France, there to right against the King, and did
transact with the King thereof, as more annoy him in the Fight, than
to an in issoluble League. About the rest of the Barons Forces :
which Time, King Henry, for want which the King, (who at length
of Money, or good Counsel, or prevailed) vowed sharply to re-
boh, was induced, upon no very revenge ; but was dissuaded by his
good Terms, for ever to renounce Counsellors, who told him, that
to the King of France all his Right those Students were the Sons and
to Normandy, Anjou, Tourain, Main, Kindred of the great Men of the
and Poistou. But the Fire which Land, whom if he punished, even
had been long in blowing, did now the Nobles, that now stood for him,
break out into a Flame; the King would take Arms against him.
and his Barons taking Arms a The King, encouraged by this
gainst each other. Simon de Mont- Success, advanced his Royal Scan-
ford executes his greatest Revengedard towards Nottingham, burning
on the Queen's Friends, who were and wasting the Barons Lands
Aliens ; not sparing the King's, wheresoever he came. The Barons
who were Free-born Englishmen. sent Letters to him, protesting their
Yet at length a mutual Weariness loyal Observance to his Person, but
inclines Henry and his Barons to all Hoftility to their Enemies who
Peace ; and the King is willing were about him. To which the
that the Statutes of Oxford Tould King returned them a full Defi-
be in Force ; but the Queen was ance, as to Trayors, profeffing that
unwilling; which being known to he took the Wrong of his Friends
the Londoners, it put the baser as his own, and their Enemies as
Sort into so lewd a Rage, that the his. At length the two Armies
being to shoot the Bridge from the met and engaged in Fight, where-
Tower towards Windsor, where in Prince Edward bravely behaved
Prince Edward was ingarrisoned, himself, putting the Londoners to
they with Dirt and Stones, and vil- Flight, pursuing them four Miles ;
lainous Words, forced her back to but in the mean while, bis Father

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