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go Quer I am a hard man, gawir masc. and fem. gnw neu. they are hard &c. gynouson ye are &c. OM@wia we are &c. It must be observed that the neuter form only can have the absolute meaning of the verb, all the rest include the idea of personality ; தியரியை and அரசனவில்லினான must be construed thou art a hard man, and the king is a bowman, or the possessor of a bow, not thou art a hard, or the king has a bow. At the same time that appellatives have the form and regimen of verbs, they have also the form and regimen of nouns, and they are then called hester 66 Dwwwww the appellative indicative of the verb. used as a noun ; thus gipsow, anappellative conjugated in the second person singular may be declined through every case as a noun, as gloow thou art a hard man nom.,- fi cow u thou art &, grill 600wwroom by or with thee a hard man, gynowego to thee &c., அரியையில from thee &c., அரியையது of thee &c., அரியைக்கண in thec &c. This extraordinary idiom is the cause of a peculiar terseness and energy of expression in the High Tamil, as the following examples of the regimen of the conju. gated appellative will shew, which, perhaps, no other language can imitate.-Con 19-20. GuardowL2-sru thou a person of a cruel disposition hast beaten me a poor miserable man; here 08019cow an appellative conj. in the 2d pers. sing. is the nom. to the verb, and a sigwaldo conj. in the first pers. the ac. governed by it; to express the meaning of this sentence would require in low Tamil as many words, as it does in English, as-it must be rendered கொடுமையுள்ள வனாயிருககிற நீசிறு மையுளளவனாயிருக்கி றவெனவனயடிததாய:- அரிய வெளியவாககுவேன I can make hard things easy, here the two first terms conj, in the 3rd pers. plu. neu. are governed in the ac.. by the verb.

IX. காளில் பொறியிற் குணமிலவே யெண

குணத்தான றாளை வணங்காத் தவில் Of virtue void, as is the palsied sense, The head must be, that bows not at his feet,

Whose eight-fold attributes pervade the world. " As is the palsied sense”--the original says the irreverend head is like an organ of sense void of it's peculiar property, as an eye, which has lost it's sight, or as an ear that is deaf: the effect of the palsy being thus to destroy the powers of all the organs; this version, though not exact to the words, evidently conveys the general idea of the author.

Whose attributes eight-fold pervade the world” - Preparatory to the detailed consideration of this verse, of which it is especially worthy, I shall give a literal translation of the whole couplet.

The head which does not worship the feet of him who has eight qualities has itself no quality, being like an organ of sense, which has not it's peculiar property.

The qualities here intended are the principal attributes of the deity, limited by the Author to eight. An enquiry into the deviation and purport of the terms by which these are expressed will tend to elucidate the notions received among the Hindus respecting the nature of the Godhead ; I shall examine, therefore, at some length the commentary of Parimèl-azhager on this verse, adding, for the sake of further illustration, an explanation of the attributes as contained in the Vedas. Moreover, to shew in what degree the Catholic writers have availed themselves of the terms in use among the several Hindu sects and with what ingenuity they have contrived to render them the vehicle of their own doctrines, I shall state those employed by the R. J, C. Beschi and others to express the six attributes admitted by them. The commentary of Parimel-azhager is as follows, -- 67 67 15 Su Kama Quem - Spor வயததனாதல் - தூயவுடம்பினனாதல் - இயறகையுணர்வினனாதல் - முற றுமுணர்தல் - இயல்பாகவே பாசங்களை நீங்குதல் - பேரருளுடைமை முடிவிலாற்றலுடைமை - வாமபிலிபைமுடைமை - எனவிவை - இவ வாறுசைவாகமத்து கூறப்பட்டன- அணிமாவை முதலாகவுடையவனெ னவும் - கடையிலாதவறிவைமுதலாகவுடையவனெனவுமுரைப்பாருமுளர். This passage indicates three explapations of the expression occuring in text, "eight fold attributes"; namely, first that given by himself from the A gamas ;;

seeondly, that given by those who say that the qualities termed animà and the · rest are meant ; thirdly those enumerated in the verse commencing, cadei


First, with respect to the attributes as propounded in the Agamas, I shall analyze the several phrases here used, giving the meaning of each as usually explained by Hindu writers. First, தனவயத்த னாதல from தன his own வயத்த ன possessor 8 god to be : the souls of material beings are necessarily subjected to matter, with which they are connected and independently of which they cannot act ; this is called upon the bondage of the Soul, from which the ime material spirit is free. This attribute may be translated The Independent, or, aster Beschi, as that, which is independent of all must be paramount to all, The self-existent Lord of all. Secondly, Bitwa L ula OSN from sous purte cu o embodied and on : not subject like created beings to the incidents of birth, life and death and all the illusions of mandane existence, but assuming at pleasure, for the purpose of manifesting himself, a corporeal form of perfect purity; it may be rendered, -The Ever-Pure. Thirdly, BW D ay

ணர்வினனாதல் from இயறகை nature, property 2.ணர்வினன hewhopossesses knowledge and 399; not acquiring knowledge through the medium of the sensual organs, by pedance, meditation and other means, but possessing itintuitively, ---The intuitively Wise. Fourthly, BAP SA soor ied from som gls wholly, entirely and een sov to know; he whose faculties, not subjected to the alternations of watchfulness and sleep, nor liable to any iuterruption, are at all times in active operation,-The infinitely Intelligent. Fiftbly, is our

QWn&kor & vo 96 from Quy nature wifi salon snares, bonds and US$6) to be separated from neu. ; he who, though constantly witness. ing the operations of matter, cannot by his nature be affected by it's illusions or impeded by it's restrictions, -The Immaterial. Sixthly, CuO5 65:from @wi great 20wkindness, mercy andel spossession, The Most. merciful. Seventhly, 41200 -60% from Gugann endless og றறல power and உடைமை :'hewho whose power is constant being subject neither to increment nor decrement,- The infinitly Powerful. Eightbly, வரமபிவின்ப முடைமை from வரமயில் boundless இனபம happiness and 26020W: he whose happiness is not liable to destruction or intermission, The infinitely Happy.

Secondly, the qualities referred to in Parimèl-azhager's commentary by the words"animà and the rest'' the ash'ta aiswaryam or ash'ta mahà sidd ki, the eight great powers, are not properly the attributes of God, but certain faculties appertaining indivisibly to divine nature, and; as such, not confined to the Supreme Being alone, but participated by all who rank as Deities. The possession of these powers constitutes the distinction between divinity and humanity, they are innate to the superior Deities, as Brahma, Vishnu, 'Siva and Indra, but they may be obtained by other beings and even by men by the performance of the a't ha-yógam and are exercised, accordingly, by Nárada, Atri and the other Rïshis and Patriachs, who have acquired them by this nicans. They are thus enumerated in the Amara-simhma and explained in the Commentary on that work entitled Guru-bála. prabó, hica. First, Odan animà ; the power of reducing his bulk to the size of an atom.

Second, in an mahimà ; the power of increasing his bulk illimitably. Third, yulan garimà; the power of counteracting the law of gravity by rendering himself heavy. Fourth, 25 anleg himà; the power of counteracting the law of gravity by rendering himself light. Fifth, வா உ prdpti; the power of obtaining the fulfilment of everydesire. Sixth, வாகா 2) pracdmya the power of penetrating every where, unrestrained by natural obstacles. Se venth, எமிதா is' itd the power of compelling all creatures to act according to the will of the possessor. Eighth, youe so vás'ità the power of assuming any shapeat pleasure.

Thirdly, the verse referred to in the commentary as containing anenumeration of tbe attributes differing from that given is the following.

கடையிலாஞானத்தோடுகாட்சிவீரியமேயின பம
மிடையு றுநாமமினமைலிதித்த கோத்திரங்களின்மை
யுடைய வனயாவன மற் றிவவுலகி னுக்கிறைவனாமே.



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Of the eight attributes here mentioned four are possitive and four negative. The positive attributes to each of which the epithet கடையிலாத, endless infinite must be considered as 'common, are-first, ஞானம infinite wisdom: secondly, காட்சி infinite intelligence ; thirdly, வீரியம் infinite power; fourthly. இனபம infinite happiness. The negative attributes are-6rst , நாமமினமை without a name ; sccondly, கோத்திரமினமை without a tribe ; thirdly, ஆயு வினமை without sinility ; fourthly, அந்தாாயமினமை without impediment. This verse the 76th of the 12th Part of the Dictionary entitled Sulaman'iNigan'du follows the doctrines ofthe Jaiva'sect to which the author, Mandalapurusha, belonged. The attributes are similarly enumerated, with the exception of the last, in the following explanation of this couplet in the commentary on the Curals in use among the Jainer attributed to Cavi-raya-pav diten ;சுவாமிககெடடுககுணங்களாயன - அனநத ஞானம - அனந்ததரிசனம - அன நதவீரியம் அனந்தசுகம - பிர் நாமம் - நிர்ககோத்திரம் - நிராயுஷியம - சகல சமமியக் ததுவ மெனனு நத வெட்டுக் குணங்களையுடையசரவககிஞனபா தங்கவளா வணக காததவலபிண ததோடேசரியென்றவாறு. The terms there employed are Sanscrit; அனநத is the same as கடையிலலாத; the second attribute அனநததரிசனம signifies infinite perception, correspending nearly with the expression used in the preceding enumeration, but the last differs

considerably being composed of the words en e' all and even #goodness and signifying The All-bountiful : in some dictionaries this attribute is by you wirausan indestructibility. According to the Jaina doctrine these attributes are considered as perfections of the divine nature, contra-distinguished to an equal number of defects to which human nature is subject ; these are thus enumerated in the verse following that above quoted from the Nigan 'du.

மனனியவறிவுகாட்சி மறை ததல வேதனியத்தோடு
துன னுமோகனியமாயுத்தொடர் நாமகோத்திரங்கள்
முனனுறுமநதராயமொழிந்தவென குற்றமாகும்

இன்னவை தீர்ந்தோனியாவனியாவர்க்குமிறைவனாமே. The eight defects here stated are the imperfection of human wisdom, the obscuration of intellect, the weakness to which man is liable, either from plea. sure or pain, the delusion to which he subjected by desire and other passions, designation by name, division into tribes and families, decay from old-age, and, finally, the thraldom in which he is held by the various impediments that matter opposes to his exertions. In the last line of the preceding verse the author says, he who possesses all these qualities is the Lord of this world, and in concluding this he adds, he who is free from all these defects is the Lord of all, The Jainer reckon one hundred and forty eight variations of the eight defects here stated.

The beings subject to these defects are man and other creatures, entangled in the bonds of matter and liable to mortal births; that being, who is not only free from these defects, but has attained the contrary perfections, has released himself from the bonds of matter and is no longer subject to mortal births, is God, the Supreme Being. Imperfection may be compared to darkness and perfec. tion to light; darkness, it is true, is only the absence of light, but in order of existence it precedes it, for light accedes to darkness not darkness to light; where darkness is and has ever been light may come, but where light is darkness cans not come: imperfection, therefore, like matter, of which it is the attribute, is without beginning, eternal ex parte ante. But, though defect is thus originally inherent in nature, it is not permanent and all beings, consequently, may free themselves from it. Perfection is not inherent but attainable; it is the ultimate end of nature, towards which all her operations tend. When, therefore, a being has divesteď bimself of inherent defect, he necessarily attains perfection,-he becomes God.

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