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What has hitherto been said relates to these orders, as founded on the ordinances of the Smritis and received by those sects whose faith originates in the Vedas. By the Jainer only two orders of life are admitted ; the Digambara, divested of all mortal infirmity and affection, not being considered to belong to this world. These have been already noticed by the terims Srivacah and Yoger, or Yeti, the Laity and Clergy. Some of their characteristic distinctions are contained in the following extracts from two Tamil works in repute with this sect, to which another, containing a concise account of the duties of the four Smárta A'sramas is prefixed, for the sake of more immediate comparison.
ARIV'A'NANDA-SIDDI. தவலசிகையூணபிசசைசாரகவலயோதரைசயன நிவல பெறவே புலனவென றுமுப்போழது நன்னிடடையிலே மவலவ று பிரமச்சாரிகளரவுணணன மாறறியெண்ணெ யவலவந்ததளளி நிலவாதொன்றுதபபிலருநாகே தீயகொ வல்பொயகடகாமமற் றில்ல றஞ்சேரந்தவராக தூயது றவருடனமூகரதேவரக டொல்பி திரகக டாயா நற்பாலரம வணவியாந்தகரதந்தைதமர ஆயுமவிருததரகதியைககாததிலரக்காழநாகே இனியோதன மவிடடுசசாகாதியுணடிங்கிருந்து நிடடை பனி வெயி றனனிற பொருநதிப்பஞ்சாக்கினிபற்றுடைததாயக கனிமிகுகானத்துறை நதைம் புலவனக் கடிந்து நின்றே தனியுறலவானப்பிரததோரவலவிடிற்றாழநாகே சேரநதசிகை நூலொழிததென் றுஞ செந்துகிறேனடெடுத்துப் போந்தகவலகள யோதி முப்போழுதுமபுனன முழு யாரந்தநனனிடடைகளசெய்து பிரமமாரப்பணமாக்கிப் பிசசை
சாரந்தசநதியாசத்திவையொன றுதபபிற்றருநாகே · Wearing a single lock on his head, eating that which is procured by alms, sleeping on the ground, improving in science, subduing completely his senses, meditating on the deity thrice a day, abstaining from food during the night, and the use of oil; if a Bramachári, who should be free from all delusion, fail in any of these observances a cruel hell will be his portion.
Free from criminal slaughter, from falsehood, inebriety and irregular desire, one attached to domestic duty should protect those devoicd to religious obscrvances in the other three orders, together with the Gods, the ancient manes, those in the relation of methers, children, wives, or father's, the blind, the aged, and the poor; if not a profound hell will be their portion,
Renouncing all delicate food, eating vegetable productions only, constante ly meditating on the Deity, enduring cold and heat, kindling around them five fires, retiring to a wilderness abounding in wild fruits, restraining their five serises, and leading a solitary life; if the Vánaprattor forsake the state to which these duties belong, the lowest hell will be their portion. .
Removing the lock from the head and the sacred cord from the body, wearing a taumy cloth, carrying a staff', studying appropriate sciences, biathing thrice a day, being always engaged in the profoundest meditation, give ing all to the Deity, and living wholly on alms; these are the duties incumbent on a Sanniyási; in which should he fail, hell will be his portion.
THE OBSERVANCES OF THE SRAVACA.
கொண்டுயத்தனான காவதம The slaughter of animals with perfect senses, falsehood, theft, irregular desire, and the accumulation of wealth, which are the five heinous sins.
Throwing oneself from a mountain or into a fire, and bathing in sacred rivers ; these are called worldly delusions.
Worshipping Gods subject to delusion, partiality, or anger; this folly is delusion respecting the Deity.
Honoring those us scints who pursue a faulty path; this is heretical folly.
To freruish food, physic, lodging and alt ned dful aid to lolyy men, are the four special dulies of a house-holder.
MỸ ANE RI-CH4 RAM. பிசசையுமையமுமிட்டுப்பிறனறா நிசசலுநோக்காது பொயயொரி ஓ - நிசசலுங் கொல்லாமைகாததுககொடுத்துண்டுவாழவதே யிலவாழககையென்னுமியல்பு
விருந்து புறந்தரான வேளாணமைசெயயான
வில்வா முககையெனபதிருள Alms to holij men and to the poor; never to behold the wife of another ; utterly to eschew falsehood ; to keep oneself from slaughter; and to eut after giving food to others : so to live, is declared to be the essential nature of domestic duties.
He who receiveth not guests hospitably, who is not generous, who doth not honor the truly worthy, or nvvideth not sin by forsaking the world; by thus acting is said to darken the dumnestic state.
OBSERVANCES OF THE YETI.
முறறுந் துறக்கப்படும் Torefrain wholly from the practise of the five heinous sins, of which the destruction of creatures is the chief, is perfect devotion.
All inundane affection, anger, and connection with relations must be to. tally avoided.
தனவனயுயக் கொள்வது Truth, humility, respect, devotion, temperance, impartiality, the forsak ing of all things, retirement, benevolence, and pertinacious abstinence; the derotee who is endowed with these ten virtues possesses the highest qualities,
Constantly encreasing in knowledge, and being divested of all selfish feeling, he ought to keep the five senses in subjection, but yet to cherish them, and thus, protecting all living, he should make wisdom flourish.
Slaughter, it will be observed is forbidden, to the Smarta Grahast ha, as well as the Srávaca, but the acceptation of the word with the respective sects differs materially. In the first case it is qualified by the epithet criminal, and applies to the slaying of animals by Brahmans, except for sacrifice, and by other castes in any mode contrary to the established ordinances. In the latter case, where it is qualified by the epithet great, it extends to the destruction of animal life on any account, bloody sacrifices not being offered by the Jainer, and even to the use of vegetables, or vegetable productions in which the principle of life remains, such as roots of all kinds, fresh fruit and fresh grain; this, however, though not accounted meritorious, is partially, permitted to the Srávaca, but wholly forbidden to the Yeti. In this respect there is difference worthy of notice between the followers of the three religions which had their origin in India. Those who observe the ordinances of the Sruti and Smriti are permitted both to slaughter animals and to eat their flesh according to prescribed rules; the Bauddhas are forbidden to slaughter animals, but it is lawful for them to eat their flesh when slain by others; both the slaughter of animals and the use of their flesh are forbidden to the Jainas, who are, also, much more restricted in the use of vegetable food than the others. This distinction is the cause of a deadly feud between the last mentioned sects. The Jaina ubjects to flesh being eaten by the Bhaudd, ha as being contrary to the precept both are bound to observe; that is H2O 21 T a walas, to refruin from slaughter is the highest duty. The Baudd, ha replies,--I incur sin only by slaying animals, not by eating their flesh when slain by others. The Jaina answers, You incur sin in either case. for by using their flesh, you encourage those who expose it for sale in the market, and are, therefore, the primary cause of the destruction of the ani. mals they slay.
The Brahmachári only, is prohibited by the Smritis from taking food during the night; but this is forbidden generally to the Jainer, and the reasons assigned are that ants and other small animals cannot then be seen and might, therefore, be unconsciously swallowed with the food, and that Bhútas, Bétálas and other demons, who might cause defilement by eating out of the same dish, are then wandering about.
The SRA'Y ACAH,191 219 , is of three grades; the JAG HANYAM, 21:150, the MADHYAMAM, Ellis) , and the UT'TAMAM,
2 52 o. 'The first are the worldly sort who though professing the religion are scarcely considered as belonging to this community; the second are more strict in diet and correct in religious observance; the third, though still continuing in the marriage state, practise merely the same austerities as the Yeti. The second of these comprehends the great body of the Jaina Laity, and by them the following rules, in ad lition to those already stated, should be observed. They are collected from Retnocaran'dacain, It 415 500 J d.o the cabinet of jewels, the original of the Tamil abridgement quoted under the similar title of Arungala-cheppu,
173168 NE@FW4.-Those things which a Madhyama Srávaca should observe are as follows:-He should have a firm faith in Jinéswara, the Lord of the three worlds, who is crowned by a triple umbrella, and whose appearance is most glorious, placing, as it were, his feet on the core of the beart; he should be zealous for the truth; should consider victue as the friend and sin as the enemy of life; should clearly comprehend the difference between heaven and final beatitude; when repeating his daily prayers and performing his devotion in the morning, noon and evening, he should offer libations of water, Arghyam, to the Divine Being only, who is worshipped by all living: he should practise four kinds of discipline, by never passing the bounds of the country in which he resides, by vowing the performance of good works, by fasting on alternate days and by honoring religious persons: on the four Parvams, namely on the eighth and fourteenth day of the moon and on the day of the new and full moon, he should observe a fast as strict as his strength will allow... Those things he should avoid are:-inordinate care for woridly wealth: the several kinds of fear, namely the dread of this world and of the other, the dread of inability and of the discovery of the thoughts, the dread of death, of destiny and of disease: the desire either of living longer or of dying sooner: gambling, eating flesh-meat, drinking spirits, frequenting the company of harlots, hunting, seducing the wives of others, and theft, which are the seven causes of affliction: the offering of libations of water to the Sun; bathing during eclipses; worshipping the fire with various rites as a deity; prostration behind a cow; the consecration of precious stones, vehicles and weapons; bathing in the sea and in rivers, as a purification froin sin; the dedication of mounds of earth and stones; suicide by falling from a inountain or into the fire, these and all similar worldly follies: also the superstitious folly of worshipping Gods, influenced by affection or aversion, for the purpose of obtaining special endowments; and the heretical folly of believing that to be the true path in which those walk, who are inyolved in the whirlpool of life, and debased by avarice and the destruction of creatures: eating of the fruit of the Fig-tree, the Arasu, the A'l, the Callal, or the Ilandei, which all contain animalculæ, or of honey. Moreover he must not receive as Gods those that are not Gods, as Gurus those who are not Gurus, or as the principles of nature (tatwa) those which are not such; and be must abstain from three things, namely, from quitting his native place, from giving to others either weapons or tools by which life may be destroyed, and from excess in gratifying the senses, either in minor pleasures, as in smelling perfumes or listening to music, or in higher gratifications, as in eating delicious meats, or enjoying the society of beautiful women.
Daryone one who lives in domestic happiness, a house-holder; composed of me a house and window the fu. pro. part. sing. in the masc, of ou114250 to live, flourish.-67&T UIT he may be called; the