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Before this ultimate state can be obtained, however, there are many intermediate stages to be passed, extending in a continued chain of being from the lowest hell(nigódum), from which there is no redemption, to the highest lreaven/ ahai-indra-lócam), attainable only by those who are destined to the exalted state of Arhah. In each of these stages beings are subjected to the defects enumerated in a greater or less degree and to the different species of them according to their kind : thus demons and those punished in the various hells are liable to them all, or are released from the effect of some only to increase their torments; vegetables and animals with imperfect organs are afflicted by thern in a greater degree, animals with perfect organs and man in a less; the well instructed Saman'en, if he persevere in virtue, must soon be released from them and the holy Digambara, on quitting the world, is divested of the whole, clothed in perfection and assured of final beatitude..

This state (mócsham) is attainable by the human race only and by none other, not even by the Deities, who to obtain it must again submit to human birth. Those who have attained to this state are no longer subject to the laws of nature, or, to express it more appropriately, are no longer liable to natural imperfection; no change, therefore, can affect them, no evil reach them, no sin stain them, they rest in perfect equality and infinite happiness, They are not merely equal, they are the same, as they constitute but one essence and that essence is God. But of those who have reached this final stage of existence there is a certain number, who, though not really differing, are moreeminently distinguish than the rest : these are the Jina or Tirthaca, who-revealed to mankind the sacred books on which the religious belief and practice of the Jainas is founded, namely the Prat hamánu-yógam, Caranánu-yógam, Charunánu-yógam, Dravyánu-yógam, which, though differing totally from the other writings known by that name, the Rich, Yejush &c, are also called the four Védas. The Tírt haca successively descended from the highest heaven to the earth,were born in a human forin and, having fulfilled the purposes for which they appeared, attained the state of final beatitude and jointly constitute the deity to whom the worship of the Jainas is addressed, known, as already stated, by the common name of the Arugen or Arhał and by a variety of others of Tamil and Sanscrit origin detailed in the several dictionaries. This worship is solely prompted by gratitude ; for no further benefit can be expected from the Tirthaca, who in the enjoyment of ineffable bliss concern themselves no longer with the affairs of the world. No outward worship is ever addressed by the Jainasto the Supreme Being, who being immutable cannot be affected by human prayer or praise; the capacity for ultimate perfection-and eternal beatitude is indred acquired by meditating on him, but that beatitude is obtained by the acts of the devotee, not vouchsafed by the grace of the Deity.

The attributes, as stated in the Vedas differ, in terms and arrangement at least, from those deduced from the A'gamas. Two enumerations are commonly referred to; one is found in the Dahara-vidya-pracaran'a, a chapter of the ehandógya an Upanishat of the Sama-véda, and is called gunásh'tacam the eight attributes, and another in the Mantra-sástra, an abstract of part of the At harvana-véda, this is named the gunashat'cam the six attributes. The terinination twam, answering to the English ness and used to form abstract nouns, is generally added to the Sanscrit terms employed to express the attributes ; it is omitted, however, in the first series, as the use of appellatives will render the explanation more intelligible. The attributes of the gunáshtacam arethus stated. First, JJ 2 2m 82724 apahata-pápma from du 212mo apahanti to destroy totally and 2 10 jo pápum sin,-The Exterpator of sin. Secondly, லவகாரண servacdrania, from லவ serve all and காரணcdrana a cause,The universal cause. Thirdly, en 2/2012 a serva-vyápaca, from 2012 serva and 2021 vyápaca he who pervades, -He who pervadeth

1. Fourthly en 21 wo servo-niyámaca from one serca and we niyámaca he who fixes, appoints,He who establisheth all. Fifthly, is so nitya eternal_The Eternal. Sixtbly, dopo 22 WIwo acritrima-dauálu from Sua privative, faj critrima a peculiar derivation from my crïdo, act, meaning that which is produced by some act, and qur wo daydlu he who shews favor; the whole compound, therefore signifies, -He who sheweth mercy without regarding the acts of those to whom it is vouchsafed. QJ021) prápya; the meaning of the term yn 200 is explained by the words 2110 CWT) that which is worthy to be obtained, -He who ought to be obtained. jm 24 prápaca; this word, of the same derivation as the fore, going, denotes the agent or cause and signifies,--Hewho causes the obtainment of beatitude. The two last attributes are founded on the peculiar tenets of the Adwaita, gr Védánta, schools, which declare absorption into the essence of the Godhead to be the state of final and immutable beatitude ; the Deity • is consequently, both prápya, the object which all should be desirous to obtain and prápaca theagent, by the operation of whose grace, independently of the works of the law, that object is obtained.

The attributes comprized under the common term gunaskat'cam are_first, en 2 orzu 15 $0 O serva-jnyánatwam, Omniscience: secondly, eru 120.90G

தO serva-swatantratewam, Omnipotence ; the two last members of the compound ever own and sof free-will signify literally independence: thirdly, வித த உத்த வonilya-triptatwam, eternal Felicity: fourthly, 5 சதவ வதவo aluctal-balatwam infinite Power : fifthly, சுநாஜி ஜொயத oanadibod lattvam Knowledge without beginning : sixthly, சநத 3 உதவo ananta-ripataeans, lit. formeithout end, Omnipresence. These are, also, called 'sacti-shat earn the six powers, but they must not be confounded with the sid dhi above mentioned, from which they differ in meaning and application, as they are the incommunicable attributes of the living God; of him who is the ultimate object of all worship and of whose various energies every name the human imagination has deified is but the type.-These Attributes, as they agree in number, so they will be found to vary but little in meaning from those which • follow.|

Vira-mamuni, by which title the R. C. J. Beschi is best known as a Tamil author,in the 27th book, ஞாபகப்ப டலம், of his epic poem the Tembavani, commencing with the 156 and ending with the 163 verse, introduces Joseph the husband of Mary explaining the attributes of the Deity: of these I shall quote only the two first, as the remaining six contain merely the sepa. rate illustration of each attribute, of which a shorter and, therefore, more perspicuous explanation will be given from another work. Toeach verse of this poem the author has added a prosaie gloss, frequently expanding into a comment, from which, as affording a fuller view of the subject than the text, the translation is made. ன நில நனமைநிறைவு மோர்குறைமுற றினமையுநதொழத்தகுநதெயவ மாறிலவியல் பேவேரிதாயக்கிவராதது வருமபலசி வணயென நூலோர் ஆறிலக்கணங்களுரைத்தவையுளளோனாணடதையி லனலனெனறார் தாறில் சுடனமைவரிந்தனன சாற்றுதும் புன் சொலால்வையே

மடடின றியெல்லா நன்மைநிறைவு மெல்லாக்குறை யினமையுமென றிவவிரண்டேடுயவரும் வணங்கத்தகு மெயக்கடவுட்குரிய மாறாதகுணம் தாமே - இதுவோாகக்கொண்டு அவரததபலகொமபுகனின் றனபை குண ததைவிரித்து நூலோர்மெயயான தேவவனய றிவதற்கா றிலக்கணங்க விபாச சொல்லியவையெலாமுடையோன றேவனேயென்றார்வற் றுளொன றாயினுங் குறை தெலலா வறறையுமில்லாதவன் றேவனல்ல வென நர் ஆகையால்ளலிறந்தகதிருள சூரியவனமையாலெழுதினாறபோல நானுமே னபுன சொல்லாலத தயாறிலக்களங்கவளசகொல்கிக்காட்டுவே னென்றா வசூசையெனக்

perspicuousine has added a prosand

of the subject than ik

தனவயத தா தன முதலிலனாதல் தகுமபொறியுருவிலனாதல் . மன வயததெல்ல்ரநல் முளதெலவயினறொறுமவியாபகனாதல பின வயததின றியொருங்குடன வனத்துமபிறப்பித்தகாரணனாதல் பொன வயததொளர் வானமுதலெலாவுலகும் போற்றுமெயயிறைமையி

னியே தனனாலாதலுந்துடகக மின் றியாதலு மை பொறிக்குரியவுருவிலனாத லு வெலபெற்றசகல நனமையுளனாதலுமெங்கும வியாபகனாதலுந் தனவண யல்லாதோரு தவியின் றியெலலாவறறையுமொருங்குடன படைததவாதி காரணனாதலு மென றிவவாறிலக கணங்கள் பொனனொளர் வானுலகு முத லெவவுலகும வண ஙகத்தகுமேயக்கடவுளின் றேவதததுவ மிதேயென்றா னெனக

Infinite goodness extending to all and the absolute deprivation of all defect, these two are the appropriate and unvarying attributes of the true God, worthy to be adored by all. From this root the six attributes by which the wise have endeavoured to convey a knowledge of the true God have arisen like branches ; they say that he who possesses all these is God, but that he uho is deficient in one maust, ulso, be deficient in the rest and, consequently, not God. Therefore, suid Joseph, even as they attempt to depict in ink the sun with unnumbered beams, will I in language all inadequate endeavour to explai: the six attributes of the Deity.

Existing by himself ; existing without beginning' ; existing independently of the organs of sense ;; being possessed of everlasting and universal goodness; pervading all space; being the first cause by which all things were created at once and without assistance :these six attributes describe the divine nature of the true God, worthy to be adored in the heavens, shining like gold; and in all worlds.

These six attributes, expressed in the same terms, are, also, found under the word குணம் - கா in the Togei-vagaradi or third division of Vira-namuni's Sadur-agaradi, or dictionary of the high Tamil in four, parts. and they are, also, enumerated in the commentary on the following couplet, which contains the invocation prefixed to the Part treating on prosody in his Grammar of the high Tamil, entitled Tonnul-villaccan.

யாப்புற நலமெலாமி விணந்தவோர்சடகுணன

காப்புறவடி தொழீஇக்காட்டுது மயாப்பே Having, to obtain his aid, worshipped the feet of the only God, who united with all good, possesseth the six attributes, I proceed to explain the rules of Prosody.

These terms, however, are not in common use in the service of the Catholic church though they are known to all Christian natives conversant with the writings of Vira-måmuvi: I add, therefore, an explanation of each in the words by which these attributes are more generally expressed. First, @ PW 8 8 9 is explained by the words சறுவெசுவரன தானாயிருக்கிறா he is of himself the Lord of all ; secondly, முதலிலனாதல் - அனாதியாயிருக்கிறாா he is Eternal; thirdly, ELLIEga-e. Da man a 18 CT he is Immaterial ; fourthly, எல்லா நலமுளனாதல் - அளவில்லாதசகல நனமைச்சுரூபியாயிருக 80he manifest himself in everlasting and universal goodness ; fifthly, 67 El Gw W.180 g -9Wsual wall celler he pervadeth all space; sixthly, எவறறிறகுங்காரணனாதல் - எல்லாவறறிறகுமாதிகாரன மாயிரு 8 0 he is the First-Cause of ull. The first of these attributes is expressed by the same term as the first of those taken from the A'gamas, and it agrees with the third of those from the Sulamani Nigan'du, with the fourth of the series from the Sáma, and the second of that from the Atharvana-véda. In like manncr each of the remaining five, though not in all, will be found in one of the preceding series. Thus the second, not found in the series from the Agamas, is the same as the sixth of that of the Jaina sect and the fifth of the gunashtacam. and gunashatcam,

The terms used by.Beschi are Tamil and, as is evident, are partly borrowed from those in use among the Hindus; the explanation of them, in which the principal terms are of Sanscrit derivation, is taken from the Mantra-málei, containing the principal part of the liturgy af the Catholic church composed by Tatwa-bod, haca-swami, the R. Robertus Nobili. This writer has, also, given an elaborate disquisition on the attributes in his work entitled Jnyánaupadésam extending from ihe beginning of the third to nearly the end of the Seventh lecture (பாடம்) of the first book (முந்தினகாண்ட ம). Although the style of this work does not entitle it to rank among compositions in the superior dialect of the Tamil, the following extracts are so immediately .connected with the present subject and afford such lively specimens of the peculiar spirit of this Indo-European writer, and of the felicity and precision with which he has rendered into Tamil. the phraseology of the schools, that they cannot fail to be acceptable both to the Tamil and English reader. The first passage forms the concluding paragraph of the third lecture and contains the exposition of the third attribute, the immateriality of the Deity; the second is an abridgement, preserving the words of the author, of the fourth lecture on the fourth attribute, or the goodness of the Deity.

சறுவேசுவரன தானாயிருக்கிறாரெனறு மெப்போதுமிருக்கிறாரென று மங்கேரி ததோமானால் நமக்குச் சரீரமிருக்கிறது போலே யவருககுசசரீரமு ணடென்று சொல்லக்கூடாது - அதேனென றால் மட்டோடே கூடியி

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