Page images
PDF
EPUB

3rd per. fu. sing. of oreo y a to say.-Owny nature, quality.-

0 w having ; the indef. part. of the appellative root 2.60) - pos ou virtue is here understood and w460w, therefore, means possessing the quality of virtue.-ext&3 to the three persons.--06 good.- P w in the way ; the 7th or loc. case of eg g standing; the gen : of 6). The final 6) of the preceding term coalescing with the initial is converts it by Sandhi lo su, galder an aid.

**CQDlano

II. துறந்தாரக்குந்துவவாதவர்க்கும் இறந்தார்க்குமிலவாழவானென்பானறுவன

Domestic virtue is to him ascribed, (e)
Whose care befriends the pious and the poor

And aids departed souls. “ The pious”'_by supplying both their own wants and those of their families, so as to prevent the interruption of their religious duties; “ the poor”-by alms; and “ departed souls"_by performing the funeral rites for strangers or for those who leave no relations to discharge this duty, thereby securing to them the attainment of happiness in a future state of existence.

Piety towards the dead by performing, or supplying the means of performing the rites of cremation or sepulture for those to whom otherwise these duties would not paid, is considered by the Hindus as peculiarly meritorious; for, according to their belief, in which they agree with the nations of ancient Europe, it is these ceremonies that facilitate the progress of the soul towards it's destination in the next life;. each act, as they proceed, producing successively a corresponding change in the condition of the disembodied spirit, until it again connects itself with material substance, in this, or in some superior or inferior world, or, should it be divested of all affection for matter, until it is received into that blissful state in wbich it is liable to no further change.

o change in material divested.on it is liabi

817B LA to those who have renounced the world, to religious men; The pron. part. past of SD $$v to renounce, forsake, in the masc. plu. and dat, case. This and the last term with which it is conjoined are instances of the 3rd per. of the v. Used as a part. .- guers QUO 8 Bm and lo those who have no sensual enjoyment, lo the indigent, the plu. of the neg. pron, mase, of $$$ which siguifies primarily to eat, secondarily to enjoy by any of the organs of sense.-99 15 G17B and to those who have died; the same as the first term, from 1996 to die. These three terms are united by the conjunction e.. repeated after each.- LOUNG a house-holder.-660 We may be called.-9 aboy the protection; this term is here, as in other places, used personally.

III. தென்புலத்தாரதெயவம விருந்தொக்கரு

னென்றாங் கைம்புலத் தாறோம் பறவல் Thine ancestors deceased, thy God, thy guest Thy relatives, thyself; these cherished, know

Of life the five great duties are fulfilled. "Of life"--Tbis is understood in the original, the fire dutiesstated being those of domestic life, or of the second order; which, following the principles established in the preceded Chapter, may be referred to the sources, whence all virtuous impulse really derives its origin;mato the desire of avoiding pain or of sharing pleasure.

This couplet intimately corresponds with following, being the 27th verse of the Third Chapter of Menu“ On Marriage or the Second order."

வெதாதியிஐதரா நா உணராஜாதாநய :

நநி உதி உஉாநா ஊலஜி உதி The Deity, his guest, his dependants, his deceased ancestors, and himself; He who does not duely maintain these five, though he breathe, lives not.

In the context to this verse are described the PANCHA-MAHÁ'YEJNY AN, 2 Joa argit us , or five great sacraments, wbich it is incumbent on every house-holder to perform and for which he maintains his domestic fires. Each of these has reference to one of the duties prescribed by Menu and alluded to by Tiruvalluver, and collectively embrace the whole of the daily rites, whether Srauta or Smárta, previously explained. The first is that which relates to duty towards hinself, and by which he acquires that perfect knowledge that enables him to maintain right and eschew evil; it is called AHU TAM, Hi20.30, unoffered, and in the same as Swadhyayah, the study of the Scriptures. The second regards the duty of religion, it is called HUTAM, 277 $0, offered, and consists in the oblations in fire in the A'd hánam, Agnihotrain and other rites; it is the sa

crament of the deities. The third illustrates the duty of benevolence, not merely towards relations and friends, buttowards all animated beings; its name is PraHUTAM, 2/29 gowell-offered, and it is performed by offering dressed food to living creatures; it is the sacrament of spirits, that is of living spirits, whence enBues animal life, not rational souls. The fourth relates to the duty of hospitality, it is named Brán MYA-HUTAM, 12m2) 270.90, offered to Brahmans and others and is explained to be the reception of guests with due respect; it is the sacramentof men. The fifth, which regards the duty owed to deceased ancestors, is called PRÁ'SITAM, 2 Mwogo, well eaten, and is completed, by satisfying the Manes, either by the simple Terpana libation, or by tbe performance of the daily "Sradd ham.

தென்புலத்தார, from தென the south and புலம் a place, because the Manes are supposed to inhabit the southern regions, ancestors.- su Qin the Divinity. This is a Sanscrit word, in which language Q2210 in the neu. and 2218 in the masc. have the same signification; etymologists derive them from the word au shine.- es gi guests. 09866relations. The word means propinquity, but is here used personally-816 himself. The final as and initial & here coalesce and are converted to 0.30 mu the ger. of D 6: it may here le .considered expletive.

thus.--Hlyns , from * w five-and 400w as before, in five places : the obl. used for the loc. ,- m the right way.-quwn to preserve.—gab, is the chief, lit. the head. The w and s are here changed as before.

IV. அன்புமறனுமுடைத்தாயினில் வாழககை பண்பும் பயனுமது

(0) If love and virtųe be thy constant guests, Domestic life is blest and finds in these

It's object and reward. ..". It's object and reward-The-word here rendered object is wory nature, quality, and is thus explained by Parimèl-azhager,-a uth BOUT OU றகுநெஞசொன் றாகாதவழியில்லறங்கடைபோகாமையினனபுடைமைய SU WO

As the duties of domestic life cannot,otherwise be rightly and completely discharged, withone mind, by the husband and wife, the possession of afection is an essential quality for necessary condition, or main object). The words with which the second line of this version concludes, though not in the original, are added to complete the sense here indicated.

அனபும் love, affection. - அறனும் and virtue. - உடைத்தாயின if possessed; compounded of e LBN the 3rd per. neu, of the appellative root உடை and ஆயின., the subj. of ஆதல் (o become. - இல் வாழககை of domestic life ; a comp. fron இல் a house and வாழக்கை a derivative from a nesed to live, flourish.--- Tuy the quality, condition. --WWG fruit, benefit, reward.-en and; the preceding terms are united by the repetition of this conj. of which the first, to preserve the full force of the expression, may be rendered both and the second

4 that is. The connected version of the sentence QR 4806 Loor YoWW SILA 9, the subs. v. being supplied, is--il(virlue) is both the condition and reward of domestic life.

-..@Slas...

V.

ஆற்றினொழுக்கிய றனிழுக்காவில் வாழககை நோற்பாரினோனமையுடைத்து (4)

He who from virtue swerves not, but her path
To others shews, gained in domestic life,

More merit hath than the Recluse can boast. " Merit"_The word in the original 1816T OL means religious merrt; the virtue derived from seclusion and penance Tiruvalluver, justly coneluding that active virtue must be more meritorious in the eyes of the Deity; than the passive virtue of the recluse, here maintains its superiority. His commentator, however, says, -50 Londesso 960 BOLU P, CS WWW dan வார நிவல போறபிறரையுறற நோயுமபொறுததவினமையினோற பாரி B CT 6040 44 60L @ 86T OF As penitents.endure only the pains which they themselves suffer, and not, also, like those in the state of house-holders, the pains which others suffer, endurance is less in the state of a penitent, and, Therefore, the Author says that their merit is greater than that of peniterits.

There is a work in Tamil, evidently of a modern date, entitled Maga-nidisúláman'i (LABII M -1668), in which a couplet from each Chapter though the three Books of the Cural' is worked into a stanza addressed to lrangésara, the Deity of the holy place of Srirangam, and to wbich a short story by way of illustration is appended. The verse selected from this Chapter, which immediately precedes the one here translated and, though differently expressed, is of the same import, is included in the following quotation. The intention of the example, wbich accompanies it, is to shew, that the merit arising from a due performance of domestic duties is so great, as to extend even to the casual connections of the party, and to induce the Gods to bestow their favors on those who have not only not conciliated them, but have worshipped at other altars.

பத்துடனான கில்ல மபரகதிக்கொண்டேகினான
இத்தல் மேலாழவாரிரங்கேசா - விததம . .
இயல்பினானில் வாழக்கைவாழ்பவனென்பான

முயல் வாருளெல்லாந்தவல் - எது பி திராராத வன தேவாராத வினயதிதி பூசை தன வனத் தாங்கற றன னுடைய குடுமபா தாங்குகை யிநத வைந்து வகை வேளவியு நடத்தியி யலுடனே வாழுங் கிரக ஓனானவனிலவாழககை சமுசாரி பஞ்சாக்கினி மத தியிலே யூசி முனயிலே தபசுபணணுகிற பெயர்களுக்கும் தவவமையான வனெனறு குறனிலே திருவுளம் பற றியருளினா - அதற்கு தாரணம் - கஞ சனூராழவாரில் வாழககை தப்பாமனடந்து தமக்கு நெருப்பிடுதுவணயாக விருநதபதினாலு வீட்டுள்ளாரக்கும் பதவி கொடுககுமபடிக்குரிடபவாகன ரூடராயசசிவனெழுந்தருள - அந்தப்பதினாலு வீட்டுடையோரும் பாஞ்சரா ததிரிகளாகியவையிடடணவராகையினாறறாங்கண முருங்கைக் கொமபைப் பிடிக்கவிலவல விட்டுணுவைநமபியிருக்கிறோமென்றாழவாரோ நீராபரமப தததுககெழுந்தருளுமெனனவப்போது ஆழவாரீ லபரவணவேண்டவீலப் ரன சங்குசககாாயுதபாணியாயக கருடவாகனரூடாரய வந்து பதினாலுவிட்டு டையவாகவளேயுங் கூடவழைத்துக் கொண்டுபோகப்பேறு பெற்றாரில்ல்ற ததைவிட்டுத் துறவறத்தினினறு தவசுபணணியொருவரகவளரக்கூடவழைத துப்போனபேரிலவலயே யாதலாற் கிரக நீ திதப்பாமனடந்தகிரகஹன்றவசு பணனுகிறபேரகளிலுந் தவலமையானவனென்று சொல்லுவதெனறவாறு

The Azhwar (saint) who dtuelt in this holy-place entered into the highest felicity with fourteen other householders, 0 Irangésara! because ever , - HE WHO LIYETH IN THE DISCHARGE OF ALL DOMESTIC DUTIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR TRUE NATURE, IS CHIEF AMONG DEV.OTEES.

The house-holder, living according to the rules of his order and performing the five sacraments, by which the honors due to the manes and lares, the duties of hospitality, his own-self, and his family are maintained, is superior to those zcho practise austerities on spikes and needles in the midst of five fires : thus in this couplet he hath been pleased to declare his sacred mind. Of this the following is an example. While Canjenùr Azhwar discharged without failure all the duties of domestic life, the bull-borne deity, Siven, was pleased to appear to offer to him and to fourteen other house-holders, who

வரா

A

« PreviousContinue »