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Commencing with this Chapter the remainder of this division of the First Book teats,-first on good qualities, 15 o C.37 1566, under which term are included the principal virtues of domestic life, secondly on good acts, 5 O W65.8661, or the duties of that state. Among these the chief virtue is love or affection and the chief duty hospitality, and to these, therefore, the precedency is given by the Author. Some make this the First Chapter of the First Part of the First Book, On domestic life, and all preceding introductory; because the Second, On retirement, commences with the Chapter corresponding with this, On benevolence. Of the terms whence three Chapters derived their titles, the first, 9GTH, is explained to mean that special affection which man feels for all connected with him in the several relations of wife, child, kindred friend, neighbour &c. and may be rendered love, affection, tenderness, friendship. By the second, Tor, is intended that general affection which man in religious or philosophical retirement should feel for all creatures; this corres. ponds with the terms benevolence, philanthropy, pity, compassion charity, inercy. In attributing these virtues to the social and retired man respectively, the Indian moralist does not mean, however, to confine them to either; they must be considered as the special, not the exclusive qualities of the two classes.

The following quotations from Parimèl-azhager's commentary will further explain these distinctions: the first is from his introduction to this Chapter, the second from that perfixed to the First Chapter of the Division, On retirement.

அன்புடைமை - அஃதாவதவவாழக்கைத் துவணயும் புதலவருமுதலியதொ டாபுடையாரடகாதலுடையனாதல் - அதிகாரமுறைமையுமிதனானேவிள ங்கும் - இல்ல றமினி து நடத்தலும் பிறவுயிரகண மேலருளபிறத்தலுமனபி பையனாத வினிது வேண்ட பட்டது - வாழககைத்து வினமேலனபில்வழி யில்லற மினிது நடவாமை - அறவொரக்களித்தலுமந்தணரோமபலுந் துற வோரப் பேணலு ந தொலலோர சிறப்பின விருந தெதிர கோடலு மிழந்த வெனவனயெனபதனானும றிக . அதனாலருளபிறத்தலருளெனனுமனபின் குழவியெனபதனானுமறிக.

This title loving-kindness relates to the affection a man hus for his wife, his children, and all connected with him in any relation. The purpose of this chapter is thus to be explained. The fruits of atfection are to conduct domestic affairs, so as to produce pleasure, and cause man to be benevolent to allliving: this rcill be explained hereafter. If love for the wifeerist not domestic affairs cannot be satisfactorily conducted, as is exemplifier in the verse beginning" Me, the forsaken, who have always been liberal to the virtuous, have cherished Brahin(ins, have been charitable to ihe devout, and have solicited the visits of guests according to the example of the ancients &c. (see the 15th Fable of the Silapp'adigáram, WWW.9SN - 28800667609,) Universal benea volence, being indeed born of it, may be considered the child of love.

OT

முதற்கணருளுடைமை கூறுகின்றா - அஃதாவது.தொடாபுபறற இய பாகவெல்லாவுயிரகணமேலுஞ செல்வதாகியகருவிணை - இல்லறத்திறகன புடைமை போலித்துறவறத்திறகுசசிறந்தமையின முறகூறப்பட்டது

In the commencement ( of this part ) he treats on benevolence, which signifies, that kindness which extends to all living, without being connected with them by any tie. As the chapter on loving-kindness (properly) commences the part on domestic virtue, so this precedes all those on the virtues of the Recluse,

As the quotations hitherto made from the Sanscrit bave, from the nature of the subject, been generally confined to writings, which, though affording frequent instances of the sublime, both in thought and expression, exhibit none of the minor graces of poetry; I have inserted in this chapter a series of verses in that language in various measures and in a labored and rhetorical style, amplifying the leading thoughts of the several Couplets translated. They are the compisition of Védam Patáb, hi-Ráma Sástri, the Head Master for Hindu Law and the Sanscrit and Telugu Languages in the College of Fort St. George, and are given, as written by the Author, in the Telugu Character.

SANSCRIT STANZAS.

అనుష్టుప్
నక వాటమనుక్రోశంజాతమంత ని గూహితుం
అహంపూవి కయాబాష్ప : స్వ తోయతాక్పవత-తె

స్వాగతావృత్తం
శృత్రి వై ముఖవి కారవిలాపై
నాణటయంతివిత థామనుకంపాం
వ్యజ్య గేమన సివస్తు సతీసా
గద్గద ప్ర సరద ర్రు నిపా జై

స్వాగతావృత్తం
యఃపరవ్య సనభావనయోష్మా
తెననవ్య నవనీతమివా స్య
మానసం ద్రవతిత స్య వి సారో

మంతుచకురుపయాతి సబాస్పః There is no door which can conceal love when it eristeth in the heart, For the tears will immediately bur'st forth striving which shall be first.

By deceitful tears, however, and an assumed change of countena:rce,
Men often feign u foctitious love;
It may be known, when it really existeth in the breast,

By the tears gushing spontaneously from the eyes intermingled with convulsive sobs.

From the knowledge of other's griefs an internal heat ariseth
And by this, like new butter,
The mind of man is melted, and, overflowing,
Gusheth forth from the cyes and produceth tears.

அனபிறகு to love ; the dat. of அனபு governed by the following verb.-e. this particle is here an emphatic, and in connexion with the following term must be rendered is there even in the Latin versi. on 6estne etiam amoris sera?"-LOGOL is there formed by addi. tion of the inter. particle to the 3rd pers. neu. sing. of the def. V. em to be, erisl.-2604a3'which can shut up; the fu. part. of 60499 to shut up.--$1 is a bolt; a nom. under regimen with the preceding part. and governing e -goano of lovers; the nom. plu. for the gen..--48, for yo, littte, small in quantity; used adjectively and qualifying the following compound.- of, from 86 the eye and நீர water, lears ; the nom. 10 தரும். -- பூச றரும , for பூசல் Bosco, the being regularly formed by the coalition of n and synonyinous occording to the commentator with SSD M D ou will cause a shower, but meaning properly will cause war, or a loud noise.- , the 3rd pers. sing. neu of su sa to give, governs the word with which it is conjoined in the nom, with the force of the ac.

II, அறத்திற்கேயனபுசாரபெனபாறியார மறத் திறகுமஃதேது வணை

The ignorant say that love is virtue's friend;

But know that love the wicked aideth more. - The wicked aidcth more"_That is virtue requires no external assistance being all sufficient to herself ; to vice, however, degraded and despised, the consoling protection of love, or friendship, is most beneficial, Vice in the object beloved is not then, according to the Author, a necessary cause of the extinction

C

of love? certainly not, for the intrinsic affections' cannot be influenced by extrinsic causes. What no bolt can restrain, vo extraneous circumstances can affect; for love is born autogeneously in the mind of the lover ( t z in Sanscrit. 99 for in Tamil, that which is born in the mind, is one of its usual epithets) and exists independently of the worthiness or unworthiness of the object beloved; its valure is so pure that no association can contaminate it. By explaining a ne ( malum odi et catera mala quae inde sequuntur") to mean, hatred, or it's effects, injury, the commentators give to this verse a different meaning: their juterpreation is-when a persop having received an injury does good to the evil doer, he not only acts virtuously, but the evils are averted which would arise from prosecuting the feud; hence love, not only promotes virtue, but it prevents what is contrary to it. The words of Parigiél. azhager are a

florarun Gaura and those of the Latin commentator" unde infertur, quod amor con modo virtutis exercitium promovet, sed etiam ea quæ virtuti contraria sunt avertit.” But the Author does not say it averts or assists to uvert; he says it assists, and it is surely going to far to sav, that, when a man, from moral preference, returns good for evil, he can be actuated by affection for his enemy. In this version, I have followed, therefore, the simple meaning of the words of the Author amg PO100 l o to vice, also, affection is assuredly an aid.

SANSCRIT STANZAS.

అనుష్టుప్
థమాణ లంబమను క్రోశం ప్రవదంత్యమనిషిణ్య
అధమస్యాయమాలంబోలొ కయోరుభయోరపి

శిఖరిణీవృత్తం
అనుక్రోశారతుత్యలమయశసాలో కవిధుతం
నరందీనంసాధుజనయతి దివంచానుకృతినః
సుతోదౌహిత్రో వాసు కృతనితరో వాటరచయ?
తదు — కెనాలం బనమయమధమ స్య నిభృతం

వంశ స్థవృత్తం . అపాపకోపాతపతాపరతు కె . మన స్యను క్రోశని షెక శీత లె

సముల్లసర్ సర్వజనాభినందనః ఫలత్యజ సంబహు పుణ్య పాదపః

శిఖరిణీవృత్తం అనుక్రోమై త్రీంజనయతి జనానామళ్ళతళః సమాధ తైధమణంవ్యపనయతిచ శ్రో ధవళతాం అధమదాస్యోన్మాషంనుదతిత దిహాము చచిరం

నరం సౌఖ్యం ముఖ్యంగమయతి చదుఃఖంశమయతి Theuninformed maintain that love only aideth virtue ; But love is the aid, also, of vice in both worlds.

From love the worthy man protecteth the wicked wretch who hath become infamous and is despised by the world ; and his sons, daughters, or others, having vicariously performed meritorious acts (religious offices) for him, who of himself hath done no good actions, procure his admission into heaven: love, therefore, is the special aid of the wicked.

Sheltered from the sultry heat of malice and wrath,
In the cool recess of the soul, watered by benevolence,
Florisheth the tree of virtue, giving joy to all munkind,
And producing fruit constantly and abundantly.

Unseigned love generateth friendshtp among mankind :
It reneweth virtue, dispelleth hatred and all uncharitableness;
Represseth the growth of vice, and, both here and here after,
Is and the softener of surrow the chief cause of happiness to man.

Dop o lo virtue only ; the dat. with emphatic of.-gory affection, love, the nom. governing the subs. v. understood. Fogy the friend; lit. a verbal meaning adhesion, from Fing, the same as Ganga, to join, here used personally in the nom, governed by the subs. v..-6 w they say, a peculiar form of the 3d pers. plu.fu. of 6 or pn.

y piwon, the ignorant ; the neg. pron. part of y ou to know, in the nom. and governing the preceding verb:—698 Pou to cice also; the dat. with the conjunctive 26.- os that certainly ; a demons. pron. neu, with the emphatic 5--Tabor is an aid. These terms are in the same government as அனபு and சாரபு.

Ms a

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