Page images
PDF
EPUB

form all appropriate services, is scarcely ever observed and this order, therefore, thought notformally abrogated may be considered obsolete. It will be observed that Parimèl-azhager seems to consider this as well as the third order as abrogated, as in the preceding extraet from his commentary he as. cribes the mention of them by the Author to deference for opinion.

THE ORDER OP GRIHAST, HAH, 4 m?novo 29, commences on the marriage of the party and his.establishment as the head of a family, and like the former has a two-fold division...First the Yáyávaraca, wir wir 13, who performs the Augásara and other Smarta rites generally, but not the "Srautą oblations or sacrifices, the Agnihotram, Yejnas &e.; such a householder has na fixed means of livelihood, but supports his family by receiving alms, gleaning and similae means. There are four distinctions, namely the Dwa. das'ahicah, 312 corres , the Shad'uhicah, 2802188, the Tryahicah, cel 250 3.8, and the Ashwastanicah, Hou se, who differ from each other in gathering supplies for twelve, six, three days and one day only; the last term may be rendered he takes no care for the morrow. With the exception of the first, which is confined to Brábmans, or to religious persons of other castes who are permitted to marry, these are now, abrogated. Secondly the 'Sálinah, con 15, the substantial house-holder common to all castes, of whom the present Chapter especially treats and to whom the remainder of this work, as far as translated, generally applies. He ought to perform all the Srauta and Smarta ceremonies, but above all hospitality both to strangers and friends and charity towards all men in need are his special duties: in the following extract from the commentary of Vijnyánéswara on the code of Yájoyayalcya the character of the 'Sálínab is concisely desoribed.

RX 4 algunos @ 83 euro 9, y en una

யநயா நய செதாவொகாவத தீரா! He is a Sálinah who performs the shat'carma ( six rites, namely, offering hacrifices or, causing them to be offered, reading and teaching the scriptures, making presents and receiving them), who possesses slaves, and four footed animals, who has a house, a town, wealth and store of grain, and who followe the customs of the world.

TAE ORDER OF VÁNAPRASTHAA, Q 5 Qjam ug E!, was likewise of two descriptions. First, the Ságnih, en my, with a fire, who retiring with bis wife, continued to perform all the rites, Agnihotra, Aupasana, &c. like the 'Sálína Gribast hab, except the "Srauta sacrifices, the Sóma-yejna, Satrayeina &c. Secondly, the Niragnih, now, without a fire, one who re. tired alone, his wife' being dead or remaining in the family residence with ber children, and performed neither the oblations to fire nor any other of the Srauta or Smarta rites, except the Sand, byà.

THE ORDER OF SANYA'SI , ஊதலாலான8; of this four distinctions are noticed. - First, Cutichucah, க டிவக8, who dwells in bis; owll towa and eats inthe llouses of his rclations. --Secondlv, Bihidacalt, ஹாக , who dwells in a town to which he does not belong and collects his food froid house to house. - Thirdly, Hamsah, ஹ ஸ , who, also, collects his food, from many, but never sojourns longer tlian three days in one place. These Teo* taio the lock on the crown and the sacrificial cord and carry a triple staff (tridandam).--Fourthly, Paramahamsah,

2 2 09218, who wanders from place to place like the preceding, but has the lock of his crown shorn, does not wear the sacrificial cord, bears : single stall' teadundunt), and performs no rites whatever, religious or civil, not even repeating the Gayatri.

The following texts state the abrogation in the Cali-yuga of the Naish't bicara Brahmacharyah, the order of Vánaprast hal and various practices permitted and even enjoined to the Grïhast hah in former ages. The first occurs in va. rious commentaries, the work itselt like the Buïlau-mariaram and other test books, to the title of which the epithet brahat great is pxclixed, not being extant.

BRinAN-NA'RADIYA'.
ரேயா நெரிகாா: கணைய ஒயாரண
விஜாநா லவணாஸுகநா உயமேயா

வெராவலதொத தி யை உவெறொவ்ய: ஜாலா தேயாதா. வெவாநஅலாக ஒயா

உதாஷதாயா:கநாயா: நாநவாம் சிகா ஹஜவய்)நாஜெயா ஜெயகௌ ஹோலாநம ந தொஜெயா தயாவை

உஜராய வஜாநகவியமொநாஹுவிண Voluntarily toyaging by sea, the carrying of an earthen water-pot when a house holder.

And the marriage of twice-born nen(Brdhmans, Cshatriyas, and Vaisyas) with virgins of a different caste;.

The raising up seed by the brother of a deceased husbund, and the killing of a cow to treat distinguished guests ;

The offering flesh. in.the cercmonies to ancestors, also, the orderof. Vins. prastala,

And the giving of virgins, who have before been given in marriage, to another liusband:

[ocr errors]

'IUS

Continuing in the order of Brahmachári for a protracted period, the sa. crifice of men and of horses,

The going the great road northwards, untildeath ensues, by way of penance, the sacrifice called Góméd ha (in which a cow was the victim);

These laws the learned say are abrogated in the Culiyuga. Nors. The prohibition of carrying of a water-pot mentioned in the first line is by some stated to apply to the Brahmachari, but it is more generally understood as forbid. ing the use of earthen vessels, except for cookery,and the Brábmans accordingly use them for no other purpose.--Mad,hupercam, which occurs in the third line and is rendered to treat distinguished guests, is composed of madhu, 200,honey and percam, 2 dan mixture; this cerermony consists in presenting to the son-in-law at a marriage, to a priest at a sacrifice or to the prince or other superior at an entertainment, a preparation of milk, curds and clarified butter swectened by honey, and flesh meat; by the ancient law beef is directed to be used on these occasions, and at present the person by whom the offering is made presents it with the word Gau, the cow, to which be who receives it replies utsräjata, let her be released.

All the particulars mentioned in this extract are universally admitted to be peremptorily abolished and should, therefore, never be practised; such is the case, also, with respect to primogeniture, thedrinking of spirituous liquors, the re-admission of deadly sinners after expiation to communion, the loan of a wife for the procreation of children, the indiscrimioate receipt of food by a religious persons, suicide in old-age by falling from a higb-place or into a fire &c. Many practises, though for bidden by some authorities, are countenanced by others and continue, accordingly, wbolly or partially in practice;-such-are, the slaying of Brahmans when violent aggressors, the purchasing of a son for adoption, re-union -after expiation with a woman forcibly violated, pilgrimages by house-holders to distant holy places &c:-among others is the order of Sanyási, and the performance of the Agnihotram, as mentioned in the follow. ing extracts.

NIRNAYA-SIND,HU. கமி ஹொகுவாவாலO உ வெெவதுக.

வொரவ தொத்திக வௌவஜவஜ்யொ The Agnihotram; the sacrifice of a cow, the order of the Sanyási, the use of flesh meat in the ceremonies to ancestors,

And the raising up seed by a brother-in-law.; these five are abrogated in the Caliyuga. .

yy's . . ..
வதா பட்) ஜ ஹனூாணி வதாய் ஐதாரிவ

கலெய் உரமஜிது. இதாசெதாவரிருஹ: உலகநா 2ல முநகத் வொஜா ஹ, ணெ நவிஜாநதா

[ocr errors]

When the four thousundth and four hundredih year

From the commencement of the Caliyuga shall have passed, the taking of the three fires ( Agnihotram),

And of the order of Sanyási shall not be practised by intelligent Bráhmans. Note. The commentators explain that the abolition with respect to the Agnihotram applies to the use of the whole of the Smartágni, or fire prepared for the Aupásana rites, in the performance of the Srauta ceremonies; accordingly the practice in performing the Adhágam now is to take part of the fire, Ard,hád hánam, and not the whole, Serred,ħánam, as in former ages: with respect to the Sanyasi the prohibition is understood to extend to the triple staff only, which is not now in use.

DE'VALAI, யாஉ உண் ஜாமொ யா வ ெ8 அவத்தெ. உலகால வாழிஹொவதா உன் பட்டா 3 வெயமெ

As long as the distinction of castes shall last, as long as a knowledge of the l'éda shall prevail,

So long the order of Sanyási and the ablation to fire shall continue in the Caliyuga.

All the religious orders are by the words of the law exclusively confined to men, with the single exception of the case of the wife of the Sagnivanaprastha ; instances occur, however, in various writings of the existence of female recluses distinct from those thus permitted to accompany their husbands in their retirement; the former of these are called Srámàni.

M290112, the wives of devotees, the latter Sramæn'i, ypaccore, female recluses. But, though the latter are not generally authorized by the Smritis, Menu in a singleinstance mentioosan order of this kind (see the 363rd verse of the eighth Book, (Ashiadhyayam), where the term 22 51 QNT with women who have forsaken the world, is paraphrased by the commentator, and probably with correctness, as they are treated with to respect, being classed with public singers, slaves &c.

c o m o su net nooit with females de. voted 10 celebacy of the Baruld ha sect. In the narrative poems, however, the single female recluse is not anfrequently noticed with great respect: Ráma and Lacshman'a, for example, while on their journey towards Cishcinda after the loss of Sità, are received by a woman of this description, the resident of a hermitage near the sacred pool Pampà. The following extract from the close of the Arunyaca-cándam, 10 M COUT, A Hol oy!Jo, of the Ráinayanam of Válmici describes this interview : the questions here put by Ráma to this female are those appointed by the "Sastras to be addressed to Rishis and Devotees on saluting them, and are used, therefore, in speaking to such personages in various instances in this poein.

Sacred post a womanor ourney toros

RAMA'YANAM. தௌகரிணா : உ உாயாமிராலா. உரி 20 சு உதா ததஜவாதாரகா தௌதஜாகுஜாலா?.?ெெஜஹ் ஹுஜிராதா உலஹிவீஷ தெளவரி உயது: தௌதரவாத ர கா கமாயகர்தாஜவி: ஜராஹஉா உளரா 2 ஆணவயிதை : உாஜா வதிய உாணாயாவியி தாவா வததொரா ணிலO பரிதவதா க இதெநிஜிதாவி உபாக்க ஜிதெவயய தெதவ :

5 | க ஜிதெநியத : கொஉசூ ஹாரா புதவொயநெ க ஜிதெநியரை அவா8க அதெ நே 2WS. கவிதெனுஜா வா வாஹிஹாஷிணி When they í Ráma and Lacshmana) arrived on the west bank of the Pampà lake,

They saw the pleasant hermitage of Sabari.
They, having arrived at the hermitage und beheld it surrounded by trees
And exceedingly pleasant, approached the presence of Sabari ;
And the devotee seeing them arose and, reventially joining her hands,
Grasped the feet of the wise Ráma and Lacshinan a

And presented them with water for the feet and to drink, and with all other things according to the ordinance.

Then Ráma addressed the devote woman, who practiced the austerest penance, and said, ''Are all obstacles to,thy devotion removed? doth thuy penance prosper? O penitent! are thy anger and thy meals alike regulated ? Are all thy religious duties fulfilled ? is thy mind content?

Owoman of genile speech ! huth the service thou hast rendered to thy teachers been productive of benefit?"

From this it would appear that though Nuns are no longer to be fouod in India, more than one description of them existed in ancient times ; the in stitution of them, therefore, during the dark ages in Europe, was in all probability not so original, asona cursoryconsideration of the subject, it would seemto be.

« PreviousContinue »