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Before this'ultimate state can be obtained, however, there are many intermediate stages to be passed, extending in a continued chain of being from the lowest hell(nigódam), from which there is no redemption, to the highest lạeaven/aham-indra-lócam) attainableonly by those who are destined to theexalted state of Arhah. In each of these stages beings are subjected to the defects enumerated in a greater or less degree and to the different species of them according to their kind : thus demons and those punished in the various hells are liable to them all, or are released from the effect of some only to increase their torments; vegetables and animals with imperfect organs are afflicted by thern in a greater degree, animals with perfect organs and man in a less; the well instructed Saman'en, if he persevere in virtue, must soon be released from them and the holy Digambara, on quitting the world, is divested of the whole, clothed in perfection and asjured of final beatitude.
This state (mócsham) is attainable by the human race only and by none other, not even by the Deities, who to obtain it must again submit to human birth. Those who have attained to this state are no longer subject to the laws of nature, or, to express it more appropriately, are no longer liable to natural imperfection; no change, therefore, can affect them, no evil reach them, no sin stain them, they rest in perfect equality and infinite happiness, They are not merely equal, they are the same, as they constitute but one essence and that essence is God. But of those who have reached this final stage of existence there is a certain number, who, though not really differing, are moreeminently distinguish than the rest : these are the Jina or Tírt haca, who-revealed to mankind the sacred books on which the religious belief and practice of the Jainas is founded, namely the Prat hamánu-yógam, Caranánu-yógam, Charunánu-yógam, Dravyánu-yógam, which, though differing totally from the other writings known by that name, the Rich, Yejush &e, are also called the four Védas. The Tírt haca successively descended from the highest heaven to the earth,were born in a human forin and, having fulfilled the purposes for which they appeared, attained the state of final beatitude and jointly constitute the deity to whom the worship of the Jainas is addressed, known, as already stated, by the common name of the Arugen or Athahand by a variety of others of Tamil and Sanscrit origin detailed in the several dictionaries. This worship is solely prompted by gratitude; for no further benefit can be expected from the Tirthaca, who in the enjoyment of ineffable bliss concern themselves no longer with the affairs of the world. No outward worship is ever addressed by the Jainas. to the Supreme Being, who being immutable cannot be affected by human prayer or praise ; the capacity for ultimate perfection and eternal beatitude is indred acquired by meditating on him, but that beatitude is obtained by the acts of the devotee, not vouchsafed by the grace of the Deity,
The attributes, as stated in the Védas differ, in terms and arrangement at least, from those deduced from the A ganas. Two enumerations are commonly referred to; one is found in the Dahara-vidya-pracaran'a, a chapter of the ehandógya an Upanishat of the Sáma-véda, and is called gunáshtacam the eight attributes, and another in the Mantra-sástra, an abstract of part of the At harvana-véda, this is named the gunashat'can the six attributes. The termination twam, answering to the English ness and used to form abstract nouns, is generally added to the Sanscrit terms employed to express the attributes ; it is omitted, however, in the first series, as the use of appellatives will render the explanation more intelligible. The attributes of the gunáshtacam are thus stated. First, I 2 2m 82724apahata-pápma from Od 2.2009 apahanti to destroy totally and 20ejo pápum sin,-The Exterpator of sin. Secondly, en 2) J. 11 JUGUT servacárana, from en 22 serva all and it is cáran'a a cause,– The universal cause. Thirdly, en 2/21172. serva-vyápaca, from eve serva and 2072 # vyápaca he who pervades,--He who pervadeth all. Fourthly ev 21 wo a Ar servo-niyámaca from 2ne serca and niyámaca he who fixes, appoints,-He who establisheth all. Fifthly, si so Nitya eternal,- The Eternal. Sixthly, Sujqwn@ acrätrima-dayálu from Jua privative, f, oh critrima a peculiar derivation from my crïdo, act, meaning that which is produced by some act, and qur@ daydlu he who shews favor; the whole compound, therefore signifies. --He who sheweth mercy without regarding the acts of those to whom it is vouchsafed. 2020 prápya; the meaning of the term Y1 22 0 is explained by the words, 210 with so that which is worthy to be obtained,-He who ought to be obtained. jr 24 prápaca; this word, of the same derivation as the fore, going, denotes the agent or cause and signifies --Hewho causes the obtainment of beatitude. The two last attributes are founded on the peculiar tenets of the Adwaita, or Védànta, schools, which declare absorption into the essence of the Godhead to be the state of final and immutable beatitude ; the Deity is consequently, both prápya, the object which all should be desirous to obtain and prápaca theagent, by the operation of whose grace, independently of the works of the law, that object is obtained,
The attributes comprized under the common term gunaskatcam are_first, en el cor - 6$2,0 serva-jnyánatzam, Omniscience: secondly, ev 90.80G
o serva-swatantratwam, Omnipotence; the two last members of the compound ency own and sof free-will signify literally independence: thirdly, நித) த உததவo nilya-triptatuam, eternal Felicity: fourthly, 5 சதஜ வதவo alucta-balatwam infinite Power : fifthly, சநாசி ஜொயத o anddibod latvam Knowledge without beginning : sixthly, சுதரு 3 உதவ ananta-ripatreas, lit. formeithout end, Omnipresence. These are, also, called 'sacti-shat eun the six powers, but they must not be confounded with the sia dhi above mentioned, from which they differ in meaning and application, as they are the incommunicable attributes of the living God; of him who is the ultimate object of all worship and of whose various energies every name the human imagination has deified is but the type. These Attributes, as they agree
in number, so they will be found to vary but little in meaning from those which - follow.
Vira-mamuni, by which title the R. C. J. Beschi is best known as a Tamil author,in the 27th book, ஞாபகப்படலம், of his epic poem the Tembaran'i, commencing with tlie 156 and ending with the 163 verse, introduces Joseph the husband of Mary explaining the attributes of the Deity: of these I shall quote only the two first, as the remaining six contain merely the sepa. rate illustration of each attribute, of which a shorter and, therefore, more perspicuous explanation will be given from another work. Toeach verse of this poem the author has added a prosaic gloss, frequently expanding into a comment, from which, as affording a fuller view of the subject than the text, the translation is made. னறில நனமைநிறைவு மோர்குறைமுற றினமையுகதொழத்தகுநதெய்வ மாறிலவியல் பேவேரிதாயக்கிவர்ததுவருமபல்சிவணயென நூலோர் ஆறிலக்கணங்களுனரததவையுள்ளோனாணடதையி லனலனென்றார் தா றிலசுடனாமை வரிந்தனனசாறஅதும புன சொலாலவையே
மடடின றியெல்லா நனமை நிறைவு மெல்லாக்குறை னமையுமென றிவவிரண்டேயெவரும் வணங்கத்தகு மெயக்கடவுட்குரிய மாறாதகுணம் தாமே இதுவோாகக்கொண்டு கிாேததபலகொம்பு களின றனமையாக குண ததைவிரிதது நூலோர் மெய்யான தேவவணய றிவதறகா றிலக்கணங்க விளாசசொல்லியவையெலா முடையோன றேவனேயென்றார்வற்றுளொன
யி னும் குறை தெலலா வறறையு மிலலாதவனறேவனல்ல வென றார் ஆகையால்ளலிறந்தகதிருளகுரியவனமையாலெழுதினாறபோல நானுமே னபுன சொல்லாலத்தேயாறிலக்கணங்களேசகொல்லிக்காட்டுவேனென னருசையெனக
தனவயத தாதன முதலனாதல் தகும் பொறியுருவிலனாதல். மன வயததெல்லாநலமுளதைலவயினமிருாறுமவியாபகனாதல பின வயத தின றியொருங்குடன வனத்துமபிறப்பிததகராணனாதல் பொன வயத்தொளிர் வான முதலெலாவுலகும் போற்றுமெயயிறைமையி
னிலயே தனனாலாதலுந்துடக்க மின றியாதலு மைமபொ றிக்குரிய அருவிலனாத லு வெலபெற்ற சகலானமையுளனாதலுமெங்கும வியாபக்னாதலுத தனவன யல்லாதோரு.தவியின றியெலலாவறறையுமொருங்குடன படைததவாதி காரணகுதலு மென றிவவா றிலக கணங்கள் பொனனொளிர் வா வெவவுலகும் வணங்கத்தகுமேயக்கடவுளின் றேவதததுவ மிதேயெனறா னெனக
Infinite goodness extending to all and the absolute deprivation of all defect, these two are the appropriate and unvarying attributes of the true God, worthy to be adored by all. From this root the six attributes by which the wise have endeavoured to convey a knowledge of the true God" have arisen like branches ; they say that he who possesses all these is God, but that he who is deficient in one must, also, be deficient in the rest and, consequently, not God. Therefore, stuid Joseph, even as they attempt to depict in ink the sun with unnumbered beams, will I in language all inadequate endeavour to explain the six attributes of the Deity.
Existing by himself ; existing without beginning'; existing independently of the organs of sense ; being possessed.of everlasting and universal goodness ; pervading all space; being the first cause by which all things were created at once and without assistance :these six attributes describe the divine nature of the true God, worthy to be adored in the heavens, shining like gold, and in all worlds.
These six attributes, expressed in the same terms, are, also, found under the word குணம் - • in the Togei-yagaradi or third division of Vira-mamuni's Sadur-agaridli, or dictionary of the high Tamil in four, parts. and they are, also, enumerated in the commentary on the following couplet, which contains the invocation prefixed to the Part treating on prosody in his Grammar of the high Tamil, entitled Tonnul-vi'laccam.
யாபபுற நலமெலாமி வணநதவோர்சடகுணன
காப்புறவடி தொழீ இக்காட்டுது மயாப்பே Having, to obtain his aid, worshipped the feet of the only God, who united with all good, possesseth the six attributes, I proceed to explain the rules of Prosody.
These terms, however, are not in common use in the service of the Catholic church though they are known to all Christian natives conversant with the writings of Vira-mamuni: I add, therefore, an explanation of eachin the words by which these attributes are more generally expressed. First, தன வயததாதல is explained by the words சறுவெசுவரன தானாயிருக்கிறா he is of himself the Lord of all ; secondly, முதலிலதைல - அனாதியாயிருக்கிறா he is Eternal ; thirdly, உடமபிலதைல - சரீரமில்லாம கிருக்கிறா he is Immaterial ; fourthly, எல்லா நலமுளனாதல் - அளவில்லா தசகல நனமைச்சுரூபியாயிருக
றா he manifest himself in everlasting and universal goodness ; fifthly, எங் கும வியாபகனாதல - எங்குமவியாபித்திருக்கிறா he perradeth all space ; sixthly, எவற்றிறகுங்காரனனாதல - எல்லாவற்றிறகுமாதிகாரன மாயிரு ககிறா he is the First-Cause of ull. The first of these attributes is expressed by the same term as the first of those taken from the A'gamas, and it agrees with the third of those from the Sulamani Nigan'du, with the fourth of the series from the Sama, and the second of that from the Atharvana-veda. In like manncr each of the remaining five, though not in all, will be found in one of the preceding series. Thus the second, not found in the series from the Agamas, is the same as the sixth of that of the Jaina sect and the fifth of the gunashtacam. and gunashatcam.
The terms used by.Beschi are Tamil and, as is evident, are partly borrowed from those in use among the Hindus; the explanation of them, in which the principal terms are of Sanscrit derivation, is taken from the Mantra-málei, containing the principal part of the liturgy af the Catholic church composed by Tatwa-bod, haca-swami, the R. Robertus Nobili. This writer has, also, given an elaborate disquisition on the attributes in his work entitled Jnyánaupadésam extending from the beginning of the third to nearly the end of the seventh lecture (பாடம்) of the first book (முந்தின காண்டம்). Although the style of this work does not entitle it to rank among compositions in the superior dialect of the Tamil, the following extracts are so immediately connected with the present subject and afford such lively specimens of the peculiar spirit of this Indo-European writer, and of the felicity and precision with which he has rendered into Tamil the phraseology of the schools, that they cannot fail to be acceptable both to the Tamil and English reader. The first passage forms the concluding paragraph of the third lecture and contains the exposition of the third attribute, the immateriality of the Deity; the second is an abridgement, preserving the words of the author, of the fourth lecture on the fourth attribute, or the goodness of the Deity.
சறுவேசுவரன தானாயிருக்கிறாரெனறு மெப்போதுமிருக்கிறாரெனறு மஙகரி ததோமானால் நமக்குச் சரீரமிருக்கிறது போலே யவருககுசசரீரமு ணடென்று சொல்லக்கூடாது - அதேனென றால் மடடோடே கூடியி